Higher Education, Information Technology and Sustainable Development

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					    Higher Education, Information Technology
         and Sustainable Development
     The central role of universities in building knowledge societies
                    in Asia, Africa and Latin America
                                        January 10-14, 2005
                                       De La Salle University
                                          Manila, Philippines
Workshop Overview
The National University of Singapore offers a comprehensive curriculum fusing technology and social
science-based inquiry to prepare students to face the “economy, society and polity of the information age.” A
research group at the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras develops technologies for low income and
rural areas and fosters entrepreneurial businesses that service these communities. An institute within De la
Salle University organizes e-governance workshops for the League of Cities and develops policy papers for
the national government. A research center at the Universidad de la Frontera in Chile works with community
members, the private sector and government agencies to support a network of 32 telecenters servicing low
income and indigenous people.

What these programs have in common is a strong commitment to linking the opportunities of the information
revolution to the specific developmental needs of their communities. They are accomplishing this through
innovative programs in teaching, research and outreach that are at the core of the university mission,
reconfiguring the relationships between these activities, and opening up the ivory tower. We label these
activities “university ICT4D programs,” because they take on different challenges from more widespread ICT
education programs in IT fluency, e-Learning, distance learning and the like.

Yet, the role of the university in contributing to ICT4D is little understood, underappreciated, and given too
little attention given the importance many observers attribute to higher education if countries in the
developing world are to make the transition to knowledge societies. These deficits exist in society generally,
the international community, and even within the university community itself.

The Manila workshops will convene representatives of universities, education and ICT ministries, and
development institutions and foundations to:
         Expand the community of practice among the academic, government and private sectors
         dedicated to strengthening the role of the university in ICT-enabled development
         Share best practices of how universities around the world are teaching, researching and applying
         university knowledge in ICT to national and local development initiatives
         Advance and refine an intellectual agenda about the role of the university in building knowledge
         societies broadly, and in preparating citizens to create, maintain and survive it.
         Construct local, national, regional and international initiatives for expanding and enhancing
         university ICT4D programs, with a particular focus on collective action

This workshop builds on earlier conversations at Makarere University (September 2004), Cornell University
(November 2004), the Social Science Research Council (2003), and WSIS (December 2003) among others.
This workshop is organized by the University of Washington and De La Salle University.

         Conference website: www.cis.washington.edu/manila2005

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There is widespread acknowledgement that universities in the developing world can and should play a
leading role in addressing both the immediate and long term needs for building sustainable knowledge
societies. Universities are increasingly viewed as key institutions for both applying their expertise to current
ICT relevant policy, business, and civil society challenges and preparing the workforce with the relevant
knowledge, skills and critical thinking capabilities about ICT-enabled development (or ICT4D).
Within the context of this mandate, there is a small but growing trend towards integrating the perspectives of
the social sciences, humanities and professional fields of law, business, health and public policy with those
from relevant technological disciplines. This multidisciplinary approach is gaining credence as our
understanding advances about the socially embedded nature of technology – that ICT itself doesn’t produce
certain impacts; but rather that multiple impacts are possible and result from the combination of the new
technology with the organizational, institutional, political, economic, and cultural environments in which ICT is
To date, programs that examine the impact of ICT through the lenses of the social sciences are primarily
found in more technologically advanced nations where individual faculty and universities have developed
courses, research agendas and outreach activities that examine such topics as the economics of knowledge,
digital democracy, ICT innovation and entrepreneurship, globalization and technological change, national
ICT policies, ICT strategies for poverty alleviation, and intellectual property in the information age.
Yet, it is in the developing world where the need for such programs is arguably greater considering the
economic, political, cultural and institutional challenges these countries face. An increasing number of
developing country universities have made important strides in expanding electronic resources and
enhancing their technical degree programs (an important first step), but far fewer have developed the
multifaceted, interdisciplinary and comprehensive approaches that many believe are critical to successfully
fulfill their roles as central players in supporting ICT4D. Advancing university ICT4D programs, both
intellectually and institutionally, is the central theme of this series of workshops and forums.
Furthermore, the strong linkage between ICT and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
makes application of university resources irreplaceable for meeting the global challenges of, among others,
poverty alleviation, health, education, gender equality and environmental sustainability.
The Manila Meetings are organized as a weeklong series of workshops and forums, culminating in a two and
a half day workshop on the role of the university in supporting ICT4D. Together, these workshops and
forums will examine the ways in which faculty and universities around the world are teaching, researching
and applying university knowledge in ICT to national and local needs. Approaches range from new
university-industry-civil society partnerships that are producing technologies for developing world contexts, to
comprehensive curricular reforms that examine the policy, legal, and management challenges of ICT-
enabled economic, political and social innovation. The workshop will highlight a number of particularly
innovative programs and explore what is required to further advance such programs and realize the potential
(and obligation) of universities to contribute more directly to their national and community ICT initiatives.

