Is the Third Exit-MCAS the Charm Framing Massachusetts' High by ta92939


									Is the Third Exit-MCAS the Charm?
 Framing Massachusetts' High-School Science Exam
        for the Class of 2010 and Beyond


             <-- Adapted from Camilli and Vargas (2006) -->

     David W. Jackson, 30 October 2008
    Grade 6 Science Teacher, Wellesley Middle School
           "Young Alumnus", Boston University
 Coach Emeritus, Kennedy-Longfellow School (Cambridge)
                                 Pop Quiz!
• Likert, 5-point:
   – Let 1 = strongly disagree (5 = strongly agree)
   – Pen-and-paper, then show-of-hands
1. MCAS has affected the way I teach.
2. Administrator(s) in my school emphasize MCAS
  during Professional Development.
3. Students in my school have shown signs of
  stress related to MCAS.
4. Families express concern over MCAS scores.
5. Members of the business community have
  expressed their views on MCAS to me.
            Getting to know you...
•   Urban / suburban / rural?
•   0+ / 3+ / 10+ / 20+ years of experience?
•   pK-2 / K-5 / 6-8 / 9-12 / Post-sec.?
•   General / Physical / Life /
    Earth+Space / Technology+Engineering?
      ...and getting to know me...
•   5 years chemical engineering (MIT, S.B.)
•   2 years urban (Cambridge Public)
•   2 years mostly-researching (BU, M.A.T.)
•   0+ years suburban (Wellesley Public)

• Grades 6-8 General / "Everything" =)
         ...but there's no "me" in
             "Literature Review"!
• Part I: A Brief History of Time, U.S. Science
  Education Edition. Or: "Science en masse"
• Part II: Science, non-Mass.
  – TIMSS & NAEP; Hong Kong; CA & TX; NV & MS
• Part III: Non-science, Mass. (Math+ELA)
  – OR vs. MC; journals; manipulatives; MINT
• Part IV: Current outlooks of leading
    Or: "What the masters are saying"
                     I. Science en masse
"Science education historians estimate that every 20
  years a reform movement sparks the public interest
  and promotes changes in how science is taught in the
  classroom (Burton, Kijai, and Sargeant, 2005)."

• pre-A: ~1890, ~1900, ~1920, ~1960
    – Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Earth Science, respectively
•   A. ~1960: Sputnik / NSF
•   B. ~1980: A Nation at Risk / STS
•   C. ~1990: AAAS / Mass. Ed. Reform Act
•   D. ~2000: TIMSS ('95, '99, '03, '07) / NCLB
                   II. Science, non-Mass.
• A. National Scale
   – 1. TIMSS ('94): Bureaucracy, Materials
   – 2. NAEP ('92, '96): Alignment, NOT funding
• B. S.A.R. Scale = Hong Kong & Student Self-Assessment
• C. State-Scale (>= 10 states)
   – 1. TX: 20+ years, slow-'n-steady
   – 2. CA: Traditional (Stanford-9) + Supplemental (STAR)
• D. School-Scale (AND statistically significant)
   – 3. NV: Closing achievement gap in engineering w/ university help
   – 4. MS: +42.5% achievement for students in Special Ed. program
>100 words...
                 III. Mass., non-Science
*Items A-C from survey using a stratified random sample of
   257 ELA, math, and science teachers of 10th grade
   students in Massachusetts public schools (Vogler, 2002).
Percent of respondents who, in response to MCAS,
  increased (+) or decreased (-) use of...
• A. ALL: OR (+81.6%), Rubrics (+61.3%)
                Lecturing (-37.8%), MC (-19.3%)
• B. ELA: Journals (+42.5%)
• C. Math: Manip's (+46.5%), Suppl. books (41.6%)
• D. MINT: Males = 43% of appl., 45% of accepted
                                         >1000 "Statistics"

