Fork lift truck guide - PDF by nmf8jwK

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									Forklift truck guide
Some notes by Stephen Tribbick, Harrow Council Environmental Health Services                                 17/11/2003
partly based on the fact-sheet from www.NuneatonandBedworth/business/healthsafety.



Index
      Index ...................................................................................................................1
      Introduction .........................................................................................................1
      The Forklift Truck ................................................................................................1
      Checking the truck ..............................................................................................2
            Lift truck pre-shift check..............................................................................2
            Routine maintenance..................................................................................4
            Thorough examination ................................................................................4
            Schedule 1 to the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regs 1998.....5
      Selection of Operators ........................................................................................6
      Training of Operators ..........................................................................................7
      Authorisation of Operators ..................................................................................8
      Basic driving rules ...............................................................................................8
      Lifting people.......................................................................................................9
      Layout and Maintenance of Workplace ...............................................................9
      Signalling ..........................................................................................................10
      Use on the public highway ................................................................................11
      Employers Checklist - Forklift Trucks ................................................................11
      References / Further Details .............................................................................12
      Health & Safety Enforcement............................................................................13



Introduction
Forklift trucks (FLTs) feature prominently in workplace accidents. Every year there are about
8000 lift truck accidents resulting in injury, and about 10 fatalities. Even if people are not
injured in FLT accidents there is often damage to buildings, storage systems or stock. The
main causes of FLT accidents are:
♦ lack of operator training
♦ inadequate premises
♦ poor FLT maintenance
It is the responsibility of management to assess FLT operations and ensure that safe system
of work are implemented and maintained. Subsequent responsibilities for safe use will also
lie with line managers, supervisors and operators.


The Forklift Truck
Safety considerations include:
♦ Operation in the workplace - loading, movement, position of forks, turning etc.
♦ Safe capacity is a function of the rated capacity, lift height and load centre distance,
  which will be shown on the FLT capacity data plate.
♦ Tyres - inflation pressure; damage; use of safety cage if wheels have split rims, and no
  ‘hot work’ before tyre has been completely removed.
♦ Brakes, horn, safety lock or switch with removable key.

                                                                   1
♦ Seat belt fitted and used when there are significant risks, to avoid being crushed under
  the truck should it roll over.
♦ Overhead guard if lift height exceeds 1.8m or if falling objects are foreseeable.
♦ Dangerous moving parts - e.g. traps caused by telescopic mast sections, lifting chains
  etc.
♦ Battery charging – eg good ventilation, signage about naked lights, clear procedure for
  avoiding sparks and shocks, visor, gloves and eyewash.
♦ Potentially explosive/flammable atmospheres - petrol/LPG/diesel FLTs not to be
  used; electrical FLTs to be suitably protected.
♦ Attachments - may alter the FLTs handling and stability characteristics and rating; need
  to be securely fastened.

There are over 30 groups of Lift Truck listed by the Association of Industrial Truck Trainers
(AITT) eg Rough terrain masted lift truck, Telescopic container handling truck etc. Each
requires its own training and certification. Some of the comonest types of FLT are shown in
the following table:
TYPE                        CHARACTERISTICS                                              AITT GROUP

Counterbalanced FLT         Counterweight balances load on the forks                     B1 (up to 5
                                               o
                            Tiltable mast (5-15 )                                        tonnes)
                            Operate on fairly smooth surfaces only (warehouse and
                            yard, not pot-holed road or field)
                            Many attachments available



Reach Truck                 Mast ‘reaches’ out to pick up load                           D1
                            Load is ‘reached’ back and carried within the wheelbase if
                            possible
                            Has greater manoeuvrability in restricted areas
                            Operate on smooth surfaces only (inside warehouse)
                            Always battery-operated and used in warehouses



Side Loader                 Load is carried on the deck of the FLT, the mast being       C1 (up to 3
                            traversed sideways to pick up/set down the load              tonnes)
                            Used for long loads e.g. timber or pipes
                            May be fitted with stabilisers
                            Suitable for rough terrain