Institute of Governance, De La Salle University
Center for Internet Studies, University of Washington

Francisco Magno, De La Salle University           magnof@dlsu.edu.ph
Chris Coward, University of Washington            ccoward@u.washington.edu
Colin Maclay, Harvard University                  cmaclay@cyber.law.harvard.edu


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University ICT4D Workshop: Excursion and Opening Session
January 10 (Monday), 2005

Venue: Corregidor Island & De La Salle University

    TIME                                                 DESCRIPTION

  7:00 am         Excursion

                  We begin the week with an excursion to allow everyone to get to know one another in an
                  informal setting and hold the opening session. The tour is to Corregidor Island,

  12:00 pm        Lunch (Corregidor Hotel)

  1:00 pm         Opening Session
                  1) Introduction to Workshop: Objectives and Format
                  Francisco Magno
                  Chris Coward
                  Colin Maclay

                  2) Introductions by all participants

                  3) Final agenda setting

  3:30 pm         Return to Manila

  6:00 pm         Welcome Reception and Dinner

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Venue: New World Renaissance Hotel (Makati)

   TIME                                                   DESCRIPTION

  7:45 am        Departure
                 Bus departs from CBS Hotel for New World Hotel in Makati

  8:30 am        Registration

  9:00 am        Welcome Remarks
                 Dr. Carmelita I. Quebengco
                 Executive Vice President
                 De La Salle University
                 Dr. Donald C. Hellmann
                 Director, Institute for International Policy
                 University of Washington

  9:15 am        Keynote Address
                 H.E. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (to be confirmed)
                 Republic of the Philippines

  9:35 am        Conference Framework
                 Dr. Francisco A. Magno
                 Executive Director
                 La Salle Institute of Governance

  9:40 am        Panel 1: University Role in ICT for Development
                 Dr. F.F. Tusubira
                 Directorate for ICT Support
                 Makerere University

                 Dr. Milagros Rivera
                 Information & Communications Management Programme
                 National University of Singapore

                 Panel Chair:
                 Chris Coward
                 Center for Internet Studies
                 University of Washington
 10:10 am        Panel 2: ICT as a National and Global Issue
                 ICT Strategy for Philippine Development
                 Hon. Virgilio L. Peňa
                 Commission on Information and Communications Technology
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                 ICT and International Development
                 Dr. Michael Best
                 Associate Professor
                 Georgia Institute of Technology

                 Panel Chair:
                 Dr. Sriramesh Kirshnamurthy
                 Nanyang Technical University, Singapore

 10:40 am        Open Forum

 10:50 am        Coffee Break

 11:00 am        Panel 3: ICT Research and Capacity Building
                 Hon. Fortunato T. Dela Peňa (to be confirmed)
                 Undersecretary for Science and Technology Services
                 Department of Science and Technology

                 Human Capital Development Strategy
                 Dr. Emmanuel Lallana
                 Commission on Information Technology and Communications Technology

                 ICT Research and Curriculum Development
                 Dr. Francisco A. Magno
                 Executive Director
                 La Salle Institute of Governance
                 Sherwin Ona
                 Assistant Professor
                 College of Computer Studies
                 De La Salle University, Manila

