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Microsoft PowerPoint - Lesson 3_Culture Concept

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					                                               Where are these people from?


Culture Concept
Topic Three
ANT252, Cultural Anthropology
Tim Wallace




INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION                                  Inter-Cultural Competence
 a symbolic process in which the degree         interaction that is perceived as effective in
 difference between people is large and         fulfilling certain rewarding objectives in a
 important enough to create dissimilar          way that is also appropriate to the context in
 interpretations and expectations about what    which the interaction occurs.
 are regarded as competent behaviors that
 should be used to create shared meanings.




                                                                                                 1
Competence includes:                           Cultural Modeling
 appropriate behavior in a specific context     Applied, environmental anthropologist
 effective behavior in a specific context       Michael Paolisso from U. Md. works in the
 appropriate knowledge                          Chesapeake Bay area among watermen
 appropriate motivations (feelings and          What did he decide to study and where did he
 intentions)                                    go to do it?
 actual (good) performance                      Why are the waterman angry at “the State”?
                                                Why did they suggest that the scientists are
                                                wrong?




Cultural Models                                Cultural Models abroad
 What is the basic underlying hypothesis for    When we travel or interact with people from
 Paolisso’s work?                               other cultures, we experience a clash of these
 What did he do to study cultural models?       cultural models.
 What did he do to try and ameliorate the       Culture shock
 problem? And, how did he do it?                Study abroad is a series of systematic cultural
 Is this a problem unique to watermen?          shocks




                                                                                                  2
Travel, Culture Shock and
Stages of Adjustment
  Stage 1:Honeymoon stage
  Stage 2: Hostility stage
  Stage 3: Harmony stage
  Stage 4: Return & Reverse Culture Shock




                                            3
SYMPTOMS OF CULTURE
SHOCK                                                                 Problems with hosts
 Homesickness or Boredom
 Withdrawal (e.g., spending excessive amounts of time reading, only    Type I culture shock incidents are those in
 seeing other Americans, and avoiding contact with host nationals)
 Need for excessive amounts of sleep
                                                                       which something that happens in the local
 Unexplainable fits of weeping                                         culture that affects how you feel or behave
 Compulsive eating and/or drinking
 Irritability                                                          towards the local culture. If negative, it could
 Exaggerated cleanliness                                               impar one’s ability to work confidently and
 Physical ailments (psychosomatic illness)
 Marital stress, family tension and conflict                           thus effectively in the community.
 Chauvinistic excess
 Stereotyping of host nationals and hostility toward host nationals
 Loss of ability to work effectively                                           According to Craig Storti, The Art of Crossing Cultures, 2.ed, 2001.




                                                                                                                                                      4
Type II Culture Shock Incidents                         Cross-Cultural Miscue No.1
   Are those that you do that affect how the local      Hanes Black was a manager for a textile chemical
                                                          company based in Denver. His company had recently
   people view you and could impair one’s                 entered into a joint venture with a similar, but smaller
   ability to work effectively in the community.          chemical company in Japan. As part of the agreement,
                                                          the Japanese company sent four of their managers for a
                                                          three-month training course under Hanes’ supervision.
                                                          Although Hanes had never lived or worked abroad, he
                                                          was looking forward to the challenge of working with
                                                          his Japanese colleagues, for he had been told that they
                                                          were all fluent in English and tireless workers. The
                                                          first several weeks of the training went along quite
                                                          smoothly, but soon Hanes became increasingly
                                                          annoyed with the constant demands they were making
                                                          on his personal time.




Miscue No. 1 cont.                                      Cross Cultural Miscue No.2
They would seek him out after the regularly scheduled      Within the past decade Ray Lopez had worked hard to
  sessions were over for additional information. They      become the top salesperson for the entire West Coast district
  sought his advice on how to occupy their leisure         of his company, which manufactures and distributes plywood
                                                           products. When his company received an invitation to make a
  time. Several even asked him to help settle a            marketing presentation to a large distribution firm in Buenos
  disagreement that developed between them. Feeling        Aires, Ray's Hispanic background, fluency in Spanish, and
  frustrated by all these demands on his time, Hanes       excellent salesmanship all made him the logical choice for the
  told his Japanese trainees that he preferred not to      assignment. Ray had set up an appointment to make his
  mix business with pleasure. Within a matter of days      presentation on the same day that he arrived from Los
  the group requested another instructor. WHAT             Angeles. But upon arrival the marketing representative of the
                                                           host firm, who met him at the airport, told him that the
  WAS THE CRITICAL ISSUE OPERATING                         meeting had been arranged for two days later so that Ray
  HERE?                                                    could rest after the long trip and have a chance to see some of
                                                           the local sites and enjoy their hospitality. Ray tried to assure
                                                           his host that he felt fine and was prepared to make the
                                                           presentation that day. Ray could see no good reason not to get
                                                           on with the business at hand.




