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DISEASE OF POULTRY

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DISEASE OF POULTRY Powered By Docstoc
					DISEASE OF POULTRY

     DR. NAGY EÖRSNÉ
 Central Veterinary Institute, Budapest
   Department of Poultry Pathology
         ANTE MORTEM INSPECTION

   At the farm before transportation to the slaughterhouse the poultry
    flock must be examined by veterinarian.
   A certificate must be composed on the results of this inspection and the
    pre-life of the flock

   If the certificate is available – and it is negative – and it does not
    indicate the necessity of special measures, the ante mortem inspection
    at the slaughterhouse will include the identification of transported
    flock and control of injuries took place during transportation,
    furthermore the examination of dead birds.

   Based on these data and examinations the veterinarian decides whether
    the flock will be submitted to normal or special slaughter or further
    special examination.
                    Notifiable Diseases


   Former O.I.E. list A
    –   Newcastle disease (Paramyxovirus)
    –   Avian influenza (Orthomyxovirus)
    –   Duck plaque (Herpesvirus)
   Former O.I. E. list B
    – Fowl cholera
    – Fowl typhoid

In case of these diseases the flock is slaughtered separately
    – mostly at the end of the day- as it is not condemned
    Diseases of Poultry  Zoonosis


 Paratyphoid (Salmonellosis, except typhoid)
 Campylobacteriosis
 Chlamydiosis
 Tuberculosis
 /Anthrax/
        Inspection of the surface


 injuries (as consequences of transportation)
 inflammation of skin
  arthritis
  synovitis
       (infection of Staphylococcus aureus)
 Marek’s disease (skin form)
    Inspection of visceral organs and the
                 body cavity
             Bacterial infections

 Salmonellosis (Fowl typhoid)
 Pasteurellosis (Fowl cholera)
 E. coli septicaemia
 Staphylococcosis
 Streptococcosis
                       Septicaemia
   haemorrhages and/or fibrinous
    inflammation on seromembranes
    – pleuritis
    – pericarditis
    – air sacculitis
   liver, spleen conditions:
    – enlarged
    – friable (associated with subcapsular haemorrhages)
   lungs, intestines, genitals
    Paratyphoid (Salmonellosis)
                   Zoonosis
 S. Enteritidis
 S. Typhimurium
 S. Infantis
 S. Hadar
 S. Agona
 S. Saint-paul
 S. Bovis-morbificans …etc.
 Gram negative rods with filaments
 Sensitivity: 70° C 5 min
            fresh meat - 2-3 weeks
            frozen meat - years
 Pathology: septicaemia (enlarged spleen, liver,
  necrotic foci, enteritis (fibrinous inflammation
  in caecum! - water fowl! )
 Total condemned for human consumption!
 Slaughterhouse hygenie, household hygenie
  (contamination!)
            Fowl typhoid
 Salmonella Gallinarum/Pullorum
  adapted to special host
  Gram negative rods without any filaments
 sensitive to 70°C 5 min
  in fresh meat for 2-4 month
  in frozen meat for years
  in water for 4-6 weeks
 Germinative transmission!
Pathology:

   enlarged spleen
              liver within small necrotic foci
   white-grey (necrotic) nodules in myocardium
                                   in lungs
                                   in intestine
   fibrinous inflammation of seromembranes
   degenerated follicles on ovary, salpingitis
   arthritis
    Poultry meat is partial condemned for
            human consumption



   only the affected areas are condemned
    (mostly the parenchymal organs and
    intestines - in case of arthritis the legs are
    removed)
Small intestine, caecum, liver
white-grey necrotic nodules in
  myocardium (typhoma)
                 Tuberculosis
                       Zoonosis
 Mycobacterium avium
 Ziehl-Nelsen positive slim rods
 Main character: acid- and alcohol-fastness
 Sensitivity: (Pasteur)
    •   85°C - 1 sec
    •   72-76°C - 14-45 sec
    •   62-65°C - 30 min
 Domesticated birds: adult only
  wild- exotic birds (ZOO), ostrich
 Pathology:
  bad condition
  grey-yellow nodules of varying sizes in
  - diff. organs
  - intestines
  - bone marrow
 Condemned for human consumption
              Colibacillosis

 Gram negative rods
 septicaemia
 coligranulomatosis (intestine, mesenterium)
 CRD (Chronic Respiratory Disease)
 Partial condemned for human consumption
Fibrin liver, heart
 (Mycoplasma, E. coli)
Fibrin (heart, intestine)
     Chronic Respiratory Disease
          Mycoplasmosis
 Mycoplasma gallisepticum
 Mycoplasma synoviae
 Mycoplasma meleagridis
 Mycoplasma iowae
 Mycoplasma anseris
 Mycoplasma cloacalae
 Mycoplasma anatum
 Ureaplasmas
   Pathogenicy varied, mostly facultative pathogen !
   In general Mycoplasmas are colonizing mucosal
    surfaces
   They are associated with bacteria and/or viruses
    (respiratory virus infection, E. coli,
    Ornithobacterium..)
   stress
    immunsuppression (viral diseases, mycotoxins..)
     Fowl cholera/Pasteurellosis
   Mainly in turkey, water fowl
   Pasteurella multocida acute form
                               chronic form
 Gram negative coccoid-rods
  Sensitivity: 60°C 2 min
 Pathology: septicaemia
                 arthritis
                 salpingitis
                 fibrinopurulent meningitis
                 fibrinous inflammation of phallus
 Septicaemia - condemned
  Chronic form: partial condemnation (except cachexia)
Petechiae in the heart of goose
     (pasteurellosis, erysipelas, asphyxia)
Necrotic foci in the liver goose
       (pasteurellosis, erysipelas)
                 Erysipelas
   Water fowl
   Erysipelothrix rhusiopatiae
    Gram positive rods
    sensitivity: mild
   septicaemia
   Diff. diagn.: Pasteurellosis (septicaemia)
   Partial condemnation for human consumption
              Staphylococcosis
   Staphylococcus aureus
    Gram positive coccus
   Ubiquiter, pathogen if enters through the skin or
    mucosal membranes
   Pathology: septicaemia – young birds
                 arthritis, periarthritis
                synovitis, osteomyelitis - adult
       gangrenous dermatitis
       (wings, legs) in broilers
   Condemned or partial condemnation
           Campylobacteriosis
                       Zoonosis

   Campylobacter jejuni
    C. coli
   Microaerophyl, Gram negative, mild sensitivity
   It is an intestinal commensal in broiler breeders,
    layer-type breeders, turkey.
   Hepatitis (enteritis) in poultry
    Enteritis in human
    Slaughterhouse and household hygiene!
      Chlamydiosis (Ornithosis)
                      Zoonosis


   Chlamydia psittaci
   Intracellular
   Pigeon, turkeys, ducks, gees, pheasant
   Inhaling dust from feces or feather
   Slaughterhouse hygenie
                 Anthrax
                  Zoonosis

 It occurs rarely in birds where the disease
  is endemic.
 Chicken are highly resistant.
 Ducks occasionally show the disease
 Ostriches are moderately susceptible, often
  with high mortality.

    (Dis.of Poultry. Barnes)

				
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