B20 Biodiesel The Virginia Biodiesel Conference JMU November 16, 2004 DATE OR THIRD LEVEL INFORMATION B20 Biodiesel “ARLINGTON COUNTY’s Experience in Moving to Biodiesel” – l B20 Biodiesel What got ARLINGTON COUNTY into Biodiesel? B20 Biodiesel About ARLINGTON COUNTY – 27 square miles across the Potomac River from the Washington Monument – Diversified municipal fleet containing 1,164 – 365 Biodiesel (B-20) powered vehicles of which 124 are School Buses – 527 Gasoline (Regular Unleaded) powered vehicles – 78 Ethanol (E-85) powered vehicles – 42 Hybrid powered vehicles – 22 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered ART Buses – 6 Propane (LPG) powered vehicles B20 Biodiesel Getting started to use B-20 – Check with all engine manufacturers – Stock up on vehicle fuel filters – Clean the storage tanks – Install external filter on the dispensers B20 Biodiesel General Education – Educate the drivers and operators with the benefits of B-20 – What to expect if the vehicle’s fuel filter is plugging up – Educate the mechanics on what to expect B20 Biodiesel FY 2004 Fuel Dispensed – Biodiesel (B-20) = 602,079 gallons – Neat (B-100) = 120,415 gallons = 280 AFV’s – Regular Unleaded Gasoline = 526,979 Gallons – Ethanol (E-85) = 26,935 gallons – Propane (LPG) = 897 equivalent gallons – Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) = 70,218 equivalent gallons B20 Biodiesel FY04 Fuel Usage Report Unleaded Gal. Diesel Gal. E85 Gal. Jul-03 44,000 34,759 1,332 Aug-03 43,236 30,892 1,891 Sep-03 41,512 51,671 2,104 Oct-03 40,107 52,472 1,606 Nov-03 46,729 62,707 2,440 Dec-03 44,357 56,583 2,147 Jan-04 40,846 51,742 2,075 Feb-04 39,903 53,413 2,311 Mar-04 50,126 62,221 2,951 Apr-04 40,332 46,339 1,406 May-04 44,011 49,333 3,041 Jun-04 51,820 49,947 3,631 Totals for FY04 526,979 602,079 26,935 B20 Biodiesel BIO-DIESEL (B-20): Bio-diesel (B-20) is twenty percent refined soybean fuel oil, a renewable fuel, called “Neat oil” and eighty percent No.2 diesel fuel. EPA and DOE both consider this an alternative fuel. The B-20, soy bean oil, has been approved by all of the diesel engine manufacturers as an automotive fuel. They have not approved using re- refined cooking fats for their engines. The use of B-20 has greatly reduced the emission of black soot from our exhausts called particulate matter. It is also a good detergent that will clean any crud that may be suspended in the fuel tank which requires changing the fuel filters more often. Additionally, B-20 will thicken at a slightly higher temperature than straight No.2 Diesel fuel requiring an additive to lower the cloud point. We dispensed 602,079 gallons of B-20 in FY 2004. The exhaust emission reductions for using B-20 were: 617,997 lbs of Carbon dioxide (CO2), 449 lbs. of Sulfate, 9796 lbs. of Carbon monoxide (CO), 6,103 lbs. of Hydro carbons (HC) and 459 lbs. of Particulate Matter (PM). There was an increase of Ozone depleting Nitric oxide (NOx) of 2,892 lbs. B20 Biodiesel UNLEADED REGULAR GASOLINE: Unleaded Regular Gasoline with an octane rating of 87 is used by all County gasoline powered vehicles, with the exception of our motorcycles which require using 93 octane gasoline's. We dispensed 526,979 gallons of Unleaded Regular Gasoline in FY 2004. B20 Biodiesel ETHANOL (E-85): Ethanol (E-85) is fifteen percent unleaded regular gasoline and eighty-five percent Ethanol. The Ethanol is a refined, for automotive use, grain alcohol. Ethanol can only be used in vehicle engines designed to be fueled by this fuel, currently the E-85 engine is not available for all vehicle classes. Each year, through replacement, we are increasing the number of vehicles using E-85. Although this fuel pollutes less than Unleaded Regular Gasoline it also get one third less miles per gallon. We dispensed 26,935 gallons of E-85 in FY 2004, reducing unleaded gasoline dispensed by 22,895 gallons. The Ethanol (E-85) emission reductions into the atmosphere compared to Unleaded gasoline were: Carbon dioxide (CO2) = 67,027 lbs., Carbon monoxide (CO) = 517 lbs., Nitric oxide (NOx) = 21 lbs., Hydro carbons (HC) = 101 lbs. and Particulate Matter (PM) = 17 lbs. B20 Biodiesel PROPANE (LPG): Propane is Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), the same fuel we use in our BBQ grills. Propane is considered an Alternative Fuel by the EPA and DOE. This fuel is used in a very limited number of vehicles because of the problems associated with the on-board LPG storage and it requires specially designed engines to use the fuel. We do use LPG to fuel the tar kettles and pothole patching machines. We dispensed 897 equivalent gallons of LPG. The pounds of emission reductions for using LPG were: CO2 = 6,548 lbs., CO = 210 lbs., HC = 19 lbs. and PM = 4 lbs. B20 Biodiesel COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS (CNG): Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is the same gas we use in our homes to heat and cock with but must be compressed to be stored on-board a vehicle. The vehicles must be designed to use CNG. Both DOE and EPA consider CNG an Alternative Fuel. CNG is the cleanest burning automotive fuel and is currently being used in our ART Buses. Two years ago Washington Gas removed the re-fueling compressor at the Trades Center and the ART Buses must use the Washington Gas re- fueling site at their facility off Edsall Road. We currently are working jointly with the State Department on a DOE grant to replace the CNG re-fueling site at the Trades Center. We used 70,218 equivalent gallons of CNG. The pounds of emission reductions for using CNG in the ART Buses during FY 2004 were: CO2 = 256,296 lbs., CO = 23,157 lbs., NOx = 17,810 lbs., HC = 6,125 lbs. and PM = 1,231 lbs. B20 Biodiesel BIODIESEL What is “biodiesel”? A high purity fuel made from 100% refined soybean oil that can be used in our existing diesel fuel infrastructure. “NEAT” is 100% “biodiesel” fuel and designated an alternative fuel by DOE and U.S.DOT. “Biodiesel” is made from a renewable resource and is domestically produced. Biodiesel provides improved lubricity compared to conventional diesel fuel and unlike “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL” does not require an additive for lubricating the engine fuel injectors or pumps. “Biodiesel” does not require expensive modifications to engines and refueling facilities. However, “biodiesel” also acts as a tank cleaning agent and changing the fuel filters on the fuel dispenser and the vehicles is recommended. B20 Biodiesel What is “B20”? “B20” is a mix of 20% “NEAT’(biodiesel) fuel and 80% No.2 (petroleum) diesel fuel “B20” reduces unburned hydrocarbons (smog & ozone ) producer by 11%. For every 100 gallons of “B20” used the soot and smell of diesel exhaust and the following pollutants are not released into the atmosphere: 4.13 pounds less carbon dioxide 0.14 pounds less sulfate 0.40 pounds less carbon monoxide 0.05 pounds less particulate matter B20 Biodiesel What is “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR” diesel fuel? “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR” is a highly refined diesel fuel that has most of the sulfur removed from the fuel which helps reduce the soot and ozone from the exhaust of diesel engines. The Washington metropolitan area is a non-attainment area for ozone which will eventually require the use of the “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR” or the alternative “B20” The estimated cost of switching to “B20” is projected to be approximately $0.18 cents per gallon. This is about the same as the projected cost of “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR” diesel fuel. The “ULTRA-LOW SULFUR” diesel fuel requires using an additive to provide the lubricity at an additional cost. We are planning to switch to “B20” as soon as our Contractor (Fuelman) can arrange for deliveries and establish the billing & invoicing procedures within the next few days.
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