Pedestrian Controlled FLT   Limited lift height (usually no more than 2 metres)          A3
                            Electrically or manually operated
                            Operator walks with the machine and controls it with a
                            handle
                            Operate on smooth surfaces only (inside warehouse)




Checking the truck
Lift truck pre-shift check
The following type of check must be completed before the truck is used each day:


                                                     2
Lift-truck                             Truck
                                                                       Week
pre-shift check                                                        beginning




                                                                                   Thur
                                                                             Wed
                                                                 Mon




                                                                                                      Sun
                                                                       Tue




                                                                                                Sat
                                                                                          Fri
       Item                         Details

Fork arms        No cracks or distortion. Evenly spaced on
                 carriage plate and clips engaged
Carriage plate   No obvious damage. End stops secure.
Back rest        Load backrest extension secure and not
                 damaged or distorted
Mast             No damage distortion or cracks. Inner
                 channels or runners reasonably clean and
                 smooth
Lift chain       Free from damage or rust. All pins in place

Hydraulics       No damage or leakage from any point

Wheels           Undamaged. All nuts tight.

Tyres            No excessive wear, cuts or foreign bodies.
                 If pneumatic, tyre pressure correct
Lights /         All functioning
indicators
Horn / beeper    Clearly audible
etc
Mast controls    Lift/lower, tilt and side shift operating
                 properly.
Hand / parking   Strong enough to prevent truck being driven
brake
Driving &        Work properly in both directions when
Service brake    tested slowly
Fuel / power     Adequate for shift

Levels           Coolant and engine oil levels correct

LPG              Cylinder secure, pipes & hoses OK

Steering         Works properly in both directions at
                 standstill and when moving
Chain            Chain should be sprayed with a suitable
lubrication      lubricant every month or 250 hours
Electric truck   Battery levels must be topped up with
batteries        distilled water where necessary once a
                 week
Operator’s initials
Hour reading when check done


! Tick items that are OK.
" Cross any that have faults, describe problem overleaf and report it to the supervisor before
attempting to use the truck, if safe to do so.
Cross out rows that don’t apply (eg LPG row if it is an electric truck)




                                                  3
Routine maintenance
Regular preventative maintenance is required. typically every 3 months. Usually the
employer should have a contract for these, with a call-out facility when problems are noted.
This will be normal where the truck is on a lease agreement. The operator is often
responsible for more regular items eg electrolyte levels, chain lubrication etc.

Thorough examination
LOLER 98 regulation 9 requires the thorough examination of lifting equipment at appropriate
intervals to ensure its safe use. This is in addition to any preventative maintenance and
there is often confusion in the trade over this requirement. The Thorough Inspection is
usually by an engineer employed by an insurance company, and this is to be preferred to
those by the usual maintenance engineer as it provides an additional level of independence.
Where trucks are leased the servicing might be arranged by the supplier, but arranging the
thorough examination is often the responsibility of the user. Where trucks are hired, the
supplier might organise both servicing and thorough examinations, albeit with different
engineers.

Most FLTs will require a 6-monthly thorough examination. However, an annual interval could
be appropriate if the FLT isn’t used for more than 40 hours per week, is never used for lifting
people and doesn’t have any fitted attachments or a side shift mechanism. The thorough
examination report must comply with the requirements of Schedule 1 in the LOLER Regs
(see below). There is no prescribed form, but as a quick way of checking that a document
isn’t just a servicing check look for statements that:
♦ it is a thorough examination,
♦ the FLT is safe to operate OR the defects that make it unsafe, AND any defects that may
  become dangerous in a specified time.
♦ the next thorough examination is required on a certain date.

Amongst other things the examination should ensure that:
♦ the forks haven’t worn down by more than 10% of the original thickness at the heel
♦ the chains haven’t stretched by more than 2% of their original length

The British Industrial Truck Association (BITA) recommend that chains are scrapped after 3
years or 6000 hours use (whichever is the sooner) OR where used in cold-stores, 2 years /
4000 hours. See also LAC 32/1.

Certification of the examinations must be retained for inspection on request.

The actual words of the regulation are as follows. Note that this applies to all types of lifting
machinery, not just FLTs.

