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Sequencing

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					Sequencing
LETSI Workshop – 15th to 17th October 2008
Pensacola, Florida

This is a broad consensus that sequencing is broken in SCORM 2004. What
should we do about it? Can the current implementation be fixed? If not, what
should replace it? Should we replace it?

What are the possible alternatives for replacing the current sequencing
specification and what are the associated pros and cons of each?

Mike Rustici, Robby Robson, Jill Abbott (Workshop Leads)

Mike – The first thing we want to put forth for discussion is what is
sequencing???
      Right content delivered at the right time
      Could have multiple ideals
      Angelo Panar – One goal of sequencing was to allow for most robust
        granularity (simple sequencing can be highly technical)
      Mike – the current goal of sequencing was to allow for better reuse of the
        SCO
      Sequencing is a rule-based engine in regards to inputs and outputs –
        essentially the rules of sequencing are “separate” to the SCO
      Michael Bush - What are we actually sequencing??? What is the
        something that is being sequenced
          o Discussing the granularity of the SCO
          o Navigation can make the assumption that the LMS systems
              available are assuming that the calls are being made as a point
          o Essentially separate content from sequencing
      Sequencing was designed to be totally generic
      Kurt – Could do internal sequencing within the SCO level based on the
        assumption that ECMA Script supports xml
      Kin Chew Lim – Sequencing is essentially content mastery
          o Reasoning based on Bloom’s Taxonomy
          o Put forth more effort on what we want people (learner) to do
          o Puts in some order
      Kurt – 3 types of SCOs to identify roles in relation to sequencing (Inter-
        SCO Communication) such as: External, Internal, and Template
        Aggregation “theory”
          o SSP
      Robby – What is the issue with sequencing




Mike – Can a Rules-Based system ever be able to be interoperability???
      May need further attention
Jill Abbott – More specifically What is sequencing???
       (defn) Set of rules that define the delivery strategy of how the content is
         to be delivered to the leaner (egg. KSA, competencies)
       Sequencing is the means of getting from one place to another or is a
         means of Instructional Design
       Robby – Basically, it is a set of rules which dictates how the student
         (learner) can access information (Learning Object “LO”, content)
       Robby – From a more technical perspective, Sequencing needs to be
         more dynamic to where it can be adaptive as needs were to arise if
         content had to be re-purposed
       Weidong Zhang – Sequencing should be stand-alone in relation to the
         LMS
       Michael Bush – Sequencing should be generated/designed by rules
       Michael Bush – Firm up sequencing rules so future tools/toolsets can be
         made available to content developers for future courseware
         development
       Wayne – Sequencing is a tool, but it is not the equivalent to Instructional
         Design
       Robby – Sequencing is an aspect of Instructional Design but it is NOT
         Instructional Design in itself.
       Wayne – Sequencing is based on a set of rules (eg. score of a test
         would modify the direction of where to go in the course itself)
       Alan Holtz remarks that some people have problems with course content
         design because SCORM can be restrictive
       Sequencing is not synomous with ISD development


What do we want???
      Kurt – Activity (in result) effects the outcomes of interaction within the
       content
      SCO talk to SCO – Define SCO
      Some kind of persistence
      NO navigation
      Stand alone from LMS
      Tree structure or Simulation
      Computer Adaptive Assessments
      Tools
      Have a SCO find info about another SCO
      Historical Persistence
      Extensive set of primitives in order to make decisions
      Crispin Weston – Please note, we will need to still be able to keep it
       simple
      Graceful degeneration
      Be visually represented by tools
      Interoperability – Technical OR is it more than a technical issue
Fred Banks (Boeing) states that sequencing is basically “broken”
        (cont’d)
        Robby – What was the issue of incorporating a scripting language in the
         beginning to place focus on sequencing
        Angelo’s Response – Variables within the programming and/or scripting
         language could have created LMS issues if the programmer
         inadvertently placed incorrect code to the point of LMS failures

Give a consensus of items of what we want…(Close of first day)
         1. SCO talks to a SCO
         2. Some kind of persistence
         3. No Navigation
         4. Stand alone from LMS
         5. Tree structure
         6. Simulation
         7. Computer Adaptive Assessment
         8. SCO #1 find info about another SCO#n
         9. Historical Persistence
         10. Need to Simplify
         11. Graceful Degeneration
         12. Visual Representation by tools
         13. Interoperability
                  Technical
                  More than just technical
         14. Less complication than the structure of simple sequence
         15. Abstraction of current SS for designers
         16. Make SS more human readable
         17. Navigation – Way instructor directs course
                  Calls made to the LMS
                  UI within LMS
                  Up to Instructional Designer (ID)
                  Broaden focus of control – student, ID
         18. Is Navigation INTRINSIC in Sequencing (Probably Not!!)
         19. Solution to have different aspects
                  Scripting
                  WS
                  APIs
                  Multiple tiers of descriptors
         20. Sequence at multiple levels
                  Get inside of SCOs
                  Author-in applicability

THE “HOW” IN SEQUENCING…
     Modify existing sequencing
     Scrap & Restart
     SS Lite (Simple Sequencing)
        New & Backward compatible
        Ability to read content from the manifest
        Too much resp on content
        Can not do one thing or another because hands tied
           o LMS Control vs. Content Dev Needs
        Mike – Sequencing is not a part of the mainstream
        Robby – Lack of adoption of sequencing
           o It does not work well hence minor adoption
           o Little value is assessed on the relationship between the needs of
               sequencing in relation to the effort to implement
        Wayne – Can sequencing be a one-stop shop for multiple applications
         such as DoD, academia, corporate, etc…?
        Weidong Zhang – Cost effectiveness can be prohibitive to the whole
         LMS environment much to the point
        Weidong Zhang – described a Virtual SCO which created a Table of
         Contents (ToC) for the remaining SCOs (Learning Objects) “in theory”
        Angelo – Looking at players that function well in sequencing based on
         the theories that have been generated
        As a group – Discussed the rules or potential lack of rules concerning
         sequencing from the perspective as a developer in relationship to a lead
         programmer (group discussion) – creation of a tool that would allow
         simple sequencing “SS” to the content
        Robby – SS points (1) language be interpretable by LMS (2) objects can
         communicate within learning system (3) standardized “scripting
         language” to make sue of primitive to make use of next object
         (Requirements) streamline the process
        Basic Premise: Hard-core programming vs. Visual tool that will allow
         the developer to have the means to sequence accordingly (group
         discussion)
           o Fred Banks – Issues with Global vs. Local
        Mike – Discussed “Sensible Sequencing”

PROS & CONS of Sequencing
PRO – Do not need scripting
PRO – Open transparent language do this
PRO – Scripting language can be totally object oriented

CON – Not reusable from system to system if proprietary
CON – Not editable from controlling SCO perspective


        cont’d
        Churchill: Never in the field of human conflict, was “Simple
         Sequencing” so critical by so many, for us all (if Sir Winston
         Churchill was in the field of Distanced Learning) : )
       Kurt – makes mention of JavaScript in how it can be incorporated into a
        tool to help facilitate sequencing – makes mention of tool that Robby
        already has - essentially have some of the sequencing calls be pulled
        from the LMS to the SCO level

Kiyoshi Nakabayashi – Gave presentation concerning the addition of a 3rd
Layer to the format by the addition of a Courseware Object

				
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