School-of-Applied-Sciences-Centre-for-Research-in-Applied-Sciences by sdaferv



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									School of Applied Sciences             Centre for Research in Applied Sciences

1.       Title of project
Forensic Analysis of lithographic inks for the identification and provenance of forged bank notes using
Raman and IR spectroscopy

2.       Supervisory team
Prof. Craig Williams
Dr. Catherine Duke

3.        Background and aims of research investigation
The number of forged bank notes; especially the Euro has increased dramatically with the last 3 years.
A number of recent analytical advances have been made in the Raman analysis of materials including
bank notes. The development of the SERRS (surface enhanced Raman resonance spectroscopy) has
enabled bank notes, especially the inks to be characterised and this project will look at seeing if Raman
and IR combined can be used to determine the original ink manufacturer used in the forged notes. If
this project is successful the work will be published in Science and Justice, the official journal of The
Forensic Science Society. CDW has already discussed this project with Members of the West
Midlands Police and the National Fraud Unit (NFU) in Vauxhall, London. The NFU have agreed that
we can have access to the numerous forged notes they hold, so that these can be added to the Raman
database, which will be developed in this project.
i) The production of a potentially commercial & marketable product i.e. Raman Database
ii) The generation of a number of refereed papers
iii) The generation of data on which to formulate further external grant bids

4.         Outline of research programme

Activity                  0-3 Months      3-9 Months   9-15       15-21 Months    21-27       27-33         33-36
                                                       Months                     Months      Months        Months
Literature Survey         √                            √                          √
Raman/IR Training         √
Development          of                   √                       √                           √
Testing of Raman/IR                                    √                          √
database to deduce the
provenance of forged
notes Report or Paper
Ph.D. Write Up                                                                                              √

5.       Facilities required to complete the research programme
Research laboratory and access to the Raman and IR spectrometers
Costs to the school over the three years would be:
1. Subsistence & Travel              £ 800 (Attendance at conferences)
2. Exceptionals                      £ 150 (Poster Preparations, Oral Presentations etc)
3. Equipment Consumables             £2,000 (Raman and IR spectrometer sample preparation)

6.       Research training components
Training in the use and interpretation of spectra will be provided together with training in valid
analytical measurement techniques and evidence handling
7.      Starter references
Claybourn M, Ansell M Using Raman spectroscopy to solve crime: inks, questioned documents and
fraud. Sci Justice. 2000 Oct-Dec 40(4) 261-71

Chaplin, T, Lopez A, Clark,R and Beech, D Identification by Raman spectroscopy of pigments on early
postage stamps. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 2004 34 (7) 600-604

White, Peter C.; Rodger, Caroline; Rutherford, Vicky; Finnon, Yvonne; Smith, W. Ewen;
Fitzgerald, Mary P. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) spectroscopy: a powerful
technique for the forensic analysis of colorants? 1999 Proc. SPIE Vol. 3576, p. 77-86, Investigation
and Forensic Science Technologies, Kathleen Higgins; Ed

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