IT Change Management
 Do you manage change…or does it
          manage you?
         IT Change Management
   ISM 6305 Project Presentation
       Jenna Boley
       Andy Bouts
       Joel Ruisi
       Kirk Speer
       IT Change Management
   Why is it important?
   What does it mean?
   How is it implemented?
   What common strategies are in use?
   What are the success factors?
   Do real businesses use it?
   Concluding thoughts…
               Importance of Change
   Two major components causing increase
    in importance of Change Management.
       Globalization of work place
            Information System spanning across globe.
       Increased complexity of typical Information
            Technology increasing in complexity.
                  Importance of Change
   Globalization of work place.
       Typical organization spans across the globe.
            Telecommuting is commonly utilized in most
                 Creates need for global collaboration.
                 Collaboration made possible by Information Systems.
            Information System required to span across the
                 Increases the complexity of required Information
               Importance of Change
   Technology required to implement
    Information System changing rapidly.
       Increased technological capabilities creates
        increased complexity.
       Increased complexity creates need for
        advanced Change Management processes.
            Reduces complexity of Information System
             implementation and maintenance.
            Importance of Change
   Example of CM tool is Repository.
       Repository is central location to store
        documentation, code, etc.
       Allows global employees capability to access
        and update files, code, etc. from a remote
       Creates consistency between Telecommuting
       Provides capability to restore files to
        consistent state if needed.
Overview of Change Management
   Change Management is the task of
    managing change.
       Sounds simple, but tends to be extremely
       Often difficult for management to define and
       Oftentimes, makes or breaks an organization.
Overview of Change Management
   Organizational definition
       The process of continually renewing an
        organization’s direction, structure, and
        capabilities to serve the ever-changing needs
        of external and internal customers.
       Based on idea that change is inevitable.
          Organization must adapt to this inevitable change.
          Organization must position itself for change
  Overview of Change Management
   Process-Oriented Definition
         Abiding by particular processes that,
          “…encompasses the ability to record change
          and to govern the entire lifecycle of that
          change through phases such as request
          submission, approval, testing and final
         Attempts to manage change by affecting the
          micro, or smaller units of the organization.
Bradbury, Danny. “Change Management: Make sure everyone’s in tune.” Computer Weekly
Overview of Change Management
   Organizational and Process-Oriented
    definitions create Information Systems
       IS managers must consider both definitions
        because technology and information
        management are integral components in both
        developing organizational strategy and
        implementing the business processes.
       Implementation of Change
   Lewin’s Model for Change
   The Kubler-Ross Model
   The Satir Model
   Total Quality Management
   Six Sigma
        Lewin’s Model for Change
   Separates change into three stages.
       Unfreezing
            Getting ready for the change
       Changing
            Implementation of change
       Refreezing
            Wrap up the change process
   Goal is to maintain stability during the
    unfreezing and refreezing change.
       These are the stages that are most visible to
             The Kubler-Ross Model
   Based on the five stages of human
    reaction to the death of a loved one.
       Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and
       Able to relate the change in loss of life to
        change in organization.
            Allows managers to anticipate individual reactions
             throughout the change process.
                  The Kubler-Ross Model