Thorough examination and inspection
   9. - (1) Every employer shall ensure that before lifting equipment is put into service for
the first time by him it is thoroughly examined for any defect unless either -

     (a) the lifting equipment has not been used before; and

     (b) in the case of lifting equipment for which an EC declaration of conformity could or
     (in the case of a declaration under the Lifts Regulations 1997) should have been drawn
     up, the employer has received such declaration made not more than 12 months before
     the lifting equipment is put into service;
                                                4
or, if obtained from the undertaking of another person, it is accompanied by physical
evidence referred to in paragraph (4).

   (2) Every employer shall ensure that, where the safety of lifting equipment depends on the
installation conditions, it is thoroughly examined -

     (a) after installation and before being put into service for the first time; and

     (b) after assembly and before being put into service at a new site or in a new location,

to ensure that it has been installed correctly and is safe to operate.

    (3) Subject to paragraph (6), every employer shall ensure that lifting equipment which is
exposed to conditions causing deterioration which is liable to result in dangerous situations
is-
       (a) thoroughly examined -

       (i) in the case of lifting equipment for lifting persons or an accessory for lifting, at least
       every 6 months;

       (ii) in the case of other lifting equipment, at least every 12 months; or

       (iii) in either case, in accordance with an examination scheme; and

       (iv) each time that exceptional circumstances which are liable to jeopardise the safety
       of the lifting equipment have occurred; and

     (b) if appropriate for the purpose, is inspected by a competent person at suitable
     intervals between thorough examinations,

to ensure that health and safety conditions are maintained and that any deterioration can be
detected and remedied in good time.


Schedule 1 to the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
Regs 1998
INFORMATION TO BE CONTAINED IN A REPORT OF A THOROUGH EXAMINATION

   1. The name and address of the employer for whom the thorough examination was made.

   2. The address of the premises at which the thorough examination was made.

  3. Particulars sufficient to identify the lifting equipment including where known its date of
manufacture.

   4. The date of the last thorough examination.

   5. The safe working load of the lifting equipment or (where its safe working load depends
on the configuration of the lifting equipment) its safe working load for the last configuration in
which it was thoroughly examined.

   6. In relation to the first thorough examination of lifting equipment after installation or after
assembly at a new site or in a new location -

                                                 5
     (a) that it is such thorough examination;

     (b) (if such be the case) that it has been installed correctly and would be safe to
     operate.

   7. In relation to a thorough examination of lifting equipment other than a thorough
examination to which paragraph 6 relates -

     (a) whether it is a thorough examination -

      (i) within an interval of 6 months under regulation 9(3)(a)(i);

      (ii) within an interval of 12 months under regulation 9(3)(a)(ii);

      (iii) in accordance with an examination scheme under regulation 9(3)(a)(iii); or

      (iv) after the occurrence of exceptional circumstances under regulation 9(3)(a)(iv);

     (b) (if such be the case) that the lifting equipment would be safe to operate.

   8. In relation to every thorough examination of lifting equipment -

     (a) identification of any part found to have a defect which is or could become a danger
     to persons, and a description of the defect;

     (b) particulars of any repair, renewal or alteration required to remedy a defect found to
     be a danger to persons;

     (c) in the case of a defect which is not yet but could become a danger to persons -

      (i) the time by which it could become such danger;

      (ii) particulars of any repair, renewal or alteration required to remedy it;

     (d) the latest date by which the next thorough examination must be carried out;

     (e) where the thorough examination included testing, particulars of any test;

     (f) the date of the thorough examination.

  9. The name, address and qualifications of the person making the report; that he is self-
employed or, if employed, the name and address of his employer.

   10. The name and address of a person signing or authenticating the report on behalf of its
author.

   11. The date of the report.



Selection of Operators
FLT drivers should be reliable, mature and responsible people, with appropriate
physical/mental capabilities. Selection testing may be useful.


