Docstoc

DISEASE

Document Sample
DISEASE Powered By Docstoc
					   DISEASES AND THE
    MANAGEMENT OF
WILDLIFE, FISHERIES AND
       FORESTS
               DISEASE
•   Definitions
•   Infectious vs non-infectious
•   Direct mortality and morbidity
•   Sublethal effects
•   Vectors
•   Reservoirs
•   Management implications
A. Definitions
•   Disease – any alteration in the “normal”
             condition of an organism
A. Definitions
•   Disease – any alteration in the “normal”
             condition of an organism
•   Enzootic – low-level, chronic disease
A. Definitions
•   Disease – any alteration in the “normal”
             condition of an organism
•   Enzootic – low-level, chronic disease


      Example:
         Intestinal fluke
A. Definitions
•   Disease – any alteration in the “normal”
             condition of an organism
•   Enzootic – low-level, chronic disease
•   Epizootic – large-scale, eruptive disease
                 Example:
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease = EHD
                 Example:
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease = EHD
         Viral disease of ungulates
                 Example:
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease = EHD
         Viral disease of ungulates
                 Example:
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease = EHD
         Viral disease of ungulates
A. Definitions
•   Disease – any alteration in the “normal”
             condition of an organism
•   Enzootic – low-level, chronic disease
•   Epizootic – large-scale, eruptive disease
•   Zoonoses – between humans and other
              animals
B.   Infectious diseases – caused by living
              agents (pathogens)
B.     Infectious diseases – caused by living
                agents (pathogens)
                        Bacteria


Example: Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis




     Normal male house finch       Affected male house finch
B.   Infectious diseases – caused by living
              agents (pathogens)
                    Bacteria
                    Viruses
B.   Infectious diseases – caused by living
              agents (pathogens)
                      Bacteria
                      Viruses
                      Protozoans


Example: Coccidia




             Life cycle of coccidia in
                      pheasants
B.   Infectious diseases – caused by living
              agents (pathogens)
                    Bacteria
                    Viruses
                    Protozoans
                    Fungi
Example: Dutch elm disease
B.   Infectious diseases – caused by living
              agents (pathogens)
                    Bacteria
                    Viruses
                    Protozoans
                    Fungi
                    Prions
B. Infectious diseases
      Example: Prion diseases


             Chronic Wasting Disease
B. Infectious diseases
      Example: Prion diseases


             Chronic Wasting Disease
      - Transmissible spongiform
            encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk
B. Infectious diseases
      Example: Prion diseases


             Chronic Wasting Disease
      - Transmissible spongiform
            encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk
      - Highly contagious and always fatal
B. Infectious diseases
      Example: Prion diseases


             Chronic Wasting Disease
      - Transmissible spongiform
            encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk
      - Highly contagious and always fatal
      - Likely epidemic in CO and WY
B. Infectious diseases
      Example: Prion diseases


             Chronic Wasting Disease
      - Transmissible spongiform
            encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk
      - Highly contagious and always fatal
      - Likely epidemic in CO and WY
      - Found in Wisconsin February 28, 2002
                             #        #   Positive for
DNR Zone
                       Sampled Analyzed         CWD
Disease Eradication      32906   32804            467 1.42 %
Zone
Herd Reduction           18480    18386            4
Zone
Remainder of             23844    23839            0
Wisconsin
                           299      299            0
     Total Sampled
                         75529
         Statewide
     Total Analyzed
                                  75328
          Statewide
      Total Positive
                                                 471
          Statewide
B.    Infectious diseases – caused by living
               agents (pathogens)
•    Non-Infectious diseases – caused by
               non-living agents
B.    Infectious diseases – caused by living
               agents (pathogens)
•    Non-Infectious diseases – caused by
                      non-living agents
                     Chemicals
                     Genetics
                     Physical injuries…etc.
C. Mortality and morbidity
•     Mortality = death of an organism
C. Mortality and morbidity
•     Mortality = death of an organism
•     Morbidity = unthrifty, wasting away
            condition of an organism
D. Sublethal effects
•     Behavior changes
Example:   Botflies in caribou
Example:   Botflies in deer
D. Sublethal effects
•     Behavior changes
•     Physical injury
Example - Arthritis
D. Sublethal effects
•     Behavior changes
•     Arthritis
•     Reproductive failure
D. Sublethal effects
•     Behavior changes
•     Arthritis
•     Reproductive failure
•     Susceptibility to other diseases
Example – External parasites
Example – External parasites
Example – Warts
Example – Warts
E. Vectors
•    Transfer pathogens from one organism to another
E. Vectors
•    Transfer pathogens from one organism to another
             Example: - mosquitoes, ticks….etc
F. Reservoirs
•     Store pathogens in the population
F. Reservoirs
•     Store pathogens in the population


        Example: Brainworm in deer
G. Implications for Management
G. Implications for Management
•     Always present but seldom a problem
G. Implications for Management
•     Always present but seldom a problem
•    May reflect stress and over-crowding
G. Implications for Management
•     Always present but seldom a problem
•     May reflect stress and over-crowding
•     Lack a good monitoring system
G. Implications for Management
•     Always present but seldom a problem
•     May reflect stress and over-crowding
•     Lack a good monitoring system
•     Prevention of stress and injury
G. Implications for Management
•     Always present but seldom a problem
•     May reflect stress and over-crowding
•     Lack a good monitoring system
•     Prevention of stress and injury
•     Administer vaccines
G. Implications for Management
•     Always present but seldom a problem
•     May reflect stress and over-crowding
•     Lack a good monitoring system
•     Prevention of stress and injury
•     Administer vaccines
•     Interrupt life cycles of pathogens and vectors