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									B20 Biodiesel

                          The Virginia
                      Biodiesel Conference


                       November 16, 2004
B20 Biodiesel

        Experience in Moving to Biodiesel”

           – l
B20 Biodiesel

      What got ARLINGTON COUNTY into
B20 Biodiesel

         – 27 square miles across the Potomac River from
           the Washington Monument
         – Diversified municipal fleet containing 1,164
         – 365 Biodiesel (B-20) powered vehicles of which
           124 are School Buses
         – 527 Gasoline (Regular Unleaded) powered
         – 78 Ethanol (E-85) powered vehicles
         – 42 Hybrid powered vehicles
         – 22 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered ART
         – 6 Propane (LPG) powered vehicles
B20 Biodiesel

      Getting started to use B-20
         – Check with all engine
         – Stock up on vehicle fuel filters
         – Clean the storage tanks
         – Install external filter on the
B20 Biodiesel

         General Education
          – Educate the drivers and operators
            with the benefits of B-20
          – What to expect if the vehicle’s fuel
            filter is plugging up
          – Educate the mechanics on what to
B20 Biodiesel

       FY 2004 Fuel Dispensed
       – Biodiesel (B-20) = 602,079 gallons
          – Neat (B-100) = 120,415 gallons = 280 AFV’s

       – Regular Unleaded Gasoline = 526,979

       – Ethanol (E-85) = 26,935 gallons

       – Propane (LPG) = 897 equivalent gallons

       – Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) = 70,218
         equivalent gallons
B20 Biodiesel

                                       FY04 Fuel Usage Report

                       Unleaded Gal.          Diesel Gal.       E85 Gal.
              Jul-03      44,000                34,759           1,332
             Aug-03       43,236                30,892           1,891
             Sep-03       41,512                51,671           2,104
              Oct-03      40,107                52,472           1,606
             Nov-03       46,729                62,707           2,440
             Dec-03       44,357                56,583           2,147
             Jan-04       40,846                51,742           2,075
             Feb-04       39,903                53,413           2,311
             Mar-04       50,126                62,221           2,951
              Apr-04      40,332                46,339           1,406
             May-04       44,011                49,333           3,041

             Jun-04       51,820                49,947           3,631

         Totals for
            FY04         526,979               602,079          26,935
B20 Biodiesel
         BIO-DIESEL (B-20): Bio-diesel (B-20) is twenty percent refined soybean fuel oil, a

          renewable fuel, called “Neat oil” and eighty percent No.2 diesel fuel. EPA and DOE both

          consider this an alternative fuel. The B-20, soy bean oil, has been approved by all of the

          diesel engine manufacturers as an automotive fuel. They have not approved using re-

          refined cooking fats for their engines. The use of B-20 has greatly reduced the emission

          of black soot from our exhausts called particulate matter. It is also a good detergent that

          will clean any crud that may be suspended in the fuel tank which requires changing the

          fuel filters more often. Additionally, B-20 will thicken at a slightly higher temperature

          than straight No.2 Diesel fuel requiring an additive to lower the cloud point. We

          dispensed 602,079 gallons of B-20 in FY 2004. The exhaust emission reductions for using

          B-20 were: 617,997 lbs of Carbon dioxide (CO2), 449 lbs. of Sulfate, 9796 lbs. of Carbon

          monoxide (CO), 6,103 lbs. of Hydro carbons (HC) and 459 lbs. of Particulate Matter (PM).

          There was an increase of Ozone depleting Nitric oxide (NOx) of 2,892 lbs.
B20 Biodiesel

         UNLEADED REGULAR GASOLINE: Unleaded Regular Gasoline with an octane rating of

          87 is used by all County gasoline powered vehicles, with the exception of our

          motorcycles which require using 93 octane gasoline's. We dispensed 526,979 gallons of