                                                 6
Appendix 2 of HSG6 gives various medical considerations including:
♦ pre-employment fitness screening is recommended, as are 5 yearly checks for the over-
  40’s.
♦ general health, particularly mobility/agility
♦ vision, which should not normally be less than 6/12 with both eyes (wearing glasses or
  contact lenses if needed)
♦ hearing
♦ alcohol & drug abuse


Where trucks are taken onto the public highway then the usual DVLA standards (“ At a
Glance”) also apply. These can be seen at www.dvla.gov.uk/at_a_glance/content.htm. Note
they distinguish between Group 1 (car and small FLTs) users and Group 2 (HGV, PSV
users).


Training of Operators
The training of workers on any type of work equipment is required by PUWER98, Reg 9:

       9. - (1) Every employer shall ensure that all persons who use work equipment have
       received adequate training for purposes of health and safety, including training in the
       methods which may be adopted when using the work equipment, any risks which
       such use may entail and precautions to be taken.

          (2) Every employer shall ensure that any of his employees who supervises or
       manages the use of work equipment has received adequate training for purposes of
       health and safety, including training in the methods which may be adopted when
       using the work equipment, any risks which such use may entail and precautions to be
       taken.

There is no nationally prescribed training for pallet trucks or for pedestrian operated lift
trucks. For these the employer should determine what is “adequate training”.

For larger machines, training should be carried out in accordance with the Approved Code of
Practice (ACoP) ‘Rider operated lift trucks: operator training’. 'Rider-operated' means any
truck capable of carrying an operator and includes trucks controlled from both seated and
stand-on positions. It relates to stacking rider-operated lift trucks (such as counterbalanced
FLTs, reach trucks, rough terrain counterbalanced FLTs and telescopic materials handlers).
No person to whom the code applies should be employed to operate a lift truck unless he or
she has satisfactorily completed training and testing as described in the code.

Training should include the following stages:
♦ Basic training
♦ Specific job training, relating to the FLT to be used
♦ Familiarisation training at the workplace, under supervision.
♦ Conversion training would be needed for operators going onto a different group of FLTs
  eg a reach truck after originally being trained on a counterbalance truck.

Records should be kept of training completed by individuals and their associated test results.
Certificates of basic training are a useful, practical means of providing documentary
evidence that relevant training has taken place and an appropriate level of operating ability

                                                  7
has been attained. In addition to the paper certificate, the operator will be given a small
laminated card showing their qualification. Note that these will give the date and the
group(s) of truck on which the training has been completed.

Refresher training and assessment is not specified in the HSE guidance but is recognised by
the training organisations as useful every 5 years or so. Sooner if there is cause for
concern. Employers should continuously monitor the performance of operators to ascertain
whether they might need refresher training. Indicators might be near misses, accidents or
consistently unsafe working practices. This is especially the case if operators are occasional
users, have not operated trucks for some time, or there has been a change in their working
practices or environment.

The HSE has recognised five bodies as competent to operate voluntary schemes of
accreditation for training providers(See LAC 32/7). These are:
♦ The Association of Industrial Truck Trainers (AITT) whose accreditation scheme is known
   as the Independent Training Standards Scheme and Register (ITSSAR);
♦ The Construction Industry Training Board (CITB) whose scheme is part of the Certificate
  of Training Achievement Scheme (CTA) which covers many types of construction plant.
  HSC’s recognition is only for lift truck training;
♦ Lantra National Training Organisation (previously ATB Landbase);
♦ The National Plant Operators Registration Scheme
♦ RTITB Ltd.



Authorisation of Operators
Not everyone who has been trained in the past should automatically be allowed to operate
FLTs within a business. There should be a formal authorisation process.

Authorisation should be:
♦ in writing
♦ confined to the type of FLT and work for which the employer has found the operator
  competent
♦ for a specified period.

Authorisation should be withdrawn by the employer pending a review or retraining if there is
an accident, if the operator displays poor standards or is unwell or otherwise incapacitated.


