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What brought on the Tiananmen Square Tragedy _Teachers Copy_


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									                           What brought on the Tiananmen Square Tragedy?

           Term                          Define it!                 Use it in a sentence!         Remember it!

                                an economic system
Capitalism                      based on private
(found in the US)               ownership,
                                competition, and a
                                free market.

           Term                          Define it!                 Use it in a sentence!         Remember it!
                                a political system in
                                which all businesses
Communism                       and other property
(found in China)                are owned by the
                                government for the
                                use and good of the

"Heinle's: Newbury House Dictionary of American English." Monroe Allen Publishers. 09 Nov. 2006
                                       The Event

         “On May 20, the government declared martial law and, on the night of June 3 and
the early morning of June 4, army tanks and infantry were sent into Tiananmen Square to
crush the protest and disperse the protestors. Estimates of civilian deaths vary: 23
(Communist Party of China), 400–800 (Central Intelligence Agency), 2600 (Chinese Red
Cross). Injuries are generally held to have numbered from 7,000 to 10,000. Following the
violence, the government conducted widespread arrests to suppress the remaining
supporters of the movement, banned the foreign press and strictly controlled coverage of
the events in the PRC press.” The language from this passage comes from Wikipedia
but the information held within is substantiated by George Washington University
(http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB16/documents/), and by many other
sources. The death toll reported by the Chinese Red Cross is believed to be the most
accurate assessment.


         Protests started out on a small scale, in the form of mourning for Hu Yaobang
(not the current president) and demands that the party revise their official view of him.
The protests gained momentum after news of confrontation between students and police
spread; the belief by students that the Chinese media was distorting the nature of their
activities also led to increased support. At Hu's funeral, a large group of students
gathered at Tiananmen Square and requested, but failed, to meet premier Li Peng, widely
regarded to be Hu's political rival. Thus students called for a strike in universities in
Beijing. On April 26, an editorial in People's Daily, following an internal speech made
by Deng Xiaoping, accused the students of plotting civil unrest. The statement enraged
the students, and on April 29 about 50,000 students assembled on the streets of Beijing,
disregarding the warning of a crackdown made by authorities and demanded that the
government revoke the statement.
        In Beijing, a majority of students from the city's numerous colleges and
universities participated with support of their instructors and other intellectuals. The
students rejected official Communist Party-controlled student associations and set up
their own autonomous associations. The students viewed themselves as Chinese patriots,
as the heirs of the May Fourth Movement for "science and democracy" of 1919. The
protests also evoked memories of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1976 which had
eventually led to the ousting of the Gang of Four. From its origins as a memorial to Hu
Yaobang, who was seen by the students as an advocate of democracy, the students'
activity gradually developed over the course of their demonstration from protests against
corruption into demands for freedom of the press and an end to, or the reform of the rule
of the PRC by the Communist Party of China and Deng Xiaoping, the highest ranking
Chinese leader. Partially successful attempts were made to reach out and network with
students in other cities and with workers.

        Although the initial protests were made by students and intellectuals who believed
that the Deng Xiaoping reforms had not gone far enough and China needed to reform its
political systems, they soon attracted the support of urban workers who believed that the
reforms had gone too far. This occurred because the leaders of the protests focused on
the issue of corruption, which united both groups, and because the students were able to
invoke Chinese archetypes of the selfless intellectual who spoke truth to power.

        Unlike the Tiananmen protests of 1987, which consisted mainly of students and
intellectuals, the protests in 1989 commanded widespread support from the urban
workers who were alarmed by growing inflation and corruption. In Beijing, they were
supported by a large number of people. Similar numbers were found in major cities
throughout mainland China such as Urumqi, Shanghai and Chongqing; and later in
Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese communities in North America and Europe.

                         Passage taken directly from:

                          "May Fourth Movement." Wikipedia. 30 Oct. 2006. 09 Nov. 2006

     Many students were tired of Communist rule in China; they
wanted the government to become more capitalist.
                          US-Chinese Trade Impact

                        In this graph exports are from China; imports are from the US.

1. Look at the graph above. How did the Tiananmen Square Tragedy affect US-
   Chinese trade?

2. Would you expect the trade impact to be different? Why or why not?

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