                 Panel Chair:
                 Dr. Narongsak Boonyamalik
                 Office of the Permanent Secretary
                 Ministry of Education, Thailand

 11:40 am        Open Forum

 12:00 am        Lunch
                 Signing of Partnership Agreement with the League of Municipalities of the Philippines for the
                 Alkalde.net Project

                 Signing of Partnership Agreement with the Commission on Information and Communications
                 Technology for the HRD for ICT Project

  1:00 pm        Panel 4: SMS and the Filipino ICT Revolution
                 Txt-ing Selves: Cellphones and Modernity
                 Dr. Raul Pertierra
                 Associate Professor
                 Asian Center
                 University of the Philippines
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                 SMS for the Blind
                 Miguel Pascual
                 De La Salle University, Manila

                 Panel Chair:
                 Maria Lee Hoon Ng
                 Senior Program Officer
                 International Development Research Centre
  1:30 pm        Open Forum

  1:50 pm        Panel 5: Local eGovernance (ULAP – TAF Technical Working Group)

                 Hon. Jesse Robredo
                 Naga City
                 Grassroots e-Governance Project
                 Maribel Buenaobra
                 Program Officer
                 The Asia Foundation
                 ICT Project Management in LGUs
                 Rex Magalindan
                 Provincial IT Officer
                 Bulacan Province
                 Outsourced ICT Projects
                 Raffy Baraan
                 City Administrator
                 Dagupan City

                 Panel Chair:
                 Dr. Royal D. Colle
                 Professor Emeritus
                 Cornell University

  2:50 pm        Open Forum

  3:10 pm        Coffee Break

  3:20 pm        Panel 6: ePolicy
                 eRule – Making
                 Atty. Claro Parlade
                 Executive Director
                 Cyberspace Policy Center for Asia-Pacific
                 Improving Legislative Services
                 Rodolfo Vicerra
                 Congressional Planning and Budget Office
                 House of Representatives
                 ICT Policy Forum
                 Victor Andres Manhit
                 Philippine Caucus for ICT Legislation

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                 ICT and Gender
                 Chat Garcia Ramilo
                 Project Manager
                 Women’s Hub

                 Panel Chair:
                 Luci Abrahams
                 LINK Centre
                 Wits Graduate School of Public & Development Management
                 University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa

  4:20 pm        Panel 7: Building Knowledge Networks Across the Digital Divide

                 Dr. Rodrigo Garrido
                 Instituto de Informatica Educativa
                 Universidad de la Frontera, Chile
                 ICT for Peace Building
                 Hon. Gerry Salapuddin
                 Deputy Speaker for Mindanao
                 House of Representatives
                 Dr. Miguel Rapatan
                 Center for Educational Media
                 De La Salle University, Manila
                 Information Learning Network
                 Elcid Pangilinan
                 Programme Management Support Unit
                 United Nations Development Programme
                 Jane Steel
                 Program Assistant
                 United Nations Development Programme
                 Panel Chair:
                 Dr. Rohan Samarajiva
                 Executive Director

  5:10 pm        Open Forum

  5:30 pm        Closing Remarks
                 Colin Maclay
                 Berkman Center for Internet & Society
                 Harvard Law School

  5:40 pm        END

  6:30 pm        “Food for Thought” Dinner (Makati)

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Venue: De La Salle University

    Time                                                      Topic

  8:00 am       Registration

  8:30 am       Welcome
                Francisco Magno
                Jaebong Ro, APEC Education Foundation
                Jocelyn Daway, USAID Philippines

                Objectives for Wednesday
                Chris Coward
                Colin Maclay

