# CHAPTER XIV VES THEORY AND THE MAGNETIC FORCE Electrons

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CHAPTER XIV
VES THEORY AND THE MAGNETIC FORCE

The magnetic force has been recognized since ancient times. Today,
most of us are familiar with the strong forces generated by magnets, and we
can’t help being impressed by an electromagnet that is able to lift an
automobile. Just as impressive is the strength of attraction or repulsion
between two small magnets held in the hands. It should be pointed out that
physicists in general believe that the magnetic force and electric force are
different manifestations of the same force. VES theory states that they
originate from the same spinning bodies, quarks, electrons and photons, but
they have their own unique strings.
A bar magnet has a north pole and south pole, and a force of attraction
exists between them. In contrast, a force of repulsion is set up when two
north poles are brought together or when two south poles are brought
together. In this regard, magnetism resembles electricity.

Electrons are Magnetic Dipoles
If a bar magnet is broken into pieces, all the pieces have a north and
south pole. In fact, if a bar magnet is broken down into individual
subatomic particles, all of the particles that carry an electric charge are tiny
magnets. In all cases, they are dipoles and have both a north and south pole.
This is in contrast to electricity where the electron is a monopole with a
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negative charge and the proton is a monopole with a positive charge.
Because the electron is a magnetic dipole, it gives this particle a spatial
arrangement with an axis as shown in Figure 14.2.

Electron Spin
The electron in an atom has two motions: an orbital motion about the
nucleus and a spinning motion. Frequently, physicists draw an analogy
between the intrinsic spin of an electron and a spinning top. The energy
associated with an electron’s spin is given in units of h bar, which is the
quantum unit of angular momentum, where h bar = h/2Pi = 6.58 x 10-25 GeV
= 1.05 x 10-34js. (h is Planck’s constant). Scientists believe that most of the
magnetic force comes from the energy associated with the spin motion of
the electron. I believe all the forces of nature have their roots in the linear
motion and spin motion of subatomic particles. This is taken up in detail in
the chapters that follow.
Although the elastic properties of a long string doubtlessly aid in the
retraction of the string back to the subatomic particle that created it, I
believe its retraction and re-absorption also requires an energy source. I
present a theatrical model in Chapter XV that explains how spin angular
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momentum is essential for the creation and retraction of virtual elastic
strings.
The spin of an electron may be clockwise or counterclockwise with
respect to its north pole. When two electrons with opposite spin are paired
up, they cancel each other’s magnetic field.
In most atoms, there are an equal number of electrons that spin
clockwise and counterclockwise, and for this reason, most atoms are non-
magnetic. Iron is unique in that it has four electrons with the same spin
motion. Several other metals have magnetic properties as well. In most
cases, a piece of iron is not magnetic because the electrons are oriented at
random and their magnetic fields cancel each other out. However, when iron
is placed in a magnetic field, the four unpaired electrons in iron become
oriented in the same direction, and the piece of iron becomes a magnet.
Scientists believe that in a bar magnet, the magnetic lines of force in the
center of the magnet cancel each other out, and the electrons at the end of
the magnet create the north and south poles as shown in Figure 14.3. The

north and south ends of a magnet have equal strength, which shows very
clearly that the north and south poles of the electron have equal magnetic
fields.
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VES Theory
The dipole nature of magnets can be explained if two different, but equal
in strength, virtual elastic strings are responsible for the magnetic force.
The virtual elastic string generated by the south pole of the electron is herein
called an s-magneton, and its counterpart, also generated by the electron, is
called an n-magneton.
When s-magnetons come in contact with n-magnetons they bond. Now
when the strings retract back to source they create a force of attraction. A
force of repulsion arises when s-magnetons come in contact with other s-
magnetons, or when n-magnetons collide with n-magnetons and transfer
their momentum. This reasoning is the same as that discussed for the
electric force.

Viewing Magnetic Lines of Force
Magnetic lines of force can be viewed directly by placing iron filings on
a piece of paper in the presence of magnets. As shown in Figure 14.4, the
iron filings quickly align themselves along the magnetic lines of force.
As in the case of the electricity, the magnetic lines of attraction between
north and south poles tend to merge as if they are pulling on each other,
while the virtual elastic strings emanating from two like poles seem to
repulse each other.
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VES theory and the Deflection of Electrons in a Stationary
Magnetic Field
Scientists have shown that a stream of electrons is deflected when it
moves between the north and south poles of a permanent magnet. This is
shown in Figure 14.5. They are either deflected up or down depending on
the orientation of the stationary magnet’s north and south poles.
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A stream of electrons passing between the poles of a magnet, as shown in
Figure 14.5, will be affected in several ways. First, the magnetic field will
orient the electrons such that their north poles will be pointed towards the
south pole of the permanent magnet and their south poles towards the north
pole of the permanent magnet. This will also orient their direction of spin.
However, at this point it may either be up or down unless some method has
been used to select one form over the other. In Figure 14.5, the electrons are
all spinning in the same direction with respect to their north and south poles.
According to VES theory, a permanent magnet has billions of virtual
elastic strings (n-magnetons and s-magnetons) stretched between the two
poles of the magnet that form a barrier to the onrushing electrons. When the
electrons meet this physical barrier, they will tend to either move up or
down the barrier depending upon the direction of their spin. This is the same
as a billiard ball whose spin helps dictate the direction it careens off the
cushion of a pool table.