Basic driving rules
Managers or inspectors should check that operators are following the following principles:

♦ Driving at a speed appropriate to the circumstances
♦ Only moving with a raised load at a creep speed. And only whilst stacking.
♦ Normal travel is with the forks 100 - 150mm above the ground.
♦ Looking in the direction they are travelling
♦ Travelling in a direction in which they have a clear view, or using a trained banksman or
  guide. So counterbalanced trucks go backwards if the load obstructs vision (but when
  going uphill on a slope with a bulky load, travelling forwards but with help from a guide)

                                                 8
♦ Never going across sloping ground, only up or down.
♦ When travelling on a slope when loaded, with the load uphill.
♦ When travelling on a slope when unloaded, with the forks downhill.
♦ Leaving the truck parked with forks on the ground, handbrake on and key removed.
♦ Never parking on a slope.
♦ Never lifting anyone on the forks or on a pallet.
♦ Never carrying passengers.


Lifting people
The lifting of anybody standing on the forks, or on a pallet, is dangerous and illegal.
However, there is a safe way of using a FLT for this task – by means of a special cage
securely fitted to the forks called a mobile elevating work platform (MEWP). This gives a
working platform with a handrail so if the worker is jerked or looses their balance they cannot
fall to the ground. They are also protected from entanglement in the lifting chains. See
PM28 for details. However, this arrangement should only be for occasional jobs, not for
regular order picking or similar operations, as FLTs lack the controls and safety devices in
purpose designed vehicles.


Layout and Maintenance of Workplace
♦ Roadways and aisles etc. should have sufficient width and overhead clearance (for
  loaded FLTs and for FLTs passing each other if necessary); road humps should be
  avoided; consideration could be given to a 1-way system if warranted; adequate lighting
  is essential.
♦ Pedestrians should be prohibited where possible, or risks assessed and controlled by
  the use of signs or barriers that are clearly marked (black and yellow diagonal stripes).
♦ Edges of loading bays etc. should be clearly marked or, where possible, fitted with
  barriers.
♦ Avoidance of sharp bends, obstructions, etc.
♦ Warning devices, mirrors etc. may be needed where barriers cannot be used.
♦ Structural features should be identified, marked and protected (e.g. with impact
  barriers).
♦ Parking areas for FLTs should be provided in a secure or supervised area to prevent
  unauthorised access.
♦ Ceilings, lighting fittings, ductwork etc overhead can be struck by a raised load if the
  operator is careless. It may be worth getting an engineer to adjust the maximum
  operating height to avoid this risk.

Protection of personnel should be achieved by consideration of the following measures:
   ♦ Segregation of pedestrians from vehicles (barriers, marking of routes, warning
      devices).
   ♦ Audible warning devices on FLTs, e.g. horn, reversing bleeper.
   ♦ Flashing beacons on FLTs.
   ♦ High visibility clothing.

                                               9
   ♦ Head protection, where there is a risk of head injury from falling objects.


Signalling
It is generally best for the FLT operator to only drive in directions they can see clearly. With
a large load this can mean going in reverse. But they will be times when a guide can assist.
This signalman or banksman must use clear signals – as laid down in the Health & Safety
(Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 (Schedule ix). They must also stand in a
position that avoids them being in danger should a load fall or the truck move unexpectedly.
Suitable personal protective equipment should be worn – hi-vis vest, safety shoes etc.




                                               10
Use on the public highway
Even if the operator’s possesses a forklift training certificate, they must also have an ordinary
driving licence if they are to take their truck onto the highway to unload a lorry or move
goods to an adjacent building. Their licence must include category B for trucks under
3500kg, C1 for trucks between 3500 and 7500kg or C for trucks over 7500kg.

Road tax may also be payable. DVLA (tel 01792 783 661) gave the following advice in
September 2003.

       Registration and licensing is governed by the Vehicle Excise and Registration Act
       1994 (VERA). All trucks used on the highway to unload lorries etc must obtain and
       display a tax disk. The certificate of insurance and appropriate test certificate must be
       shown when applying.

       There is no charge for this for electric trucks, but they must still apply annually.

       FLTs of 3500kg or less are licensed as Private Light Goods class and the annual fee
       is £165 for engines over 1549cc or £110 if smaller than that.

       FLTs over 3500kg are Works Truck, Special Vehicles Taxation Class. The annual fee
       is £165.



