Iranian and Russian Revolutions by fionan

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									Iranian and Russian
Revolutions

    Steven King
Iranian Revolution

   In 1979, despite much economic growth,
    strong opposition to ruler Mohammad Reza
    Shah
   Opposed because of use of secret police, the
    Savak, to control country and policies
    favoring America but violating the Qu’ran and
    the Iranian Constitution of 1907
   Opposition led by Ayatollah Khomeini
Iranian Revolution

   At first, he was exiled to Iraq and France and
    his message was distributed through music
    cassette tapes smuggled into Iran in small
    numbers
   On January 16, 1979, Shah left Iran because
    of advanced lymphatic cancer
   Shapour Bakhtiar, his prime minister, could
    no longer control the country
Iranian Revolution

   Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran on
    February 1
   Ten days later Bakhtiar went into hiding
   People who opposed the Shah started
    executing hundreds of people
   Had a national vote in which the only thing
    written on the ballot was “Islamic Republic:
    Yes or No”
Iranian Revolution

   The Islamic Republic won with a landslide
    victory
   On April 1, Ayatollah Khomeini declared a
    new constitution with his ideals of Islamic
    government
   He became the supreme spiritual leader of
    Iran and many protests were held against
    many of his new rules, such as extreme
    regulations on women’s dress code
Iranian Revolution

   On November 4, Islamic students stormed
    the US embassy and took 66 people hostage
   The prime minister Mehdi Bazargan resigned
    and a new president was elected
   In 1980, Beni Sadr was elected president
   Due to the political turmoil, Iraq saw its
    neighbor as weak and invaded, but Iran had
    surprising defensive success
Iranian Revolution

   On January 20, 1981 the hostages from the
    US embassy were finally released
   Sadr was removed from power by Ayatollah
    Khomeini and Ali Rajai was elected in his
    place
   On August 30, Rajai and his prime minister
    were killed in a bombing
   Hojatoleslam Seyed Ali Khamenei was
    elected
Iranian Revolution

   By the summer of 1982, Iran had recaptured
    all the territory gained by Iraq and drove them
    out completely
   On August 20, 1988, Iraq and Iran called a
    cease fire and accepted UN resolution 598
Russian Revolution

   Split into two parts called the February
    Revolution and the October Revolution
February Revolution

   Sparked from WWI and dissatisfaction with
    the way the country was being run by Tsarina
    Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse and Tsar
    Nicholas' ministers while the Tsar was away
    at war
   WWI was causing most of Russia’s internal
    problems and Nicholas’s personal
    assumption of command displayed him in a
    bad light
February Revolution

   In August of 1914, all political parties had
    supported WWI, but as the war advanced
    Russia slipped into a state of decline
   The factories were not productive enough,
    the railways were insufficient, and the general
    logistics of Russia were poor
   The moral of troops was low and mutinies
    sprang up frequently
February Revolution

   On the home front, they were threatened by
    famine and commodities were scarce
   The conditions were right for an uprising
       Harsh winter
       Food Shortage
       General disagreement with the war
   Strikes from workers in Petrograd marked the
    beginning of a revolution
February Revolution

   The strikes started at the major plant, Putilov,
    and spread to the other plants
   Eventually the majority of the town was on
    strike
   The people started rioting and clashed with
    the police, resulting in casualties on both
    sides
   They invaded the police headquarters for
    weapons
February Revolution

   The Tsar sent a battalion to suppress the
    riots, but most of the soldiers deserted and
    aided the uprising
   The Tsar refused to believe reports
   He got word that his children had contacted
    measles and returned home
   The train was diverted by disloyal troops
   When it arrived, his army chiefs and prime
    ministers suggested he resign
February Revolution

   He abdicated and nominated Grand Duke
    Michael Alexandrovich to succeed him
   The Grand Duke declined and the Provisional
    Government gained control of Russia
   The Provisional Government came under the
    control of a Social Revolutionary named
    Alexander Kerensky
February Revolution

   The Petrograd Soviet issued Order No. 1,
    which ordered the army to obey them rather
    than the Provisional Government
   The dual authority between the Petrograd
    Soviet and the Provisional Government was
    replaced during the October Revolution
October Revolution

   Also known as the Bolshevik Revolution
   The frustrations of workers and soldiers at a
    failed attack on Germany and erupted into
    riots in July
   A group of 20,000 armed sailors march to
    Petrograd and demanded that the Soviet take
    power
   After the riots were stifled, the government
    blamed the Bolsheviks
October Revolution

   The Kornilov Affair also abetted the revolution
   Alexander Kerensky, who was involved in
    both the Provisional Government and the
    Petrograd Soviet, felt he needed a
    trustworthy military leader
   He appointed Lavr Kornilov, but Kornilov saw
    it as an opportunity to take control of
    Petrograd for himself
October Revolution

   When Kerensky realized what happened, the
    Bolshevik’s Red Guard offered to defend the
    city
   Even though the seizure never actually took
    place, the Bolsheviks were seen as the
    “defenders of the city”
   Kerensky’s reputation was irreversibly
    damaged
October Revolution

   Shortly afterwards, Lenin led an uprising in
    St. Petersburg against Kerensky’s ineffective
    Provisional Government
   The revolt in Petrograd was essentially
    bloodless with the Red Guard seizing control
    of government facilities with little resistance
   The final assault was made on the Winter
    Palace
October Revolution

   Most movies about this seize depict troops
    storming the castle, but they basically just
    walked in the front door
   Over half of the Russian Congress were
    Bolsheviks, so after the seizure they voted
    that the power be transferred to the Soviet
   The revolution transformed Russian from a
    liberal nation to a socialist
Similarities

   Both revolutions installed a new type of
    government
   The leaders of both revolutions were exiled at
    one point because of their involvement with
    the revolution
Differences

   The Iranian Revolution had much bloodshed,
    but the Russian Revolution did not
   The Iranian Revolution had religious and
    political reasons involved, while the Russian
    Revolution was social and political
Works Cited

   http://www.iranchamber.com/
   http://www.wikeipedia.com

								
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