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                            BRAIN GATE




                               DESCRIPTION
INRODUCTION

neuroprosthetic device known as Brain gate converts brain activity in to computer
commands. A sensor is implanted on the brain, and electrodes are hooked up to wires that
travel to a pedestal on the scalp.From there, a fiber optic cable carries that brain activity
data to a near by computer.
The brain is “hardwired” with connections, which are made by billions of neurons that
make electricity when ever they are simulated.The electrical patterns are called brain
waves.Neurons act like the wires and gates in a computer.
Brain controls motor function.Motor neurons carry a signals from the central nervous
system to the muscles,skin and glands of the body,while sensory neurons carry signals
from those outer parts of the body to the central nervous system.
A technique called neurofeedback uses connecting sensors on the scalp to translate brain
waves in to information a person can learn from.
The sensors register different frequencies of the signals produced in the brain.These
changes in the brain wave patterns indicatr whether someone is concentrating or
suppressing his impulses,or whether he is relaxed or tense.




   A brain –comput1er interface(BCI),some times called a direct neural interface or a
    brain-machine interface,is a direct communication pathway between a human or
    animal brain(or brain cell culture)and an external device.In one way BCIs,computer
     either accept commands from the brain or send signals to it(for example,to restore
     vision)but not both.Two-way BCIs would allow brains and external devices to
     exchange information in both diregtions but have yet to be successfully implanted in
     animals or humans.
                         In this definition, the word brain means the brain or nervous
     system of an organile life form rather than the mind.computer means any processing
     or computational devices, from simple circuits to silicon chips .
                         Brain gate is a brain implant system developed by a bio-tech
     company cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the department of neuroscience at
     brown university.The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their
     limps,or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral
     sclerosis(ALS)or spinal cord injury. The computer chip,which was implanted in to the
     brain,monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user in to
     the computer commands.
                             Brain gate depends upon the cyberkinetics.In addition to real-
     time analysis of neurons patterns to relay movement,the brain gate array is also
     capable of recording electrical data for later analysis.A potential use of this feature
     would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy.Brain
     gate is currently recruiting patients with a range               of neuromuscular and
     neurodegenerative conditions for pilot clinical trials in united states.




    BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE (or) DIRED NEURAL INTERFACE.
A brain-computer interface (BCI),sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-
machine interface,is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain
and an external device.
In this definition, the word brai means the brain or nervous system of an organic life form
rather than the mind.computer means any processing or computational device,from
simple circuits to silicon chips.
Following years of animal expermentation,early working implants in humans now
    exist,designed to restore damaged hearing,sight and movement.




                           CLINICAL TRIALS

Partenering with leadind rehabilition centers in Boston ,Chicago and providence.
Cyberkinetics is currently recruiting patients to enroll ina pilot clinical trials of the neural
interface system.
The braingate system is designed to provide a means for people with severe most
impairement a new method to communicate with a computer directly with their
investigational device,the brain gate system is only offered through the clinical
commercially available.
The disclaimer in clinical trials are the U.S food and drug administration(FDA)has not
approved the brain gate non interface system for general use
The brain gate system is an investigational device in the United states,and is uni status.




                        RESEARCH PRODUCT
Cyberkinetics neurotechnology systems provides turn-key solutions for neuroscience
researchers invested in recording neural signals from populations of neurons over a long
period of time. Their solutions include Multi electrode array ,the cerebus 128 channel
data acquisition system,and a surgical training program.
A team of neuroscientists had implanted a chip in to the brain of a quadriplegic
man,allowing him to control a computer has been able to check email and play computer
games simply using thoughts. He can also turn lights on and off and control a television,
all while talking and moving his head.
The chip called Brain gate,is being developed by Massachusetts-based neurotechnology
company cyberkinetics.




PLATFORM T ECHNOLOGY


                      Neurons are cells that use a language of electrical impulses
to communicate messages from the brain to the rest of                     the body. At
Cyberkinetics, we have the technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the
language of neurons. We are developing products to restore function, as well as
to monitor, detect, and respond to a variety of neurological diseases and
disorders.


                      Cyberkinetics offers a systems approach with a core
technology to sense, transmit, analyze and apply the language of neurons in both
short and long-term settings. Our platform technology is based on the results of
several years of research and development at premier a institutions such as
Brown University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology University, and the
University of Utah.