Employers Checklist - Forklift Trucks
1    Can you produce training certificates for all of your operators?                   YES / NO
2    Do they refer to the classes of trucks that are being driven?                      YES / NO
3    Do you have a system for refresher training every 5 years?                         YES / NO
4    Do you have a system of written authorisation for operators of FLTs?               YES / NO
5    Do you know the basic safety rules your operators should follow, and check         YES / NO
     they are doing so from time to time
6    Do you maintain your premises in such a condition as to secure safety in           YES / NO
     the use of FLTs (signage, barriers, lighting, layout, mirrors, traffic
     management systems etc.)?
7    Do you maintain your FLTs by regular servicing, and are records kept?              YES / NO
8    Can you produce a current certificate that clearly states it is a “Thorough        YES / NO
     Examination”
9    Has the pre-shift check sheet been completed by the operators this week            YES / NO
10   Can you produce an adequate risk assessment covering the use of fork               YES / NO
     trucks and the associated hazards and your controls
11   If the truck ever goes onto the public highway, is it separately insured and       YES / NO
     road taxed annually.




                                                11
References / Further Details
The following documents are available through HSE Books by phoning # 01787 881165 or
via their website www.hsebooks.co.uk
Code        Year Pages Title                                          ISBN and price
                                                                      or source
HSG6        2000 56        Safety in working with lift trucks         ISBN 07176 17815
                                                                              £6.50
L117      1999    20       Approved Code of Practice and                      ISBN 07176 24552
                           Supplementary Guidance "Rider Operated             £5.00
                           Lift Trucks- operator training"
PM28      2000    8        Working platforms on forklift trucks               ISBN 07176 12333
                                                                              £6
PM15      1998    12       Safety in the use of pallets                       ISBN 07176 15227
                                                                              £6
HSG187    1999    42       Control of Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions         ISBN 07176 16622
                           in the Workplace.                                  £6.95
MISC175   1999    2        Retrofitting of roll-over protective structures,   www.hse.gov.uk/pu
                           restraining systems and their attachment           bns/misc175.pdf
                           points to mobile work equipment.
SIR60     2003    47       Safety of Industrial Lift Trucks – a survey of     ISBN 07176 27543
                           accidents and incidents                            £10 or
                                                                              www.hse.gov.uk/pu
                                                                              bns/sir60.pdf
HSG113    1996    26       Lift trucks in potentially flammable               ISBN 07176 07062
                           atmospheres                                        £7.75
WIS2      2000    4        Safe stacking of sawn timber and board             free
                           materials
LAC32/1   2000    3        Examination procedure and discard criteria         www.hse.gov.uk/la
                           for FLT lift chains                                u/lacs/32-1.htm
LAC32/6   2000    2        Repairs to fork arms for FLT                       www.hse.gov.uk/la
                                                                              u/lacs/32-6.htm
LAC32/7   2003    5        Rider-operated lift trucks: operator training      www.hse.gov.uk/la
                           approved code of practice                          u/lacs/32-7.htm
Video     1993    8 mins   Dangerous maneuvers                                07176 19656 £40
MISC241   2000    3        Fitting and use of restraining systems on lift     www.hse.gov.uk/pu
                           trucks                                             bns/misc241.pdf




                                            12
Health & Safety Enforcement
Health & Safety Inspectors from the Council or the HSE will visit from time to time and can
require operators to show them relevant documentation such as training certificates,
servicing records, thorough examination certificates and pre-shift check sheets. If they find
problems then, depending on the seriousness, they can:

♦ informally ask for changes to be made,
♦ serve an Improvement Notice demanding specified works are done in a set time
♦ serve a Prohibition Notice demanding that specified activities cease until certain things
  are done.
♦ Seize equipment they consider dangerous
♦ OR prosecute for the offences seen.
If a prohibition notice is being served then the officer may note the truck hour meter to
ensure the truck isn’t used later. However this will only record the time the key is turned, not
whether the truck actually moves or is used for lifting or is being repaired by an engineer.
Alternatively they may fit security tags onto the wheel.




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