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Identification of Caprine Arthrit

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Identification of Caprine Arthrit Powered By Docstoc
					J. gen. Virol. (1985), 66, 1139 1143. Printed in Great Britain                                 1139
Key words: CAEV/serum/proteins


    Identification of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Retrovirus Proteins in
                       Immunodiffusion Precipitin Lines
              By D. S C O T T A D A M S , l* R U B Y P. G O G O L E W S K I ,
           A N T H O N Y F. B A R B E T AND W I L L I A M P. C H E E V E R S
        1Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service. U.S. Department of
Agriculture and the Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathoh~gy, College of Veterhlary
          Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, U.S.A.

                                       (Accepted 14 January 1985)

                                                 SUMMARY
        Precipitin lines formed between serum from a goat infected with caprine arthritis
     encephalitis virus (CAEV) and radiolabelled viral proteins in polyethylene glycol-
     concentrated culture medium were excised from immunodiffusion (ID) plates and
     analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The two major precipitin lines
     contained the 135 000 mol. wt. glycoprotein (gp135) and the internal 28000 mol. wt.
     structural protein (p28). This method obviates the use of purified proteins or
     monospecific antisera to positively determine viral constituents in ID precipitin lines
     formed between a crude antigen preparation and antiserum against whole virus.

   The non-oncogenic retrovirus of goats, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), causes
severe chronic arthritis and a variety of other pathological processes in dairy goats (Crawford et
al., 1980a. b). Serology, pathology and clinical reports indicate that the infection is widespread
among goats in North America, Europe and Australia but relatively uncommon in South
America and Africa (Adams et al., 1984).
   The serology reported from this laboratory has utilized immunodiffusion (ID) with a reference
line resulting from precipitation between serum from a CAEV-infected goat and the internal
28 000 mol. wt. structural protein (p28) (Crawford & Adams, 1981 ; Robe rson et al., 1982; Adams
et al., 1983a, b, 1984). Others have used polyethylene glycol (PEG)-concentrated medium from
ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV)- or maedi/visna virus (MVV)-infected cultures in
ID and purified MVV for the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (D. Houwers,
personal communication). In three comparisons, a higher number of seropositive goats was
identified using PEG-concentrated medium from OPPV-, MVV- or CA E V-infected cultures as
antigen in ID than with the ID which detects antibody to p28 (J. Pearson & D. S. Adams,
unpublished observations; M. Dawson & D.S. Adams, unpublished observations; D. S. Adams
et al., unpublished observations, respectively).
    Recently, Johnson et al. (1983) found that goats experimentally infected with CAEV had
much higher titres of serum and synovial antibody directed against virion surface glycoproteins
than against p28. Therefore, it was suspected that assays with the PEG-concentrated antigen
involved one or more of these viral surface glycoproteins. Because we had found that more
infected goats could be identified using the PEG-concentrated antigen than with the assay that
detected p28 antibody, it was decided to determine what CAEV proteins were immunoprecipi-
tated in ID. Here, we describe a novel method of positively identifying the proteins of CAEV
 that are found in the two major immunoprecipitin lines formed between PEG-concentrated cell
culture medium and antiserum from a CAEV-infected goat.
    Caprine synovial membrane cultures were infected with a CAEV isolate (75G63) (Crawford
et al., 1980a) which had been cloned three times. Cultures were maintained in Dulbecco's
minimal essential medium (DMEM) with 5 ~ foetal calf serum and antibiotics as previously
described (Klevjer-Anderson & Cheevers, 1981). Culture medium was concentrated 100-fold

