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					EPM: Chs VII & VIII
                             Q: What’s the
                             difference between a
                             thermometer and a
                             person who knows what
                             the temperature is?
                             A: …!


Pete Mandik
Chairman, Department of Philosophy
Coordinator, Cognitive Science Laboratory
William Paterson University, New Jersey USA
Ch VII: “The Logic of „Means‟
Main idea: Meaning is not a relation
 between a word and the thing (or
 property or whatever) that the word
 stands for. The meaning of “apple”
 is not a relation between a word and
 a fruit. The meaning of “apple” is a
 role that the word plays in a system
 that include a whole bunch of stuff
 (e.g. the rest of a language, lots of
 knowledge, and maybe some fruit)


                                         2
“…When we picture a child …learning his first
  language, we, of course, locate the language
  learner in a structured logical space in which we
  are at home. Thus, we conceive of him as a
  person (or, at least, a potential person) in a world
  of physical objects, colored, producing sounds,
  existing in Space and Time. …[U]nless we are
  careful, we can easily take for granted that the
  process of teaching a child to use a language is
  that of teaching it to discriminate elements within
  a logical space of particulars, universals, facts,
  etc., of which it is already undiscriminatingly
  aware, and to associate these discriminated
  elements with verbal symbols.” (p.65)

                                                         3
“[O]nce we have
   abandoned the idea
   that learning to use the
   word "red" involves
   antecedent episodes of
   the awareness of
   redness …there is a
   temptation to suppose
   that the word "red"
   means the quality red
   by virtue of these two
   facts: briefly, the fact
   that it has the syntax of   But this is just
   a predicate, and the fact     the
   that it is a response (in     implausible
   certain circumstances)        “thermometer
   to red objects.” (p.66)       view”.

                                                  4
Bad reason for believing the
Thermometer View:
“[S]uperficial resemblance of
        (In German) "rot" means red
to such relational statements as
       Cowley adjoins Oxford.”(p.67)




                                       5
“Means” is not really a
relation
1. “Means” has the same sense in
   “‟rot‟ means red” and “‟und‟ means
   and”.
2. „und‟ means and not in virtue of
   being related to and-ish objects
   (know one know what they would
   be if there were such things).
Therefore „rot‟ means red not in virtue
   of being related to red objects



                                          6
„rot‟ means red…
…in virtue of the fact that „rot‟ plays
  the same role in German that „red‟
  plays in English. This is just like how
  „und‟ means and in virtue of the fact
  that „und‟ plays the same role in
  German that „and‟ plays in English.




                                            7
It has not been ruled out,
then, that…
“…one cannot understand the meaning of
  the word "red" -- "know what redness is" --
  unless one has a great deal of knowledge
  which classical empiricism would have
  held to have a purely contingent
  relationship with the possession of
  fundamental empirical concepts.” (p.69)




                                                8
Ch VIII: “Does Empirical
Knowledge Have a
Foundation?”
Answer to titular question: Kind of. But
 not what foundationalist
 epistemologists think it is.




                                           9
“Clearly the …"thermometer view" .. won't
  do as it stands. Let us see, however, if it
  cannot be revised to fit the criteria I have
  been using for "expressing observational
  knowledge.” (p.74)




                                                 10
First:
In order for “This is green” to express
  knowledge it must have authority (i.e. “it
  must be worthy of being made, credible,
  that is, in the sense of worthy of
  credence”).




                                               11
Second:
“if the authority of the report "This is green" lies in
    the fact that the existence of green items
    appropriately related to the perceiver can be
    inferred from the occurrence of such reports, it
    follows that only a person who is able to draw this
    inference, and therefore who has not only the
    concept green, but also the concept of uttering
    "This is green" -- indeed, the concept of certain
    conditions of perception, those which would
    correctly be called 'standard conditions' -- could
    be in a position to token "This is green" in
    recognition of its authority.” (pp. 74-75)


                                                          12
“In other words…
for …"This is green" to "express
  observational knowledge," not only must it
  be a symptom or sign of the presence of a
  green object in standard conditions, but
  the perceiver must know that tokens of
  "This is green" are symptoms of the
  presence of green objects in conditions
  which are standard for visual perception.”
  (p. 74)



                                               13
Regress?
“it might be thought that there is an obvious
   regress in the view we are examining.
   Does it not tell us that observational
   knowledge at time t presupposes
   knowledge of the form X is a reliable
   symptom of Y, which presupposes prior
   observational knowledge, which
   presupposes other knowledge of the form
   X is a reliable symptom of Y, which
   presupposes still other, and prior,
   observational knowledge, and so on?” (p.
   76)

                                                14
How to avoid the regress
“Thus, all that the view I am defending requires is that no
  tokening by S now of "This is green" is to count as
  "expressing observational knowledge" unless it is also
  correct to say of S that he now knows the appropriate fact
  of the form X is a reliable symptom of Y, namely that (and
  again I oversimplify) utterances of "This is green" are
  reliable indicators of the presence of green objects in
  standard conditions of perception. And while the
  correctness of this statement about Jones requires that
  Jones could now cite prior particular facts as evidence for
  the idea that these utterances are reliable indicators, it
  requires only that it is correct to say that Jones now knows,
  thus remembers, that these particular facts did obtain. It
  does not require that it be correct to say that at the time
  these facts did obtain he then knew them to obtain. And the
  regress disappears.” (pp. 76-77)



                                                                  15
“Thus, while Jones's ability to give inductive
  reasons today is built on a long history of
  acquiring and manifesting verbal habits in
  perceptual situations, and, in particular, the
  occurrence of verbal episodes, e.g."This is
  green," which is superficially like those which are
  later properly said to express observational
  knowledge, it does not require that any episode
  in this prior time be characterizeable as
  expressing knowledge.” (p.77)




                                                        16
“If I reject the framework of traditional empiricism, it
    is not because I want to say that empirical
    knowledge has no foundation. For to put it this
    way is to suggest that it is really "empirical
    knowledge so-called," and to put it in a box with
    rumors and hoaxes. There is clearly some point
    to the picture of human knowledge as resting on
    a level of propositions -- observation reports --
    which do not rest on other propositions in the
    same way as other propositions rest on them. On
    the other hand, I do wish to insist that the
    metaphor of "foundation" is misleading in that it
    keeps us from seeing that if there is a logical
    dimension in which other empirical propositions
    rest on observation reports, there is another
    logical dimension in which the latter rest on the
    former. ” (p. 78)                                      17
“ Above all, the picture is misleading because of its
  static character. One seems forced to choose
  between the picture of an elephant which rests
  on a tortoise (What supports the tortoise?) and
  the picture of a great Hegelian serpent of
  knowledge with its tail in its mouth (Where does it
  begin?). Neither will do. For empirical knowledge,
  like its sophisticated extension, science, is
  rational, not because it has a foundation but
  because it is a self-correcting enterprise which
  can put any claim in jeopardy, though not all at
  once.” (p.79)




                                                        18
THE END




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Description: Introduction