  9:00 am       Opening Thoughts and Propositions
                The opening session examines the central theme of this workshop.
                How is it possible to build on the many individual programs in various corners of universities, to
                get university-wide commitment to embedding ICT and development issues in the ethos of the
                university and through all of its relevant programs? Most ICT & development programs exist
                because of the driving commitment of a few people without any significant support or
                commitment from the university, and very often with lots of opposition. The case studies are
                heroic, but they aren't going to have a major impact until the universities change. This is a
                problem in most developed world as well as developing world universities.
                For the ICT & Development programs that do exist, what is the model of development that
                these programs are using, and how are they assessing how well they are achieving their
                objectives? There is no single model of development that takes priority here, but every program
                should have one to guide program development and implementation, and against which
                performance can be assessed. Otherwise well-meaning programs often don't accomplish
                much, but don't know it.
                Three participants will initiate our discussion by commenting on these questions in light of what
                occurred at the Makerere conference in September, the Cornell conference in November, and
                new developments at a long-standing program at National University of Singapore.
                Discussion initiators:
                FF Tusubira
                Milagros Rivera
                Roy Colle

                Colin Maclay

 10:30 am       Break

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 11:00 am        University ICT4D Initiatives: 10 in 8
                 In rapid succession, 10 participants will each have 8 minutes to introduce a particular
                 university ICT4D initiative and raise important issues for discussion. The purpose of this
                 session is to learn about the breadth of programs occurring in the world and identify loci of
                 activity and key issues. Discussion of the issues will occur in subsequent sessions.
                 Each presenter (in 8 minutes!) should:
                       -   Summarize a particular program, aspect of a program, or policy.
                       -   Explain the biggest challenges or lessons learned (including mistakes)
                       -   Contextualize the most important issues for advancing/institutionalizing the program
                           within his/her own university as well as within the larger community of universities
                Luci Abrahams
                Maria Beebe
                Tian Belawati
                Pattarasinee Bhattarakosol
                Weiling Chen
                Sigfredo Figueroa
                Sujata Gamage
                Rodrigo Garrido
                Derek Keats
                Zeqi Qiu

                Chris Coward
                Rohan Samarajiva

 12:30 pm       Lunch

  1:30 pm       Teaching, Research and Outreach in ICT4D

                Three successive sessions will examine university ICT4D programs in teaching, research and

                A) Teaching/learning: Preparing the next generation for the emerging knowledge society
                ICT4D and the creation of “knowledge societies” present profound challenges for universities.
                To advance knowledge-driven growth, new skills and capabilities are needed across all sectors
                of society, from top level policy makers and business managers to individual entrepreneurs,
                farmers, journalists, scholars and people in nearly every other profession. What are the human
                capacity needs of the information age? How can we translate these needs into fields of study
                and courses within universities? Who are the students, what do they need to learn, and how do
                they need to learn it?
                This session looks at the curricular programs of universities in light of the ICT4D human
                resource development needs of a country. The session is interested in different dimensions of
                ICT and higher education including: (i) teaching about technology in the social sciences and
                professional schools, (ii) integrating non-technical knowledge, skills and perspectives with
                computer science and other technical disciplines, and (iii) utilizing ICT in an instructional
                capacity to support developmental objectives.
                       -   What are the human capacity needs of a country with regard to ICT-enabled

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                       -   How are/can universities meet these needs through courses and fields of study?
                           What is the intellectual rationale for such curricula and what unique contributions do
                           they make?
                       -   Is there a need for more interdisciplinary (especially technical with non-technical)
                           learning? How do/should courses in the social sciences and professional schools
                           address technical issues?
                       -   How can research/outreach be integrated with teaching to better utilize student
                           capacity and provide them with the experience they need for entering the workforce?
                       -   How do distance learning and other “ICT in education” activities intersect and support
                           ICT4D teaching?
                       -   What are the implications for universities of lifelong learning?

                Topic introduction: Boying Lallana and Hashim Twaakyondo
                Discussion facilitator: Milagros Rivera
                Summation: Bill Loxley

  2:30 pm       B) Research: Academic and practical applications
                This session discusses the need for greater research among developing world scholars in
                       -   What is the state of the applied/basic research split? What are the
                           institutional/cultural incentives/barriers to doing work that is not only challenging but
                           relevant to social and economic development?
                       -   What are the pressing research questions for ICT-enabled development?
                       -   How do we move ICT4D from anecdote-based to research-based?
                       -   What can we learn from successful research programs that are contributing to
                       -   What are the implications of having fewer graduate students in developing nation
                           universities? What should be the goal with respect to them?
                       -   How can scholarly collaboration be promoted within and between the developing and
                           developed world on ICT issue?
                       -   Should a dialogue be sustained between academia, government and the private
                           sector to ensure practical relevance? How and what are considerations and