0000-6379 © 1985 SGM
1140                                   Short communication
with PEG (Cutlip et al., 1977), and ID was performed as previously described (Adams et al.,
1984). The reference serum used as a positive control was obtained from a goat (78G77) which
had been experimentally infected with CAEV 5 years previously. This serum formed two
distinct lines in ID when the concentrated medium was used as antigen: a wide line at dilutions
of 1:4 or less (designated line A) and a narrow line at dilutions from 1:16 to 1:256 (designated
line B). Line A fused with the reference line obtained with 78G77 serum and the ether-extracted
CAEV antigen used in previous studies (Adams et al., 1984, 1983a, b; Crawford & Adams,
1981).
    Viral proteins were radiolabelled to determine the proteins present in each precipitin line.
Four h after addition of methionine-deficient DMEM, [35S]methionine (0.01 mCi/ml) and
[3H]glucosamine (0.01 mCi/ml) were added to the cultures. After 4 days the medium was
collected and concentrated 100-fold with 7500 or 20000 tool. wt. PEG. Serum from goat 78G77
was diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Line A, formed by undiluted serum, and line B,
formed by serum diluted 1 : 64, were excised from the agar and washed for 48 h with four changes
of PBS to remove unprecipitated proteins and free isotope. The excised agar was melted by
boiling and dried under vacuum to decrease the volume. The dried material was then boiled
in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) sample buffer [0.062 M-Tris-HC1 pH 6-8,
0.2~ (w/v) SDS, 5~o 2-mercaptoethanol, 7.5~ glycerol] for 3 min and applied to a 3.5~
polyacrylamide stacking gel width a discontinuous 7.5 to 17"5~o polyacrylamide resolving gel
(Johnson et al., 1983).
    PEG-concentrated culture medium labelled with [35S]methionine and [3H]glucosamine was
also analysed by immunoprecipitation with control and immune goat sera, followed by SDS-
 PAGE of the precipitated proteins. In some experiments, cell debris and free virions were
removed by differential centrifugation prior to PEG concentration. An initial clarification
 (SW41 rotor, 20000 r.p.m., 30 min) was followed by centrifugation of the supernatant (SW27
 rotor, 24 000 r.p.m., 100 min) to remove virions. The sera used in these immunoprecipitations, in
 addition to 78G77 described above, were 82G 15 (CAEV-free control), 80G104 (immunized with
line B) and 82G95 (naturally affected with CAE but negative for serum anti-p28 antibody by
 ID).
    Concentrated supernatants were adjusted to a volume of 0.9 ml in TEN buffer (0.02 mM-Tris-
 HC1 pH 7.4, 1.0 mM-EDTA, 100 mM-NaC1) and NP40 was added to a final concentration of
 1.0~o. After sonicating the mixture for 15 s at 40 W, SDS was added to a final concentration of
 0.1 ~. The mixture was centrifuged at 100000 g for 1 h and the supernatant was re-sonicated.
 Immunoprecipitations were carried out according to the method of Shapiro & August (1976).
 Six-hundred thousand c.p.m. (trichloroacetic acid-precipitable) originating from infected or
 control cultures were incubated with 0.01 ml antiserum overnight at 4 °C. Then, 0-1 ml o f a 10~
 suspension of staphylococci with surface Protein A (Pansorbin, Calbiochem-Behring) was
 added, and the mixture was incubated at 4 °C for 1 h. The resulting pellet was washed once with
 T E N - 2 M-NaC1, twice with TEN in 0"1~o NP40, twice with TEN, and finally once with T E N - 2
 M-NaC1. The pellet was resuspended in SDS-PAGE sample buffer, boiled for 3 min, and
 centrifuged at 3000 g for 20 min. The supernatant was applied to a 7.5 to 17.5 ~ polyacrylamide
 gradient slab gel. Molecular weight standards were 14C-methylated proteins composed of
 myosin 200000, phosphorylase b 92500, bovine serum albumin 69000, ovalbumin 46000,
 carbonic anhydrase 30000, and lysozyme 14300 tool. wt. After electrophoresis the gel was
 impregnated with En3Hance (New England Nuclear), dried under vacuum and exposed to X-
 ray film at - 7 0 °C.
    Definitive identification of the viral proteins in the precipitin lines A and B can be seen in
  Fig. 1. Line A (lane 1), formed at low dilution of 78G77 serum, was due to the precipitation of the
 major internal structural protein of CAEV, p28. Line B (lane 2), formed at high dilution of
 78G77 serum, is clearly due to precipitation of the 135000 tool., wt. glycoprotein (gp135) of
 CAEV. Furthermore, serum from the goat that was immunized with line B immunoprecipitated
 with gp135 (lane 5). Additional virion antigens (Johnson et al., 1983; R. P. Gogolewski et al.,
 unpublished results) were precipitated from concentrated culture medium by 82G95 serum 0ane
  3) and 78G77 serum (lane 4).
                                           Short communication                                                1141