          Unleaded Regular Gasoline in FY 2004.
B20 Biodiesel

         ETHANOL (E-85): Ethanol (E-85) is fifteen percent unleaded regular gasoline

          and eighty-five percent Ethanol. The Ethanol is a refined, for automotive

          use, grain alcohol. Ethanol can only be used in vehicle engines designed to

          be fueled by this fuel, currently the E-85 engine is not available for all vehicle

          classes. Each year, through replacement, we are increasing the number of

          vehicles using E-85. Although this fuel pollutes less than Unleaded Regular

          Gasoline it also get one third less miles per gallon. We dispensed 26,935

          gallons of E-85 in FY 2004, reducing unleaded gasoline dispensed by 22,895

          gallons. The Ethanol (E-85) emission reductions into the atmosphere

          compared to Unleaded gasoline were: Carbon dioxide (CO2) = 67,027 lbs.,

          Carbon monoxide (CO) = 517 lbs., Nitric oxide (NOx) = 21 lbs., Hydro

          carbons (HC) = 101 lbs. and Particulate Matter (PM) = 17 lbs.
B20 Biodiesel

         PROPANE (LPG): Propane is Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), the same fuel we use in our

          BBQ grills. Propane is considered an Alternative Fuel by the EPA and DOE. This fuel is

          used in a very limited number of vehicles because of the problems associated with the

          on-board LPG storage and it requires specially designed engines to use the fuel. We do

          use LPG to fuel the tar kettles and pothole patching machines. We dispensed 897

          equivalent gallons of LPG. The pounds of emission reductions for using LPG were: CO2

          = 6,548 lbs., CO = 210 lbs., HC = 19 lbs. and PM = 4 lbs.
B20 Biodiesel

         COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS (CNG): Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is the

          same gas we use in our homes to heat and cock with but must be

          compressed to be stored on-board a vehicle. The vehicles must be designed

          to use CNG. Both DOE and EPA consider CNG an Alternative Fuel. CNG is

          the cleanest burning automotive fuel and is currently being used in our ART

          Buses. Two years ago Washington Gas removed the re-fueling compressor

          at the Trades Center and the ART Buses must use the Washington Gas re-

          fueling site at their facility off Edsall Road. We currently are working jointly

          with the State Department on a DOE grant to replace the CNG re-fueling site

          at the Trades Center. We used 70,218 equivalent gallons of CNG. The

          pounds of emission reductions for using CNG in the ART Buses during FY

          2004 were: CO2 = 256,296 lbs., CO = 23,157 lbs., NOx = 17,810 lbs., HC =

          6,125 lbs. and PM = 1,231 lbs.
B20 Biodiesel

         BIODIESEL

         What is “biodiesel”? A high purity fuel made from 100% refined soybean oil that

          can be used in our existing diesel fuel infrastructure.

         “NEAT” is 100% “biodiesel” fuel and designated an alternative fuel by DOE and


         “Biodiesel” is made from a renewable resource and is domestically produced.

         Biodiesel provides improved lubricity compared to conventional diesel fuel and

          unlike “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL” does not require an additive for lubricating

          the engine fuel injectors or pumps. “Biodiesel” does not require expensive

          modifications to engines and refueling facilities. However, “biodiesel” also acts as

          a tank cleaning agent and changing the fuel filters on the fuel dispenser and the

          vehicles is recommended.
B20 Biodiesel

         What is “B20”? “B20” is a mix of 20% “NEAT’(biodiesel) fuel and 80% No.2

          (petroleum) diesel fuel

         “B20” reduces unburned hydrocarbons (smog & ozone ) producer by 11%. For

          every 100 gallons of “B20” used the soot and smell of diesel exhaust and the

          following pollutants are not released into the atmosphere:

         4.13 pounds less carbon dioxide

         0.14 pounds less sulfate

         0.40 pounds less carbon monoxide

         0.05 pounds less particulate matter
B20 Biodiesel

         What is “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR” diesel fuel? “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR” is a highly

          refined diesel fuel that has most of the sulfur removed from the fuel which helps

          reduce the soot and ozone from the exhaust of diesel engines.

         The Washington metropolitan area is a non-attainment area for ozone which will

          eventually require the use of the “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR” or the alternative “B20”

         The estimated cost of switching to “B20” is projected to be approximately $0.18

          cents per gallon. This is about the same as the projected cost of “ULTRA-LOW

          SULFUR” diesel fuel. The “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR” diesel fuel requires using an

          additive to provide the lubricity at an additional cost.

         We are planning to switch to “B20” as soon as our Contractor (Fuelman) can

          arrange for deliveries and establish the billing & invoicing procedures within the

          next few days.

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