Department of Defense Change Management Resource Center Website:
    Last accessed March 19, 2007
                      The Satir Model
   Five stages of the Satir Model
       Late Status Quo
            Employees are working at a familiar pace and performance is
             consistent with current expectations.
       Resistance
            The foreign element, or the change, has been introduced, requiring
             the group to initiate a response.
       Chaos
            Old expectations are no longer valid, old reactions may no longer
             be effective, and old behaviors may not be possible.
       Integration
            Employees discover a transforming idea that shows how the foreign
             element can benefit them.
       New Status Quo
            Employees become comfortable with the changes to be made and
             performance stabilizes as a higher level than in the late status quo.
                                     The Satir Model and
       presentations/toolswarrior.pdf. Last accessed March 19, 2007.
    Total Quality Management
   Management approach for an organization,
    centered on quality, based on the participation
    of all its members.
   Aimed at long-term success through customer
   Implementation
    1)   Identify a business process that needs to be
    2)   Develop metrics to measure the process.
    3)   Enable those involved in the process to develop
         ways to improve the process according to the
         Strategies Businesses Use
   There are several foundational principles
    that provide the underlying basis for
    models used by IS organizations
       Lewin’s Model
       Kubler-Ross Model
       Satir Model
         Strategies Businesses Use
   Organizational Common Strategies:
       6σ
       TQM
       BPR
   IS Systems Level Strategies:
       ITIL
       ITSM
           Organizational Common
            Strategies: Six Sigma
   6σ is both open source and formalized:
       It is open source because it is not owned by a
        single organization.
       It is formalized in that there are certification
        exams and certification levels.
           Six Sigma Processes
   6σ is based on a five point process
    commonly know as the acronym (DMAIC):
       Define
       Measure
       Analyze
       Implement
       Control
        Six Sigma Philosophies
   6σ is more of a process improvement
   6σ projects focus on improving a process
    of an output to a system
   6σ identifies changes that can be
    implemented to improve processes or
       Six Sigma Philosophies
   Focuses on effective implementation of
    proven quality principles / techniques
   Aims for virtually error free results
   Embodies the spirit of TQM while
    approaching business processes in a much
    more analytical manner
             Six Sigma Adopters
   6σ is used in many large organizations
    such as:
       General Electric (GE)
       Motorola
       Honeywell
       Dow Chemical
       Caterpillar
    IS Systems Level Strategies: ITIL
   Stands for the IT Infrastructure Library
   Set of books developed in the United
    Kingdom by the Office of Government
   Framework of best practices, it is not a “to
    do list”
                   ITIL Disciplines
   ITIL provides a framework for two types
    of processes:
       Service Support
          Communication Center as the single point of
           contact (SPOC)
          Incident Management

          Problem Management

          Change Management

          Configuration Management

          Release Management
              ITIL Disciplines
   Service Delivery
      Service Level Management
      IT Financial Management

      Capacity Management

      Availability Management

      IT Service Continuity Management

      IT Security Management
     ITIL and Change Management
                 Service Support
   Within Service Support, ITIL recommends that
    the organization has a communication center as
    the SPOC.
   A common misconception is that ITIL specifies
    that this support group be called the service
    desk. In fact, many websites claim to be a
    reliable ITIL source, yet they specify that a
    “service desk” is an actual ITIL discipline.
   Incident Management
   Problem Management
      ITIL and Change Management
                   Service Support
   Having a communication center as the SPOC
    reduces confusion in an organization and
    enables the support of IT to better meet user’s
   The communication center is a first line of
    response for an organization to manage
    incidents, or an event affecting normal service.
      ITIL and Change Management
                Incident Management
   Incident management is when the
    communication center tries to resolve the
    incident using a managed knowledge base,
    including system information, previous incidents,
    problems, and known errors.
   This is different than the discipline of Problem
      ITIL and Change Management
               Problem Management
   Problem Management is an ITIL discipline
    focused on incident trending.
   When trends among incidents are detected,
    groups of incidents are identified as problems.
   Problems are errors without a known cause.
   After the root cause of the problem is
    determined, the error is called a “known error.”
      ITIL and Change Management
                Change Management
   After the root cause is determined and a known
    error is identified, ITIL recommends that the
    Change Management discipline be employed to
    evaluate and test a solution to the known error.
   ITIL leverages change management to ensure
    that desired changes are made to the system
    and that they produce expected results.
             Change Management
   Many Change Management models/tools
    available to management.
   Management must select correct tool for
    the right circumstances.
       One model is not right for all situations.
   Management must consider how
    environment affects CM models/tools.
   How do you manage change?
       Very carefully!
       Must continually adjust to the ever changing
            Change is inevitable and constant.
       Management must create clear goals that are
        relatable to all participants.
   Finally, remember…
       Change is inevitable.
       Change Management is crucial.

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