                                               1        2         3       4   5



                             200

                                                                          O,,
                            92.5-----~


                              69----~


                              46----ii-                               .




                              30----~
                                              ----              p Q




                                                                / O




     Fig. 1. PAGE analysis of PEG-concentrated CAEV antigen and immune goat serum. Lane 1, ID
     precipitin line formed with undiluted 78G77 serum; lane 2, ID precipitin line formed with 78G77 serum
     diluted 1:64; lane 3, immunoprecipitation by serum from a goat (82G95) with naturally acquired CAE
     (negative in ID to p28 but positive to gp135); lane 4, immunoprecipitation by 78G77 serum (positive in
     ID to p28 and gp135); lane 5, immunoprecipitation by 80G 104 (immunized with gp135 ID precipitin
     lines). Mol. wt. standards are shown x 10-3.




   An additional protein of mol. wt. approximately 250000 precipitated in the presence of all
three sera. This protein is not immunoprecipitated when purified virus is used as antigen (R. P.
Gogolewski et al., unpublished results). We therefore performed immunoprecipitation reactions
using concentrated m e d i u m o f uninfected cultures and of CAEV-infected cutures from which
the virions had been removed. This 250000 mol. wt. protein, one at 70000 mol. wt. and several
minor bands were precipitated from concentrated m e d i u m of infected or uninfected cells in the
presence of Protein A-containing staphylococci alone (Fig. 2, lanes 5 and 10). Serum from goat
78G77 predominantly immunoprecipitated gp 135 and p28 from virus-free m e d i u m of infected
cultures (lane 1). These proteins were not precipitated by serum from the control goat (82G15)
(lane 4), and the 78G77 serum did not identify these proteins in uninfected culture m e d i u m (lane
6). Serum from 82G95 and 80G 104 predominantly immunoprecipitated the gp 135 from infected
(lanes 2 and 3), but not from uninfected (lanes 7 and 8) cell culture medium.
   These data demonstrate that PEG-concentrated m e d i u m from CAEV-infected cultures can
be used in ID and that the two lines formed by the reference serum, 78G77, are due to
precipitation of the viral proteins p28 and gp135. Both of these proteins were the major viral
constituents immunoprecipitated after removal of virions and therefore are probably exported
1142                                          Short communication
                                      1   2     3   4   5   6       7   8      9   10




                     200
                                          o oQ              QI

                    92.5

                      69"---~                           q               411~       q

                                                        e
                      46-----~


                      30--'-~
                                  D




                     14.3-----~

     Fig, 2. PAGE analysis of immunoprecipitates of PEG-concentrated medium (without virions) from
     CAEV-infected {lanes 1 to 5) and uninfected (lanes 6 to 10) cell cultures. Lanes 1 and 6, 78G77 goat
     serum; lanes 2 and 7, 82G95 goat serum; lanes 3 and 8, 80G104 goat serum: lanes 4 and 9, 82G15
     (CAEV-free) serum: lanes 5 and 10, Protein A-containing staphylococci without serum.




