EMERGING-ROLES-OF-COMMUNITY-FOREST-ASSOCIATIONS-IN-KENYA-THE- by akgame

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									    EMERGING ROLES OF COMMUNITY FOREST
           ASSOCIATIONS IN KENYA:
   THE CASES OF ARABUKO – SOKOKE FOREST
ADJACENT DWELLERS ASSOCIATION (ASFADA) AND
 MERU FOREST ENVIROMENTAL AND PROTECTION
      COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION (MEFECAP)


 Ongugo, P.O; Mbuvi, M.T.E; Obonyo. E, Mogoi, J, Maua, J.O;
                ‘Koech C.K and Othim R.A

Paper presented to the International Conference on Poverty
Reduction and Forests: Tenure, Market and Policy Reforms.
               3rd to 7th September, 2007
                    Bangkok, Thailand.
               INTRODUCTION
   PFM is being adopted in developing
    countries as an alternative method of
    sustainably managing forestry resources

   Community Forest Management is the most
    emphasized approach of implementing PFM.

   Objectives are equity, conflict resolution,
    awareness, forest production, poverty
    reduction and sustainable utilization.
          INTRODUCTION cont’d
   Government has recognized role played by
    FACs in ensuring that tree cover in Kenya
    increases from 2% to recommended 10%

   New Forest Act a positive move for local
    communities and this has begun to catalyze
    their involvement in management of forest
    resources.

   Local communities must join CFAs for them
    enter into co-management arrangements.
       FORMATION OF COMMUNITY FOREST
                 ASSOCIATIONS
   Forest Act 2005, section
    46 (1): member of forest
    community may together                             12




                               No. of Associations
    with other members or
                                                       10
                                                        8

    persons resident in the                             6


    same area, register a
                                                        4
                                                        2

    CFA under the Society’s                             0

    Act.




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                                                                    Forest Region

   All important forest
    regions in Kenya have at
    least a registered CFA
           CHALLENGES FACING CFAS
   Lack of transparency      Organization complexity
    among officials
                              Conflict of interests
   Failure of some
                              Group historical
    members to
                               problems
    contribute funds
                              Emergent problems
   Sharing of benefits
                              Capacity: inability to
   Dictatorial tendency
                               follow sustainable
    among some of the
                               utilization patterns
    leaders.
                  STUDY METHODS
   Study involved the collection of records of the
    annual meetings of CFAs operating in major
    forest ecosystems in Kenya.

   Additional information obtained from the results
    of the Action Research in Poverty and
    Participation (ARPIP) program carried out in
    Arabuko-Sokoke and Meru forests.

   Above data sources were reinforced from IFRI
    research which has gone on in the two forests
    for a period of nearly ten years.
                       About MEFECAP
   Was established to form an umbrella body for the groups
    within the Meru forest.
   Membership consists of the existing community groups
   The objectives of the CFA are as follows:
       To protect the forest through patrols and reporting illegal
        activities
       To plant and maintain plantations
       To protect water catchment areas by planting appropriate
        tree species
       To uplift the standards of living of members by starting
        income generating projects
       To educate members on the importance of forests and
        environmental conservation.
                      About ASFADA
   ASFADA started as a pilot under the name Dida
    Forest Adjacent Area Forest Association (DIFAAFA)
    to represent the dwellers adjacent Dida block of
    the Arabuko-Sokoke forest.
   The association was formed by three village forest
    development and conservation committees
    (VDFCC).
   The association later changed its name to The
    Arabuko Sokoke Forest Dwellers Association
    (ASFADA) to include the whole forest. This is the
    umbrella association responsible for all forestry
    activities in the area.
   The major aim of the association is to police and
    protect the forest. It also ensures that all the
    projects in the forest are run transparently.
              RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1.   Participation by
     Gender among CFAs
    Women manage 74% of
     Kenya’s smallholding
                                                    70

                                                    60


     farms; thus they hold the                      50



     power to sustainable




                                    % Composition
                                                    40




     production of the
                                                    30

                                                    20


     country’s land resources.                      10

                                                     0
                                                         KEEP         MEFECAP          KINNAFA     ASFADA

                                                                                CFAs
    The presence of youth                                      Men       Women            Youth

     men and women in forest
     associations is vital to the
     success and sustainability
     of the associations.
     2. Capacity building role
    CFAs have people who have worked in the forestry and
     agricultural sectors; they have knowledge of tree
     planting and management which they pass to others.
    There’s potential in the indigenous knowledge of CFAs
     since they have lived in the forests for a long period of
     time.
    3.   Benefits sharing role
    Community involvement in forest management and
     environmental conservation has often been based on the
     principle that forests provides intangible/indirect benefits
     to those communities thus discouraging their
     involvement.
    Tangible benefits available to studied CFAs from the
     forests contributed to the cohesiveness of the CFA
     members
    There is need to strengthen the principle of benefit
     sharing among CFA members.
4.     Management role
      In plantation forests, the Forest Act provides for CFAs to
       enter into concession to manage forests adjacent to them.
      Need for CFAs to train their members in silvicultural
       practices, forestry business and improve knowledge on the
       intricate management of food/cash crops together with
       trees.
5.     Conflict Resolution role
      Several foreseeable conflict areas that might hinder
       efficiency of CFAs:
          Conflict between individuals and corporate decisions
          Communities have short term focus due to poverty in
           contrast to long term focus for them to accrue benefits
          Problem of conservation versus exploitation of the forest
          Prevailing attitude of community
          CFAs are involved in solving such conflicts
                    CONCLUSION
   CFAs present opportunity to reduce the current
    pressure on forests

   Communities to be sensitized by CFAs on other
    sources of livelihood to diversify their income
    bases

   Forest communities to be mainstreamed among
    the vulnerable groups such as women, youth,
    the disabled etc

   Efficient implementation of CFAs require
    elaborate framework and coordinated efforts
    rather than isolated efforts by different agencies
    and supporters
               RECOMMENDATIONS
   The CFAs to be supported by government and
    other NRM agencies through training in conflict
    resolution, leadership, management skills and
    financial management.

   Farm forestry and establishment of botanical
    gardens for medicinal plants to be encouraged for
    communities to benefit.

   The national alliance (NACOFA) is to be
    strengthened to harmonize the activities of the
    different CFAs and be a centre of dissemination of
    information for the CFAs and the member
    communities to improve their roles in PFM
    implementation.

								
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