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									Special Libraries Association
Annual Conference, Nashville
9 June 2004

            U.S. Government Information
                                               Shades of Gray
                                             Mixing Black & White

                                                        Bonnie Klein
                                           Technical Reports Team Lead
                                       Defense Technical Information Center
                                            Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-6218

                                                        Approved for Public Release
                                        U.S.Government Work (17 USC §105) Not copyrighted in the U.S.
     Information for the Defense Community
        What is gray literature?

• Gray is in between

  – White or published and indexed works
    such as books & journals
• and
  – Ephemeral or short-lived materials such as
    flyers, timetables & schedules
        Gray/Grey Literature Definitions
• Publicly available, foreign or domestic, open source
  information that usually is available through specialized
  channels and may not enter normal channels or systems of
  publication, distribution, bibliographic control, or acquisition
  by book sellers or subscription agents.
   – US Interagency Gray Literature Working Group

• That which is produced on all levels of government,
  academics, business and industry in print and electronic
  formats, but which is not controlled by commercial
   – Fourth International Conference on Grey Literature (GL '99), Washington,
     DC, October 1999. See
        Gray literature characteristics
• Difficult to identify, acquire, process and access
• Large body of information in an international
• Limited quantities produced for a targeted
• Nonstandard formats
• Not formally published
• Not easy to catalog
• Quality
   – unrefereed
   – questions of integrity & authenticity
         Value of gray literature

• User perspective
  – varies by user groups
  – varies with time and place
• More timely than conventional literature
• May be more concise, focused & detailed
• Can corroborate important assertions found
  in other sources
• Informal, more common information
       Producers of gray literature
• Research establishments
    – Laboratories
    – Institutes
•   National governments
•   Corporations
•   Trade associations/Unions
•   Non-profits
•   Private publishers
    – Pressure groups
    – Political parties
• Academia
           Types of gray literature

•   Academic papers            •   Preprints
•   Committee reports          •   Proceedings
•   Conference papers          •   Research reports
•   Corporate documents        •   Standards
•   Discussion papers          •   Technical reports
•   Dissertations              •   Theses
•   Government reports         •   Trade Literature
•   House journals             •   Translations
•   Market surveys             •   Trip reports
•   Newsletters                •   Working papers
•   PowerPoint presentations
U.S. Department of Defense
DTIC Technical Reports Collection
 An organized repository of gray literature
DTIC Technical Reports Collection
    DTIC Technical Reports Collection
              Types of documents selected
·   Acquisition Life Cycle        ·   Lessons Learned (DoD-related)
    Documents                     ·   Mission Area Plans
·   DoD Lab Annual Reports        ·   NATO Research and
·   Bibliographies                    Technology Organization (RTO)
·   Command Histories                 Documents
·   Conference Proceedings &      ·   Newsletters (DoD-related)
    Papers                        ·   DoD Patents & Patent
·   Dissertations & Theses            Applications
·   DoD Functional Area           ·   Defense Planning Guidance
    Dictionaries/Glossaries       ·   Technical Reports
·   Federally Funded Research &   ·   Test reports
    Development Center (FFRDC)    ·   Technical memos

    Journal Articles & Reprints
                                  ·   Studies & analyses

  DTIC Technical Reports Collection
         Types of documents not selected
                            • Engineering Drawings
• Administrative Papers
                            • Forms
• Advertisements
                            • Memoranda (Inter-Office)
• Blueprints
                            •   Memorandums of
• Brochures, Catalogs &
                                Agreement (MOAs)
                            • Operating Instructions
• Charts Circulars
                            • Procedures Promotional
• Conference Programs and
                            • Proposals
• Contracting Documents &
  Materials                 • Technical Manuals
• Correspondence            • Telephone Directories
• Decision Papers           • Trip Reports
DTIC Technical Reports Collection

   Sources                 Importance
– Technical         – Records of non-success
– Letter reports    – Historic data, new
– Directives          applications
– Proceedings       – The arcane
– Dissertations     – The obscure
Primary vs. Secondary Distribution

• PRIMARY                  • SECONDARY

                            – Store
  – Produce
                            – Announce
  – Publish
                            – Distribute
  – Initial distribution
    to target audience      – Reference Service
            Broader distribution
• National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
  Cataloged OPAC
  Database access: Dialog, Cambridge Scientific
  Abstracts, Questel, and STN/Chem Abstracts
• Library of Congress (Science Library)
  Not cataloged; no database access
• Canada Institute of Scientific and Technical
  Information (CISTI)
  Cataloged OPAC
  Database access: OCLC World Cat
• British Library (BLDSC)
  Not cataloged
• Libraries and collections world-wide
  GrayLit Network
Interagency gray literature collection
        Gray literature and copyright
• Copyright vests automatically to the author
  – at the time a work is created and fixed in a discernable
  – No notice or formalities are required.
• Public release does not equal public domain.
• Information sponsored by or provided by the U.S.
  Government may be copyrighted.
  – Works authored by U.S. Government employees as part
    of their official duties are not copyrighted in the U.S.
    However, these works may include copyrighted material
    used with permission.
  – Contractors and grantees are not considered
    government employees.
     The gray needle in the haystack

• Searching is like finding a needle in a haystack,
  but not all searches are the same.

• "Finding a needle in a haystack" can mean…

• From Information Retrieval by Matthew Koll.
  ASIS Bulletin, Dec/Jan 2000
  American Society for Information Science and Technology.
Shades of gray
 a known needle in a known haystack; (white if indexed & archived)
 a known needle in an unknown haystack; (pale gray)
 an unknown needle in an unknown haystack; (dark gray)
 any needle in a haystack; (medium gray)
 the sharpest needle in a haystack; (more white than gray)
 most of the sharpest needles in a haystack; (same as above)
 all the needles in a haystack; (is this possible?)
 affirmation of no needles in the haystack; (same as above)
 thinks like needles in any haystack;
 let me know whenever a new needle shows up;
 where are the haystacks?; and (the black hole)
 needles, haystacks – whatever.
• Defense Technical Information Center
• GrayLit Network. Department of Energy. Office of
  Scientific and Technical Information..
• DTIC® Guidelines for Determining Copy Rights
• CENDI Frequently Asked Questions About Copyright
• GreyNet

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