S ENSE
                       Cyberkinetics’ unique technology is able to simultaneously sense
the electrical a many individual neurons. Our sensor consists of a silicon array about the
size of aspirin that contains one hundred electrodes, each thinner than a human hair. T
implanted on the surface of the brain. In the BrainGate Neural Interface System is
implanted in the area of the brain responsible for limb movement. In other aparry may be
implanted in areas of the brain responsible for other body processes




T RANSMIT AND A NALYZE


                       The human brain is super computer with the ability to
instantaneously process of information. Cyberkinetics’ technology allows for an
extensive amount of elec data to be transmitted from neurons in the brain to computers
for analysis. In Brain GateTM System, a bundle consisting of one hundred gold wires
connects the pedestal which extends through the scalp. The pedestal is connected by an
extert set of computers in which the data can be stored for off-line analysis or analyze
Signal processing software algorithms analyze the electrical activity of neurons and
translate it into control signals for use in various computer based applications.


BRAIN CHIP
                       Brain Gate offers the possibility of hitherto unimaginable levels of
independence for the severely disabled. Although many are able to control computers
with their eyes or tongue such techniques remain dependent on muscular function and
require extensive training. The ultimate goal is to develop the Brain Gate System so that
it can be linked to many useful devices, “said Donoghuc, who this month received an
innovation award from Discover Magazine for his work on Brain Gate. “ I his includes
medical devices such as muscle stimulators, to give the physically disabled a significant
improvement in their ability to interact with the world.” The four-millimeter square chip,
which is placed on the surface of the motor cortex area of the brain, contains 100
electrodes each thinner than a hair which detect neural electrical activity. The sensor is
then connected to a computer via a small wire attached to a pedestal mounted on the
skull. “We now have early evidence that a person unable to move their arms hands and
legs can quickly gain control of a system which uses thoughts to control a computer and
perform meaningful tasks. With additional development this may represent a significant
breakthrough for people with severe disabilities”. They have a research participant who is
capable of controlling his environment by thought alone-something we have only found
in science fiction so far,” said triehs.     They hope that the trial will continue as
successfully as it has started and that all other candidates will have as great an experience
as our first candidate did.”


COMMUNICATION WITH THE BODY


                       Muscles in the body’s limbs contain embedded sensors called
muscle spindles that measure the length and speed of the muscles as they stretch and
contract as you move other sensors in the skin respond to stretching and pressure. Even if
paralysis or disease damages the part of the brain that process movement, the brain still
makes neural signals. They’re just not being sent to the arms, hands and legs.
                       A technique called neuro feedback uses connecting sensors on the
scalp to translate brain waves in to information a person can learn from. The sensors
register different frequencies of the signals produced in the brain. These changes in brain
wave patterns indicate whether some one is concentrating or suppressing his impulses or
whether he is relaxed or tense.


FEATURES


                       Brain Gate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech
company Cyber kinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the department of Neuroscience at
Brown University. The device was designed to help those who have lost control of their
limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
or spinal cord injury. The computer chip, which is implanted into the brain, monitors
brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer
commands.
                         Currently the chip uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that sense the
electromagnetic signature of neurons firing in specific areas of the brain, for example, the
area that controls arm movement. The activity is translated into electrically charged
signals and are then sent and decoded using a program, which can move either a robotic
arm or a computer cursor. According to the Cyberkinetics’ website, three patients have
been implanted with the Brain Gate system. The company has confirmed that one patient
(Matt Nagle) has a spinal cord injury, whilst another has advanced ALS.




ADVANTAGES


                         The brain crate system is based on cyber kinetics platform
technology to sense, transmit analyze and apply the language of neurons.
                         The Brain Gate Neural Interface System is being designed to one
day allow the interface with a computer and / or even faster than, what is possible with
the hands of a person. The Brain Gate System may offer substantial improvement over
existing technologies.
                         Currently available assistive device has significant limitations for
both the pers and caregiver. For example, even simple switches must be adjusted frequent
that can be time consuming. In addition, these devices are often obtrusive and user from
being able to simultaneously use the device and at the same time contact or carry on
conversations with others.
                         Potential advantages of the Brain Gate System over other muscle
driven or brain computer interface approaches include : its potential to interface with a
compute weeks or months of training; its potential to be used in an interactive
environment user’s ability to operate the device is not affected by their speech, eye
movement noise; and the ability to provide significantly more usefulness and utility than
other approaches by connecting directly to the part of the brain that controls hand
gestures.
DISADVANTAGES


                      The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved
the Brain Gate Non Interface System for general use.


                      The Brain Gate System is an investigational device in the United
States, and is status (Investigational Device Exemption). In the United States, this
investigate can only be used in pre-marketing clinical trials approved by the FDA.




CONCLUSION


                      Cyber kinetics is further developing the Brain Gate system to
potentially provide I movement to people with severe motor disabilities. The goal of this
development would be to allow these individuals to one day use their own arms and
hands are movement developments are currently at the research stage and are not
available with the existing Brain Gate System. In addition Cyber kinetics is developing
product for robotic control, such as a thought-controlled wheel chair.
                      In the future, the Brain Gate System could be used by those
individuals whose in severe. Next generation products may be able to provide an
individual with the control device that allow breathing, bladder and bowel movements.




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