<-- Adapted from Camilli and Vargas (2006) -->
              IV. What the masters say
"You can't make up for a nine-year lack in three years,
    it's not possible" (quoted in DeBray, 2005)

A. Good news: 7.7% annual increase in funding from
   MERA enactment until 2001
B. Bad news: Achievement alone not enough [AYP]
C. Ugly News: <See today's news.>

D. "Judge and Jury": Mass. Supreme Court (has upheld)

E.   Wildcard: "High standards are a fine thing until one's
     own children do not meet them."
              (quoted in Finn and Kanstoroom, 2001)
             AAAS ≡ American Association for the Advancement of Science
             AYP ≡ Adequate Yearly Progress
             ADC ≡ Assessment Development Committees
             CCAP ≡ Creek Coalition Assessment Project
             ELA ≡ English Language Arts
             ESL ≡ English as a Second Language
             IEP ≡ Individual Education Program
             ITBS ≡ Iowa Test of Basic Skills
             MC ≡ Multiple-Choice items
             MCAS ≡ Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System
             MDOE ≡ Massachusetts Department of Education
             MERA ≡ Massachusetts Education Reform Act

Say what!?   MINT ≡ Massachusetts Institutes for New Teachers
             MTELA ≡ Massachusetts Test for Educator Licensure
             NAEP ≡ National Assessment of Educational Progress
             NCLB ≡ No Child Left Behind Act
             NCTM ≡ National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
             NRC ≡ National Resources Council
             NSES ≡ National Science Education Standards
             NSF ≡ National Science Foundation
             OR ≡ Open Response prompts
             PDP ≡ Professional Development Point
             RTOP ≡ Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol
             SD ≡ Standard Deviation
             SES ≡ Socio-Economic Status
             STS ≡ Science, Technology, and Society
             TFA ≡ Teach For America
             TIMSS ≡ Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study
                                                                        Says who? [A-K]
•   Baker, D.P. (2003). Should America Be More Like Them? Cross-National High School Achievement and U.S. Policy. Brookings Papers of
    Educational Policy: 2003: 309-338.
•   Betts, J.R. and Danenburg, A. (2002). School Accountability in California: An Early Evaluation. Brookings Papers on Educational Policy: 2002:
•   Betts, J.R. and Costrell, R.M. (2001). Incentives and Equity under Standards-Based Reform. Brookings Papers on Educational Policy: 2001: 9-74.
•   Buckendahl, C.W., Huynh, H., Siskind, T., and Saunders, J. (2005). A Case Study of Vertically Moderated Standard Setting for a State Science
    Assessment Program. Applied Measurement in Education 18(1): 83-98.
•   Burton, L.D., Kijai, J., and Sargeant, M.A. (2005). The Relationship Between Students' Perceptions of the Teaching and Learning Process and
    Academic Performance in Science of Seventh and Eighth Graders Enrolled in Seventh-Day Adventist Schools. Journal of Research on Christian
    Education 14(2): 177-212.
•   Camilli, G. and Vargas, S. (2006). The Legend of the Large MCAS Gains of 2000-2001. Education Policy Analysis Archives 14(4): 1-20.
•   Cantrell, P., Pekcan, G., Itani, A., and Velasquez-Bryant, N. (2006). The Effects of Engineering Modules on Student Learning in Middle School
    Science Classrooms. Journal of Engineering Education 95(4): 301-309.
•   Cheng, M.H. and Cheung, W.M.F. (2005). Science and biology assessment in Hong Kong - progress and developments. Journal of Biological
    Education (40)1: 11-16.
•   DeBray, E. (2005). A Comprehensive High School and a Shift in New York State Policy: A Study of Early Implementation. The High School
    Journal 89(1): 18-45.
