Department of Health and Human Se

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					Climate Change


      Mary Gant
      NIEHS/NIH
       NIH statistics
18,000 employees
Approximately 43,400 research and
training applications reviewed annually
46,700 grants currently funded
20 institutes and 7 centers
FY 2002 Appropriation $23.2 billion
FY 2003 Request $27.3 billion
NIH Institutes and Abbreviations
Institute                                                 Abbreviation
National Cancer Institute                                 NCI
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute                  NHLBI
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease      NIAID
National Eye Institute                                    NEI
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney NIDDK
Diseases
National Institute on Aging                               NIA
National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin NIAMS
National Human Genome Research Institute                  NHGRI
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke   NINDS
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research    NIDR
National Institute on Deafness and Other                  NIDCD
Communication Disorders
  NIH Institutes and Abbreviations (cont’d)
Institute                                             Abbreviation
National Institute of Child Health and Human          NICHD
Development
National Institute on Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse       NIAAA
National Institute on Drug Abuse                      NIDA
National Institute of Mental Health                   NIMH
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and          NIBIB
Bioengineering
National Institute of General Medical Sciences        NIGMS
National Institute of Nursing Research                NINR
National Library of Medicine                          NLM
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences   NIEHS
NIH centers and abbreviations
Center                                              Abbreviation

Center for Information Technology                   CIT

Center for Scientific Review                        CSR

John E. Fogarty International Center                FIC

National Center for Complementary and Alternative   NCCAM
Medicine
National Center on Minority Health and Health       NCMHD
Disparities
National Center for Research Resources              NCRR

Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center               CC
        Global Change Budget Table
Institute Area                             FY02     FY03
                                           estimate estimate
NCI      Cancer                            39.5     45.3
NHLBI    Heart, Lung, and Blood            9.6      10.3
NIAID    Allergy and infectious disease    1.8      1.9
NEI      Eye                               16.5     17.6
NIEHS    Environmental Health              55.8     60.2
NIA      Aging                             1.9      2.1
NIAMS    Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and   3.2      3.5
         Skin
FIC      International                     1.1      1.2
NIH      Total                             129.4    142.1
List of global change related
        research areas
Heat-related illness and death due to increased heat wave frequency
Injuries and psychological disorders resulting from altered frequency
or intensity of other extreme weather events
Vector- or parasite-induced disease, whose range or activities might
change
Disease precipitated by altered local ecology of water-borne or food-
borne infectious agents
Health effects caused by substitutes for ozone depleting chemicals
Health effects due to the production and use of alternative fuels
Health consequences of the loss of biodiversity
Effects of UV radiation on human health
Health effects related to use of pesticides to control disease vectors
Health effects related to changing patters of agricultural chemical use
List of global change related
    research areas (cont’d)
  Injuries and increased risks of infectious diseases and
  psychological disorders and deaths due to migration, crowding,
  contamination of drinking water caused by sea level rise and the
  resulting adverse impacts on economy, infrastructure, and
  resource supply
  Asthma, allergic disorders, and other acute and chronic
  respiratory disorders and deaths due to increased air pollution
  Health consequences due to change in agricultural productivity
  and food supplies
  Health consequences of new technologies to mitigate or adapt
  to climate change
   Heat-Related Illness and Death

Aging is associated with a general loss of ability of modulate
   responses to physiological stress

Areas of research:
   Heat shock proteins whose accumulation is associated with how
   a cell responds to heat stress
   Signaling pathways that mediate the effects of
   genotoxic/oxidative stresses
   Mechanisms responsible for elevation of blood pressure during
   cold acclimation
   Interactions of heat waves with air pollution
      Injuries and Psychological Disorders
         Resulting from Extreme Events

Areas of research:

  Psychosocial consequences of disaster

  Social and cultural dynamics of disaster recovery

  Stress associated with the Tangshan earthquake
Infectious Disease Influenced
  by Environmental Change
The challenge of emerging and reemerging diseases cannot be addressed
   without considering the complex interactions between the environment,
   microbe, and host that influence the prevalence of disease.