                Topic introduction: Michael Best and Luci Abrahams
                Discussion facilitator: Beth Kolko
                Summation: Randy Kluver

  3:30 pm       Break

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  4:00 pm       C) Outreach: Partnering across disciplines and sectors
                The outreach group will examine innovative programs linking university expertise to specific
                development challenges in ICT4D. Examples include the university’s role in rural development
                programs (e.g. rural health and agricultural initiatives supported by telecenters), developing
                technologies and applications for low resource environments, and performing policy related
                research on behalf of governments.
                       -   How are/can universities foster different forms (social, business) of ICT-enabled
                           entrepreneurship and innovation?
                       -   How are/can universities partner with the private, public and civil society sectors and
                           what do these organizations want from the university community? What are the
                           potential implications of this partnership?
                       -   How are/can universities contribute to better national and local ICT policy?
                Topic introduction: Rodrigo Garrido and Toshio Obi
                Discussion facilitator: Roy Colle
                Summation: Maria Lee Hoon Ng

  5:00 pm       University ICT4D Initiatives: Major themes, challenges and opportunities
                In this session we assess the programs, policies and previous work in this field discussed over
                the course of the day to map the major themes, challenges and opportunities for university
                engagement in ICT4D. In doing this, the session will also identify the topics for the “Birds of a
                Feather” sessions to be held on Thursday afternoon.
                Discussion facilitators: Chris Coward and Colin Maclay

  6:00 pm       End

  7:00 pm       Depart for “Food for Thought” Dinners

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Venue: De La Salle University

   Time                                                       Topic

  8:30 am       Institutionalization of University ICT4D: Key Lessons & Challenges
                In this session, we examine the genesis of university ICT4D programs at different universities
                around the world, focusing on the key lessons that can be derived from their accomplishments
                and challenges. The goal is to explore this issue from the perspectives of the different
                stakeholders who have been instrumental in establishing such programs -- with an eye to their
                institutionalization, integration with other elements of the university, and capacity to catalyze
                broader institutional change.
                       -   How have university ICT4D programs come into being? What were the initial goals of
                           the programs? Who were the stakeholders? The obstacles that had to be overcome?
                           What were the roles of central administration, ministries of education, and other
                           partners? How were they funded and sustained?
                       -   What are common institutional settings (e.g. independent research centers, informal
                           arrangements within departments), and what are the associated implications?
                       -   How have these programs evolved and adapted to meet changing circumstances?
                           Have goals been accomplished? Why/why not?
                       -   What partnerships with government, civil society and the private sector have been
                           created and with what results?
                       -   What were the biggest barriers and mistakes made in the process?

                Topic introduction: Susanne Ornager and Francisco Magno

                Facilitator: Mohan Gurubatham

                Summation: FF Tusubira

 10:00 am       Break

 10:30 am       Policies and Programs: Current and Future Priorities
                In this session, development institutions and foundations will lead a discussion on their current
                initiatives, priorities, experiences and suggestions for shaping university ICT4D activities.
                       -    What have been the experiences, especially the challenges and barriers, to working
                            with universities?
                       -    Why do/don’t universities receive funding for research and programs, and what can
                            donors do to help them build their capacity?
                       -    How can donors and universities collaborate to turn ICT project anecdotes into
                       -    How do the themes and programs discussed in this workshop relate to both existing
                            programs and potential future investments in higher education?
                       -    How can the system be improved (better collaboration, leveraging of other
                       -    What is the role of state policy and other stakeholders?