                                                                                                                              5
Miscue No. 2 continued.                                  Cross Cultural Miscue No.3
  Eventually the marketing representative (somewhat      Dwayne Webster, a former owner of a retail book store in New
                                                           Hampshire, had started a new book distribution company
  reluctantly) intervened on Ray's behalf, and the         located in Mombasa Kenya in the mid l980s. Since starting
  meeting was reset for later that afternoon. But once     the company, which distributed books to retail booksellers
  the meeting began Ray noticed that the Argentinean       throughout East Africa, Dwayne had been quite successful in
                                                           growing his business and had put together a professional and
  executives never really got beyond the exchange of       administrative staff of over 40 local employees. In recent
  pleasantries. Finally, the vice president in charge      years Dwayne had received several lucrative contracts from
  suggested that they meet again the next afternoon.       international development agencies such as the World Bank
  Ray was feeling increasing frustration with the          and UNESCO. On one such occasion Dwayne found that he
                                                           was behind schedule in preparing a lengthy proposal for a
  excruciatingly slow pace of the negotiations. What       possible government contract due in the office of the
  happened?                                                Canadian International Development Agency in Nairobi the
                                                           next day. The proposal deadline was so critical that he had to
                                                           work very closely with some of his staff to make sure that it
                                                           was met.




Miscue No.3 cont.                                        Cross Cultural Miscue No. 4
In the final hours Dwayne found himself helping          Scott Doyle, an international real estate developer from
   the secretaries make copies, collate, and                Miami, had made a 10:30 a.m. appointment with Mr.
                                                            Monsour, a high-ranking government official in
   assemble the multiple copies of the proposal.            Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. From the beginning things did
   But minutes after pitching in to help he began           not go well for Scott. First, he was kept waiting until
   to notice that his staff became very non-                11:15 before he was ushered into Mr. Monsour’s
                                                            office. To add to Scott’s sense of frustration Mr.
   communicative and he seemed to be getting a              Monsour seemed more interested in engaging in
   lot of cold stares. Dwayne couldn't understand           meaningless small talk rather than dealing with the
   why his attempts to be helpful were so                   substantive issues concerning their business. Should
   unappreciated. Can you help him understand?              Scott have felt frustrated?




                                                                                                                            6
CULTURE defined                                  Basic Elements in the Tylor definition
  Gary Ferraro (2004): “everything that            Holistic
  people have, think, and do as members of a       Social norms/rules
  society.”
                                                   Acquired, learned
  Edward B. Tylor Definition (1870): Culture       Shared norms from participating in a society
  is: “that complex whole which includes           Symbolic behavior
  knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom,
  and any other capabilities acquired by
  (hu)man(s) as a member of society.




Basic characteristics of culture                 Instinct is not involved
  Learned                                          Instinct: An inner
                                                   pattern of behavior that
  Shared
                                                   is not learned and
  Integrated                                       results in complex
  Adaptive (changing)                              animal responses such
                                                   as building of nests and
  Based on symbols                                 nursing of young; a
                                                   natural capability or
                                                   aptitude.




                                                                                                  7
Not instinct cont.                               Not instinct cont.
  Genetic Inheritance: Human                       Biological Needs/Drives:
  infants inherit some aspects of                  “All animals, including
  their personalities from their                   humans, have certain
  parents. There are behavioral                    biologically determined
  tendencies that are inherited,                   needs that must be met if
  but humans develop their                         they are to stay alive and
  personality on a palette of                      well.” (Ferraro) (e.g.: food,
  experiences that at once                         shelter, sleep, sex). The
  includes and is different from                   specifics are not
  that of their parents.                           instinctual, but learned.




Not instinct cont.
  Although culture influences our behavior, it
  would be incorrect to say that culture
  determines our behavior. This, there are
  variations in conformity to social rules and
  each society decides how much tolerance
  should be afforded to deviance.




                                                                                   8
Tubabs in Africa                               Tubabs… more
 Where were the students?
 What was their program of study?               What kind of adjustments did they make?
 Who/what are “tubabs?”                         What was the most difficult thing to adjust to
 Where did they go?                             when they were on their field trip?
 How were the students received by the local    Overall, what changes (from the beginning to
 people? What differences did they observe      the end of the trip) did you observe in the
 among the local people they met?               students?




Horace Miner: The Nacirema                     George Gmelch: Learning Culture
 Where are the Nacirema located?                Where were the students living?
 How do they feel about their bodies?           What were they doing?
 Is it an open or closed society?               What kind of adjustments did they make to
 Are there major differences between the        their homestays?
 wealthy and the poor?                          What, if anything, was there unusual about
 How did you know that latipso was hospital?    their experiences in a Bajan home?
 Who is the “holy mouth man?”                   How were they changed by their experiences?




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