to the medium from infected cells or perhaps released from virions after budding. It should be
noted that the apparent tool. wt. of 135 000 obtained here for the major surface glycoprotein of
C A E V is at slight variance with our previous estimate of 125000 (Johnson et al., 1983). This
difference may have been due to the use of a longer slab gel in the present study, but
measurements of mol. wt. are inherently less precise in this region of the gel which also may have
contributed to the observed difference.
   The finding of a 70000 mol. wt. protein and several minor bands in concentrated medium
from control cells indicates that they are products of host cell genes. If they are the same ones seen
in gels from immunoprecipitations of purified virus (Johnson et al., 1983, R. P. Gogolewski et
al., unpublished results) then they must co-purify with or be incorporated into virions.
Furthermore, since these bands appeared in lanes where no antiserum had been added, they
either bound the staphylococci alone or precipitated spontaneously.
   The technique of using radiolabelled viral proteins in I D and analysing excised
immunoprecipitin lines by P A G E circumvented the need to use purified C A E V proteins or
monospecific antisera to determine the identity of the immunoprecipitin lines formed between
serum from infected goats and P E G - c o n c e n t r a t e d medium from infected cultures. N o w that the
lines have been characterized we hope to determine which protein, the p28 or the gp135, is the
most appropriate antigen for serology. This simple technique offers an attractive alternative to
protein purification in other systems where such identification is necessary.

  We thank Mike Tyler, Joan Blankenship, and Vinuthamani Nammalwar for excellent technical assistance.
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grant no. AM 27680-02, USDA-Cooperative
Agreement no. 58-AHZ-2-679, USDA grant no. 84-CRSR-2-2442, and the U. S. Agency for International
Development Title XII Small Ruminants Collaborative Research Program under Grant AID/DSAN/XII-G-
0049.
                                              Short communication                                              1143

                                                 REFERENCES
ADAMS, D. S., MUGENYA, B. M., ALLONBY, E. W., BELL, J. F., WAGHELA, S. & HEINONEN, R.     (1983aL Observations on
    caprine arthritis-encephalitis in Kenya. Veterinary Record 112, 227-228.
ADAMS, D. S., KLEVJER-ANDERSON, P., CARLSON, B. S., McGUIRE, T. C. & GORHAM, J. R.   (19833). Transmission and
    control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. American Journal oJ Veterinary Research 44, 1670 1675.
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    GORHAM, J. R., HYLLSETH, B., DAWSON, M., TRIGO, F. J. & MCGUIRE, T. C. (1984). Serological evidence of caprine
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CRAWFORD, T. B. & ADAMS, D. S. ( 1981 ).Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: clinical features and presence of antibody in
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CRAWFORD, T. B., ADAMS, D. S., CHEEVERS, W. P. & CORK, L. (1980a). Chronic arthritis in goats caused by a retrovirus.
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CUTLIP, R. C., JACKSON, T. A. & LAIRD, G. A. (1977). Immunodiffusion test for ovine progressive pneumonia.
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JOHNSON, G. C., BARBET, A. F., KLEVJER-ANDERSON, P. & MCGUIRE, T. C. (1983). Preferential immune response to
    virion surface glycoproteins by caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-infected goats. Injectionand ImmuniO,41,
    657-665.
KLEVJER-ANDERSON, P. & CHEEVERS,W. P. (1981). Characterization of the infection of caprine synovial membrane
    cells by the retrovirus caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Virology 110, 113 119.
ROBERSON, S. M., MCGUIRE, T. C., KLEVJER-ANDERSON, P., GORHAM, J. R. & CHEEVERS, W. p. (1982). Caprine
    arthritis-encephalitis virus is distinct from visna and progressive pneumonia viruses as measured by genome
    sequence homology Journal of Virology 44, 755-758.
SHAPIRO, S. Z. & AUGUST, J. T. (1976). The use of immunoprecipitation to study the synthesis and cleavage
    processing of viral proteins. Journal oflmmunological Methods 13, 153-159.

                                           (Received 12 September 1984)

				
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