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                  Daan Boom, Asian Development Bank
                  Jaebong Ro, APEC Education Foundation
                  San Ng, The Asia Foundation
                  Subramaniam Janakiram, The World Bank
                  Maria Lee Hoon Ng, IDRC
                  Jocelyn Daway, USAID
                  Bill Loxley, Asian Development Bank
                  Susanne Ornager, UNESCO
                  Jane Steel, UNDP
                  Joaquim Amsberg, The World Bank, Manila
                  Shozo Matsuura, Japan International Cooperation Agency

 12:30 pm       Lunch

  1:30 pm       Models of Multi-Institutional Cooperation
                This session examines several multi-institutional initiatives to learn what makes these
                networks so potentially effective and powerful, yet at the same time discuss the biggest
                challenges to operationalizing these complex networks. Some of the initiatives to be discussed
                includes: LIRNE.net, NetTel@Africa, Media Lab Asia and PAN Distance Learning Technology
                (DLT) - Asia: Networking distance learning technology engines for research.

                Introduction of topic:
                Rohan Samarajiva
                Toshio Obi
                Maria Lee Hoon Ng
                Maria Beebe
                Michael Best

                Facilitator: Sriramesh Krishnamurthy

                Summation: Susanne Ornager

  3:00 pm       Break

  3:30 pm       “Birds of a Feather” Sessions (Breakout sessions)
                BOF topics suggested by participants will form the basis for these break-out discussions.
                Several suggestions have already been received through e-mail correspondence. One of the
                primary purposes of these sessions is to generate ideas for programmatic collaboration.
                A couple of topics that have come up in email communications includes:
                1) National education and ICT policy
                Most national education policy related to ICT focuses on distance learning, eLearning and
                other forms of incorporating ICT into the educational experience. Meanwhile, most ICT policy
                ignores the role of the university. This BOF will discuss how these policies can support the
                ICT4D initiatives of this workshop and vice-versa.
                2) Journal of Information Technologies and International Development (ITID)
                ITID has agreed in principle to a special issue devoted to higher education and ICT4D. This
                BOF will be a brainstorm for the structure of this issue and the process for soliciting papers.
                3) eQuality Alliance
                This BOF will discuss a proposal for a e-Quality Alliance. Some of the principles of such an
                eQualtiy Alliance would include: local ownership to ensure relevance of content at the local

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                level and peer to peer relationships (away from the notion of technical assistance) to ensure
                engagement of expert practitioners from public sector and private sector from beyond the local
                arena to the regional or global arena; shared objectives with regard to coordinated quality
                assurance in cross-border or transnational education; open source for online learning
                management system and open content; and mutual respect for one another and mutual

  5:00 pm       Reporting back and Moving Forward
                BOF session leaders report to the group about their sessions, followed by discussion to
                develop an action agenda for expanding, strengthening and developing new programs
                designed to enhance the role of the university in support of ICT4D.
                     -   What are the priorities?
                     -   What networks and other collaborations – across sectors, across universities, and
                         across developed/developing world boundaries – will generate innovative and effective
                     -   What roles can government and support organizations (development institutions and
                         foundations) play?
                     -   What should be done at international fora such as WSIS and APEC to highlight the
                         role of the university in ICT4D and motivate stakeholders to support ICT4D education
                Determine break-out sessions for Friday.

  6:00 pm       End

  7:00 pm       Depart for “Food for Thought” Dinners

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Venue: De La Salle University

    Time                                                    Topic

  8:30 am       Special Session: ICT & Humanitarian Relief
                From early warning systems to coordination of relief efforts, ICT could play a much stronger
                role in both preventing loss of life and assisting in relief and reconstruction. What are the
                lessons from the December 26 tsunami disaster and how can universities respond, short term
                and long term? How can we use this case as a more generalizable example of how
                universities can play a stronger role in ICT4D?
                Discussion leaders:
                Rohan Samarajiva
                Toshio Obi
                Soraj Hongladarom

  9:30 am       Break

  10:00 am      Going Forward: An Action Agenda (Breakout Session)
                The final morning is devoted to small-group activity organized around specific issues and
                program ideas for future action and collaboration. Topics will be determined during the last
                session of the previous day.

  11:30 am      Going Forward: An Action Agenda & Final Thoughts
                In the final session we share and discuss ideas and proposals generated during the break-out

                Workshop evaluation and final thoughts conclude the workshop.

  12:30 pm       End of Workshop

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