IT Change Management Do you manage change…or does it manage you? IT Change Management ISM 6305 Project Presentation Jenna Boley Andy Bouts Joel Ruisi Kirk Speer IT Change Management Why is it important? What does it mean? How is it implemented? What common strategies are in use? What are the success factors? Do real businesses use it? Concluding thoughts… Importance of Change Management Two major components causing increase in importance of Change Management. Globalization of work place Information System spanning across globe. Increased complexity of typical Information System. Technology increasing in complexity. Importance of Change Management Globalization of work place. Typical organization spans across the globe. Telecommuting is commonly utilized in most organizations. Creates need for global collaboration. Collaboration made possible by Information Systems. Information System required to span across the globe. Increases the complexity of required Information System. Importance of Change Management Technology required to implement Information System changing rapidly. Increased technological capabilities creates increased complexity. Increased complexity creates need for advanced Change Management processes. Reduces complexity of Information System implementation and maintenance. Importance of Change Management Example of CM tool is Repository. Repository is central location to store documentation, code, etc. Allows global employees capability to access and update files, code, etc. from a remote location. Creates consistency between Telecommuting employees Provides capability to restore files to consistent state if needed. Overview of Change Management Change Management is the task of managing change. Sounds simple, but tends to be extremely complicated. Often difficult for management to define and implement. Oftentimes, makes or breaks an organization. Overview of Change Management Organizational definition The process of continually renewing an organization’s direction, structure, and capabilities to serve the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers. Based on idea that change is inevitable. Organization must adapt to this inevitable change. Organization must position itself for change adaptation. Overview of Change Management Process-Oriented Definition Abiding by particular processes that, “…encompasses the ability to record change and to govern the entire lifecycle of that change through phases such as request submission, approval, testing and final execution.” Attempts to manage change by affecting the micro, or smaller units of the organization. Bradbury, Danny. “Change Management: Make sure everyone’s in tune.” Computer Weekly Overview of Change Management Organizational and Process-Oriented definitions create Information Systems Compromise. IS managers must consider both definitions because technology and information management are integral components in both developing organizational strategy and implementing the business processes. Implementation of Change Management Lewin’s Model for Change The Kubler-Ross Model The Satir Model Total Quality Management Six Sigma Lewin’s Model for Change Separates change into three stages. Unfreezing Getting ready for the change Changing Implementation of change Refreezing Wrap up the change process Goal is to maintain stability during the unfreezing and refreezing change. These are the stages that are most visible to stakeholders. The Kubler-Ross Model Based on the five stages of human reaction to the death of a loved one. Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance Able to relate the change in loss of life to change in organization. Allows managers to anticipate individual reactions throughout the change process. The Kubler-Ross Model Department of Defense Change Management Resource Center Website: http://www.army.mil/aeioo/cm/model1.htm. Last accessed March 19, 2007 The Satir Model Five stages of the Satir Model Late Status Quo Employees are working at a familiar pace and performance is consistent with current expectations. Resistance The foreign element, or the change, has been introduced, requiring the group to initiate a response. Chaos Old expectations are no longer valid, old reactions may no longer be effective, and old behaviors may not be possible. Integration Employees discover a transforming idea that shows how the foreign element can benefit them. New Status Quo Employees become comfortable with the changes to be made and performance stabilizes as a higher level than in the late status quo. The Satir Model http://www.stevenmsmith.com/my-articles/article/the-satir-change-model.html and http://www.sei.cmu.edu/tsp/sym2006- presentations/toolswarrior.pdf. Last accessed March 19, 2007. Total Quality Management Management approach for an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members. Aimed at long-term success through customer satisfaction. Implementation 1) Identify a business process that needs to be improved. 2) Develop metrics to measure the process. 3) Enable those involved in the process to develop ways to improve the process according to the metric. Strategies Businesses Use There are several foundational principles that provide the underlying basis for models used by IS organizations Lewin’s Model Kubler-Ross Model Satir Model Strategies Businesses Use Organizational Common Strategies: 6σ TQM BPR IS Systems Level Strategies: ITIL ITSM Organizational Common Strategies: Six Sigma 6σ is both open source and formalized: It is open source because it is not owned by a single organization. It is formalized in that there are certification exams and certification levels. Six Sigma Processes 6σ is based on a five point process commonly know as the acronym (DMAIC): Define Measure Analyze Implement Control Six Sigma Philosophies 6σ is more of a process improvement methodology 6σ projects focus on improving a process of an output to a system 6σ identifies changes that can be implemented to improve processes or outputs Six Sigma Philosophies Focuses on effective implementation of proven quality principles / techniques Aims for virtually error free results Embodies the spirit of TQM while approaching business processes in a much more analytical manner Six Sigma Adopters 6σ is used in many large organizations such as: General Electric (GE) Motorola Honeywell Dow Chemical Caterpillar IS Systems Level Strategies: ITIL Stands for the IT Infrastructure Library Set of books developed in the United Kingdom by the Office of Government Commerce Framework of best practices, it is not a “to do list” ITIL Disciplines ITIL provides a framework for two types of processes: Service Support Communication Center as the single point of contact (SPOC) Incident Management Problem Management Change Management Configuration Management Release Management ITIL Disciplines Service Delivery Service Level Management IT Financial Management Capacity Management Availability Management IT Service Continuity Management IT Security Management ITIL and Change Management Service Support Within Service Support, ITIL recommends that the organization has a communication center as the SPOC. A common misconception is that ITIL specifies that this support group be called the service desk. In fact, many websites claim to be a reliable ITIL source, yet they specify that a “service desk” is an actual ITIL discipline. Incident Management Problem Management ITIL and Change Management Service Support Having a communication center as the SPOC reduces confusion in an organization and enables the support of IT to better meet user’s needs. The communication center is a first line of response for an organization to manage incidents, or an event affecting normal service. ITIL and Change Management Incident Management Incident management is when the communication center tries to resolve the incident using a managed knowledge base, including system information, previous incidents, problems, and known errors. This is different than the discipline of Problem Management. ITIL and Change Management Problem Management Problem Management is an ITIL discipline focused on incident trending. When trends among incidents are detected, groups of incidents are identified as problems. Problems are errors without a known cause. After the root cause of the problem is determined, the error is called a “known error.” ITIL and Change Management Change Management After the root cause is determined and a known error is identified, ITIL recommends that the Change Management discipline be employed to evaluate and test a solution to the known error. ITIL leverages change management to ensure that desired changes are made to the system and that they produce expected results. Change Management Implementation Many Change Management models/tools available to management. Management must select correct tool for the right circumstances. One model is not right for all situations. Management must consider how environment affects CM models/tools. Conclusion How do you manage change? Very carefully! Must continually adjust to the ever changing environment. Change is inevitable and constant. Management must create clear goals that are relatable to all participants. Finally, remember… Change is inevitable. Change Management is crucial.