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					Closing the Achievement Gap:
    Its Attitude not Aptitude

    Using MSDE Web tools and the
  principles of Assessment for Learning
      to reduce the achievement gap

                      Dr. Bruce Katz
                      Regional Assistant Superintendent
                      PGCPS
“The typical child in the typical school-
especially the poor child of color in the
urban school- lives in an educational
environment of deep and pathological
incoherence and ineffectiveness.”


                          Richard F. Elmore
          Why the gap?
• Inability to diagnose and prescribe
• Mistaken beliefs
• Unable to engage students in the
  curriculum
• Do not fully recognize the significance
  of the statement - Teachers make a
  difference
            What to do?
• Create a classroom environment that shows
  ALL students have the capability to achieve
• FULLY align curriculum standards with
  assessment and instruction
• Implement a balanced assessment system
• Change the philosophy toward assessment,
  which will change the philosophy and
  techniques of instruction
• Provide teachers with a new set of tools
          How to do it?
• Change the paradigm associated with:
  – Instructional Planning
  – Classroom Assessment
  – Instruction
  It’s Attitude not Aptitude
Preserve:
  – Self Esteem
  – Self Image
Transmit:
  – Ability to succeed
  – Positive relationship based on
    mutual goals and success
Paradigm Shift
  Planning


  Assessment


  Instruction
     Instructional Planning:
          Collaborative
     Management                 Process
• Regularly scheduled • Defined to deal
• Chaired by faculty     with instructional
                         issues in a
• Attended               prescribed way:
  (participation          – Planning based on
  required) by              standards
  administration          – Assessment design
                          – Review of student work
• Required agenda and
                          – Data analysis for
  outcomes                  modifying instruction
• Rules of participation  – Instructional planning
                              – Learning walks/Surgical
                                Theatre
              Planning
• Begin with a review of standards,
  objectives, indicators, and assessment
  limits
• Identify the indicators to be taught and
  assessed
• Design two assessments
• Review instructional strategies and
  data points
          Assessments
• Design two assessments with
  questions aligned in rigor and content
  to the indicators
• Make the questions in the format of
  the HSA
• Share indicators and questions with
  students
• Prepare a chart/table to record student
  performance
      Indicator

1.
2.
3.   Indicator
4.
5.
6.
7.
     MSA Scale Scores

              6th   7th   8th
 Reading      381   385   391
Mathematics   396   396   407
                   Instruction
• Share outcomes, objectives, with students
• Give pretest and have students score and record
  performance (not for grade)
• Describe how students can master the material and
  achieve proficiency
• Lesson format should include: warm-up, objective
  check, whole class instruction (pacing), grouping
  (differentiated instruction based on student needs),
  heterogeneous grouping, lesson assessment,
  closure
      Extended Learning
• Tied directly to student needs
• Small group and focused
• Changed nature of teacher work to a
  professional model
• Changed nature of teacher/parent
  interaction
     Continued Planning
• Review of student data
• Regrouping of students
• Planning of extended learning
• Review and comment- leading to
  descriptive feedback on student work
• Review of instructional strategies
• Scheduling learning walks and surgical
  theatre
         Educational
       Professionalism
Expectation
  – Teacher knows his/her content
    standards
  – Teacher works collaboratively
  – Teacher can communicate standards to
    students; parents
  – Teacher knows how to use assessment
    to promote student learning
“If you want to make minor, incremental
changes and improvement, work on
practices, behavior or attitude. But if
you want to make significant, quantum
improvement, work on paradigms.”

                      Stephen R. Covey
                      The 8th Habit: From
                      Effectiveness to
                      Greatness
             Learning Team Management
                       Options
             Learning Team Management Options
                                                            High Involvement
                                                    Plan and manage every meeting


                    Assist team leaders; they manage meetings



                                                     Present workshops (preplanned) in support of teams

                                         Help teams past roadblocks as needed by request
                          Help teams form; teams run independently

             Low Involvement


Source ATI
           Impact of Teacher Effectiveness
              on Student Achievement

60



50



40
                                                         Most Effective Teacher
30
                                                         Least Effective Teacher
20



10



0
     Gain Related to Teacher Gain Related to Student Gain Related to Teacher Gain Related to Student
          Effectiveness            Maturation             Effectiveness            Maturation Source: Marzano, Classroom
                                                                                       Management that Works, ASCD,
                                                                                       2003.
                       Impact of Schools
                                Effects of a School vs a Teacher on
                                Student Entering at 50th Percentile


100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

 0
         Average          Least Effective        Most Effective         Most Effective        Least Effective
      School/Average   School/Least Effective School/Least Effective School/Most Effective School/Most Effective
         Teacher             Teacher                Teacher                Teacher               Teacher

                                                                                    Source: Marzano, Classroom
                                                                                    Management that Works, ASCD,
                                                                                    2003.
      Control of Learning
It is a mistaken belief to think that adults
   are in control of student learning.
Students control student learning.
Students control student learning.
Students control student learning and, if
   necessary, will prove it to adults in
   most unexpected and sometimes
   disappointing ways
     Session Summative
        Assessment
• Its Attitude not Aptitude
• The teacher is the most important
  factor
• Support effective Collaborative
  Instructional Planning
• Use valid formative assessments to
  increase learning
                                    Sources
Chappuis, Stiggins, et. al., Assessment FOR Learning: An Action Guide for School Leaders,
   2004

Covey, The 8th Habit: From Effectiveness to Greatness, Free Press, 2004

Maryland State Department of Education, www.mdreportcard.org/index.aspx ,
   www.mdk12.org


Marzano, Classroom Management that Works, ASCD, 2003


Marzano, Waters, and McNulty, School Leadership that Works: From Research to Results,
   ASCD, 2005


Stiggins, Arter, et. al., Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing it Right- Using It
    Well, 2004

Classroom Assessment for Student Learning, Measured Progress, Assessment Training
   Institute, 2005

				
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