Areas of research:
   Molecular epidemiology to study transmission patterns
   Ecology of infectious diseases
   NASA/NIAID project to use satellite systems to study disease patterns
   Network of research centers
   Infection of endothelial cells with Rickettsia rickettsii
   Malaria, sickle cell anemia and the Duffy blood group
                  UV Radiation

UV radiation causes cancer and cataracts and alters the immune
   response. Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer, and
   is increasing the most in incidence and morbidity.
Areas of Research:
   Behavior research to develop interventions designed to prevent
   exposure to UV
   Molecular basis of UV radiation effects, especially DNA repair
   mechanisms and signaling pathways
   Alteration of immune responses
   Role of viruses in tumorigenicity
   Role of diet in cancer development and prevention
                     UV Radiation

Research results:
  The association between melanoma risk and average annual
  UVB flux is strong and consistent for men and women. The
  association with total adult hours outdoors was notable for men
  of all skin types and women who develop a tan. [Cancer
  Research, 15 July 2002]

   UV alters the P53 gene preventing its ability to kill abnormal
   cells. At the same time, it stimulates healthy P53 genes to kill
   their cells. [Nature, 22 Dec 1994]
                     UV Radiation

Scientists have shown that either single high-dose or multiple low-
   dose UV exposure can produce cataracts in experimental
   animals. The exact mechanism is not known.
Areas of Research:
   How various wavelengths of UV-A and UV-B damage the lens
   and result in cataracts
   Interaction between antioxidants in the lens and UV radiation
   Role of UV in development of macular degeneration

Research Result:
  Dark leafy greens appear to be protective from macular
  degeneration
     CFC Chemical Replacements

International commitments to limit the production and use of ozone
   depleting CFCs have stimulated the search for replacements
   with the some of the halogenated hydrocarbons as interim
   candidates.

Areas of research:
   Reaction mechanisms involved in the several steps of the
   pathways through which these chemicals initiate or promote
   disease
   Earlier projects studied a number of the HCFCs and the HFCs.
   Current project focused on a-haloacids, particularly
   dichloroacetate (DCA)
           Increased Air Pollution

Quality of the air, the breath of life, is the one environmental
   exposure over which an individual has the least control
Areas of research:
   Relationship between lifetime exposure to ozone and lung
   function in young adults
   Cellular injury induced by inhaled pollutants and repair
   mechanisms
   Whether diet rich in fruits, vegetables and antioxidant nutrients
   and/or mutations in specific genes modifies the effect of air
   pollution on respiratory health
   National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study
   Children’s Environmental Health Centers
   Six – 24 – Five Cities Studies
                    Air Pollution

Recent Results:
  Data analyzing PM2.5 exposure in sample of 500,000 adults
  followed from 1982 to 1998 showed that the number of
  e=deaths from lung cancer increased by 8% for every 10
  micrograms of fine particulate matter per cubic meter.

  Study of 3500 children who had no history of asthma in 12
  southern California communities showed that children who
  played 3 or more outdoor sports in high ozone areas were more
  than 3 times as likely to develop asthma compared with children
  who played no sports. No increased risk in low ozone
  communities.
                        Pesticides

Essential for disease control and agricultural productivity

Areas of research:
   Agricultural Health Study
   Long Island Breast Cancer Study
   Sisters Study/Women's Health Initiative
   National Toxicology Program studies
   DDT/DDE studies
   Pesticides in breast milk
   Colorectal cancer study in Egypt
   Water disinfection strategies
                  Small Programs

Big value; small budget
   NINR support for field study of use of sari cloth for water filter
   NINR supports a fellowship examining environmental promotion
   at the community level
   NHGRI study to identify genes associated with melanoma
        Future Research Areas

New pesticides
New drugs
Seafood toxins/toxic tides
Waste dumps
Population growth
Increasing poverty
New technologies/new materials
New air pollution mixes
Adequate supplies of water for all uses
Sea level rise