•   Finn, C.E. and Kanstoroom, M. (2001). State Academic Standards. Brookings Papers of Educational Policy: 2001: 131-179.
•   Goldsmith, S.S. (2002). MCAS Circa 2001: As Good As It Should Be?: The Case of English. Journal of Education 183(1): 68-94.
•   Hamilton, L.S., McCaffrey, D.F., Stecher, B.M., Klein, S.P., Robyn, A., and Bugliari, D. (2003). Studying Large-Scale Reforms of Instructional
    Practice: An Example from Mathematics and Science. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 25(1): 1-29.
•   Johnson, C.C. (2006). Effective Professional Development and Change in Practice: Barriers Science Teachers Encounter and Implications for
    Reform. School Science and Mathematics 106(3): 150-161.
•   Kauffman, D., Johnson, S.M., Kardos, S.M., Liu, E., and Peske, H.G. (2002). "Lost at Sea": New Teachers' Experiences with Curriculum and
    Assessment. Teachers College Record 104(2): 273-300.
•   Kohl, F.L., McLaughlin, M.J., and Nagle, K. (2006). Alternate Achievement Standards and Assessments: A Descriptive Investigation of 16 States.
    Exceptional Children 73(1): 107-123.
                                                            Says who? [L-Z]
•   Lee, O. (2005). Science Education With English Language Learners: Synthesis and Research Agenda. Review of Educational
    Research 75(4): 491-530.
•   Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T.E., Norland, J.J., Berkeley, S., McDuffie, K., Tornquist, E.H., and Connors, N. (2006). Differentiated
    Curriculum Enhancement in Inclusive Middle School Science: Effects of Classroom and High-Stakes Tests. The Journal of Special
    Education 40(3): 130-137.
•   Myatt, L. and Kemp, P. (2004). Taking Stock: A Decade of Education Reform in Massachusetts. Phi Delta Kappan 86(2): 139-144.
•   Reville, S.P. (2004). High Standards + High Stakes = High Achievement in Massachusetts. Phi Delta Kappan 85(8): 591-597.
•   Sacchetti, M. (2005). Science MCAS added to list: Will be required for graduation. The Boston Globe. June 29, 2005.
•   Sawada, D., Piburn, M.D., Judson, E., Turley, J., Falconer, K., Benford, R., and Bloom, I. (2002). Measuring Reform Practices in
    Science and Mathematics Classrooms: The Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol. Measuring Reform Practices 102(6): 245-253.
•   Settlage, J. (2004). Preparing New Science Teachers for Urban Classrooms: Consensus Within an Expert Community. School Science
    and Mathematics 104(5): 214-225.
•   Stotsky, S. and Haverty, L. (2004). Can a State Department of Education Increase Teacher Quality? Lessons Learned in
    Massachusetts. Brookings Papers of Educational Policy: 2004: 131-199.
•   Vergari, S. (2000). The Regulatory Styles of Statewide Charter School Authorizers: Arizona, Massachusetts, and Michigan.
    Educational Administration Quarterly 36(5): 730-757.
•   Vogler, K.E. (2004). College Dreams: High-Stakes Testing Reality. Journal of College Admission 184(Summer 2004): 5-11.
•   Vogler, K.E. (2002). The Impact of High-Stakes, State-Mandated Student Performance Assessment on Teachers' Instructional
    Practices. Education 123(1): 39-55.
•   Warren, J.R. and Jenkins, K.N. (2005). High School Exit Examinations and High School Dropout in Texas and Florida, 1971-2000.
    Sociology of Education 78(April): 122-143.
•   Whittaker, A. and Young, V.M. (2002). Tensions in Assessment Design: Professional Development under High-Stakes Accountability.
    Teacher Education Quarterly 29(3): 43-60.
•   Yager, R.E. (2006). Expanding the Use of the National Science Education Standards in Accomplishing Needed Reforms. School
    Science and Mathematics 106(1): 1-7.
        , what say you?
•   Questions
•   Comments
•   Concerns
•   Suggestions
•   Panaceas
•   Pandoras
•   etc.
                   I say, "Thanks!"
• Online materials:

• Email:
  david_jackson [at]
  jacksondw [at]

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