Scientists have shown that the magnitude of the deflecting force is
directly proportional to the velocity of the electron and the strength of the
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external magnetic field (the number of virtual elastic strings that form the
barrier). If the external magnetic field is at a 90 degree angle to the moving
electrons, the force exerted by the deflected electrons is given by: F = qvB,
where q is the charge (number of electrons), v their velocity, and B is the
strength of the field between the poles of the stationary magnet.

Electrons Flowing Through a Wire
When electrons flow through a wire they create a magnetic field around
the wire. This means that the orientation of the electrons in the wire cannot
be at random, otherwise they would cancel each other out and there would
be no magnetic field surrounding the wire. The electrons flowing through
the wire act very much like a bar magnet. This means that all the electrons
in the wire carrying current are all spinning in the same direction with
respect to their axes.

When a wire carrying an electric current is placed between the poles of a
stationary magnet, the wire is deflected either up or down depending on the
orientation of the magnetic poles and the direction of the current in the wire.
This is completely analogous to the deflection of a stream of electrons
passing through a magnetic field as explained above. According to VES
theory, the electrons traveling through the wire encounter a barrier of
magnetons connecting the two poles of the stationary magnet. When they
enter this region, two things happen.
First, the electrons become oriented in space with their north poles
attracted to s-magnetons emanating from the south pole of the stationary
magnetic, and their south poles connected to n-magnetons emanating from
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the north pole of the stationary magnet. Under these circumstances, all the
electrons will tend to spin in the same direction because they have the same
orientation in space.
Second, when the electrons strike the physical barrier of magnetons
stretched between the two poles of the magnet, they either will be deflected
up or down depending on their spin motion. If they are deflected up, they
will push the wire up as they push against the atoms in the wire.

The magnetic force of the permanent magnet is passive; it provides no
energy to the deflected electron or to the movement of the wire. According
to VES theory, it provides a means of orienting the electrons already moving
through the wire, and it provides a physical barrier that deflects moving
electrons in the direction they are spinning.

DEFLECTION OF ELECTRONS BY STATIONARY MAGNET

VES theory states that the magnetic poles of an electron
become oriented as it moves between the poles of a stationary magnet.
As the electron moves against the physical barrier created by the
permanent magnet, it will move up or down depending on the direction
it is spinning.
This explains why the electron’s magnitude of deflection is
dependent upon the strength of the magnetic field, the electron’s
direction in the field, and the velocity of the electron.
Electric Motors
An electric motor converts the energy of moving electrons to mechanical
energy by using the principles already examined. Namely, a barrier of
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virtual elastic strings provided by a magnet deflects the electrons moving
through a wire, and the deflected electrons cause the wire to move
physically. The movement is used to rotate a rod, which can be used to
rotate a wheel, etc. The permanent magnet departs no energy to the system.

Induction and Electric Generators
The creation of an electric current in a wire is known as induction. When
a wire forms a complete circuit, an electric current can be induced in the
wire by forcing the wire down between the poles of a permanent magnet.
By placing a galvanometer in the line, we can show that a current was
created; namely, electrons begin flowing through the wire.             This is
illustrated in Figure 14.7.

As the wire is forced down mechanically by the hand, the electrons in the
wire are moving downward, which cause them to collide with the barrier of
virtual elastic strings stretched between the two poles of the magnet. This
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has two effects. First, it orients the electrons in space, which causes all the
electrons to be spinning in the same direction. Secondly, because the strings
have perfect elasticity, the electrons bounce off the strings with
approximately the same velocity as the downward motion of the wire. The
trajectory of the electrons will not be directly up but also in the direction the
electrons are spinning, which in the example given is toward the viewer.
The magnet does not impart any energy into the system. The total energy
that drives the electrons through the wire comes from the mechanical motion
of the hand forcing the wire and its electrons down between the two poles of
the magnet. If the wire and magnet are motionless, there is no electric
current. If the hand pulls the wire in the opposite direction, then the flow of
electrons is in the opposite direction because now the electrons are spinning
in the opposite direction relative to the virtual elastic string barrier stretched
in front of them. An electric generator is based on these principles, and it
works in just the reverse of an electric motor.

Magnetons have Mass
When some gases and other particles are treated with extreme low
temperatures, they form Bose-Einstein condensates. Scientists believe that
ultra low temperatures cause particles to show their wavelike nature and
form condensates when the waves overlap. At the root of this phenomenon
are quasiparticles that wink in and out of existence, as well as collide and
exchange momentum in the same manner that standard particles do. In other
words they have mass.
According to Demokritov and his colleagues (2006) condensates form at
room temperature when a thin film of yttrium iron garnet is treated with
microwaves. They believe the quasiparticles formed are magnetic waves
they call magnons. “Magnons are the quanta of magnetic excitations….” I
believe it is entirely possible that magnons are identical to magneton strings
as defined in this chapter. This means there is direct confirmation that
virtual elastic strings have mass.

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