The-BSD-Operating-Systems

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					The *BSD Operating Systems




Dave Tyson
Computing Services, The University of Liverpool
                    Outline
•   Background history
•   Birth of 386BSD O/S
•   The FreeBSD project
•   The NetBSD project
•   The OpenBSD project
•   Comparison with Linux/Solaris
•   Application software
•   Choosing what to run
              Background History
•   1969 Unix created at Bell Labs
•   1977 Berkeley Development starts
•   1986 4.3BSD released
•   1990 Net/2 Release distributed
    – asserted to be freely distributable
• 1992 AT&T lawsuit
• 1994 4.4BSD-lite released
    – clean base - all suspect code deleted
                      386BSD
•   work done by Bill Jolitz
•   published in Dr Dobbs Journal
•   Based on Net/2 distribution
•   Machine dependant code written for i386
•   Development hindered by poor i386 info
•   Availability
    – Release 0.0 Feb 1992
    – Release 0.1 July 1992
                     386BSD
• Minimum system requirements
  – 386 processor
  – 2Mb RAM
  – 40Mb Hard disk
• supported various ethernet cards
• distribution
  – base system about 30 floppy disks
  – source code 13 floppy disks
                     386BSD
• lots of interest in unix community
• lots of bugs found!
• Bill Jolitz unresponsive
  – interested parties produce patches
  – ad-hoc patch kit released
• Bill promises a book and fixed release
  – After 6 months inaction no-one believes him
  – separate projects FreeBSD NetBSD BSDi
The FreeBSD Project
           The FreeBSD Project
•   Take 386BSD base and improve it
•   Concentrate on PC systems only
•   (Later decide to support Alpha also)
•   Aim to support all common peripherals
•   Use Walnut Creek for CDROM distribution
•   Funding from sales of CD‟s etc
•   Good project organisation
            The FreeBSD Project
•   Core team - decide project direction
•   Developers - write the code
•   Initial release FreeBSD 1.0 Dec 1993
•   Available on CD / via the net
•   Project forced to move to BSD-lite base
•   Much boot code had to be rewritten
•   FreeBSD 2.0 shipped Nov 1994
            The FreeBSD Project
• unified source code tree
• branches for development/stable base
• Latest stable version FreeBSD 4.2
  –   IPV6
  –    support for gigabit NIC‟s
  –   ATM
  –   SCSI raid controllers
• development version FreeBSD 5.0
     The FreeBSD Project Strengths
• Easy installation
• Good documentation
    – FreeBSD Handbook
•   Support for multiple processors
•   Widely use for “large” servers
•   Native threads => wine etc
•   Most popular *BSD system
•   commercial support from BSDi
The NetBSD Project
  “Of course it runs NetBSD”
          The NetBSD Project
• Formed at the same time as FreeBSD
• Aim to support different platforms
  – follow original Berkeley Philosophy
  – split machine dependant/independent code
• Emphasis on clean, well structured design
• Code portability for new platforms
• Good project organisation
            The NetBSD Project
•   Core Team - decide project direction
•   Portmasters - head up platform teams
•   Developers - write the code
•   initial release NetBSD 0.8 Apr 1993
    – I386 only
• BSD-lite release NetBSD 1.0 Oct 94
    – I386 Amiga HP300 M68K SPARC
             The NetBSD Project
• Unified Source Tree
• Production/Development branches
• Latest Version 1.5
  –   IPV6
  –   VLAN support
  –   Strong Encryption
  –   new VM system
  –   15 supported architectures
     The NetBSD Project Strengths
•   Available for a wide range of systems
•   Easy to port to new platforms
•   Used in several commercial products
•   Good USB device support
•   Excellent support for non-native binaries
•   Reliable and secure
•   Commercial support from Wasabi Systems
The OpenBSD Project
           The OpenBSD project
•   A spinoff from NetBSD in 1995
•   Idealogical split in the „core‟ team
•   Focus on improving security
•   CDROM distribution funds development
•   Canadian Base sidestepped export regulations
•   Similar platform support to NetBSD
          The OpenBSD Project
• General goal is to be „most secure O/S‟
• Current record
  – 3 yrs without a remote exploit (default install)
  – 2 yrs without a local exploit (default install)
• Security achieved by:
  – extensive source code audit
  – provision of cryptographic interfaces
  – Support for hardware cryptography
           The OpenBSD Project
• Unified Source Tree
• Latest version 2.8
  –   IPV6
  –   Over 500 prebuilt packages
  –   OpenSSH /SFTP server
  –   better hardware crypto support
  –   console mouse support on i386
  The OpenBSD Project Strengths
• Security
• Available for a wide range of platforms
  – but not as many as NetBSD
• Excellent support for non-native binaries
• Reliability
• Commercial support available
        Comparision with Linux
• Licensing issues vs Linux
  – BSD license for kernel code
  – BSD license for most utilities
  – Can be used as commercial base
• Long Term stability
  – NFS code very reliable
  – good memory management
• Each BSD has a single distribution
• Each BSD has a single bug/security repository
          Comparision with Linux
• Less hype
• Trackable code base
• Negative points
  –   not as well known
  –   fewer commercial applications
  –   BSD religion sometimes unhelpful
  –   no BSD documentation project !
  –   Installation may frighten unix newbies
     Comparison with Solaris 2.8
• Better performance on i386
• more public software applications
• more supported hardware on i386
  – ISA legacy kit
• Sun4C support
• However Solaris has:
  – NIS+
  – more commercial software
          Application software
• Easy installation of software using package
  system
  – Precompiled Binaries
  – Auto build from source code
• Wide range of Public Domain software
• Some commercial products for FreeBSD
• Can run Linux and other binaries
          Choosing what to run
• Choice of platform dictates O/S
• On PC‟s FreeBSD is very good
  – SMP support etc
• NetBSD/OpenBSD also work fine
• Other Architectures
  – Choice is NetBSD or FreeBSD
               The Future
• All the projects have strong teams
• lots of cross fertilisation of ideas
• New Mac O/S „Darwin‟ based on *BSD code

				
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