Inequality-and-Discrimination-in-Tertiary-Education by akgame

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									 Inequality and Discrimination
     in Tertiary Education



Camilo Garcia, M. Ed.
                                -3 -




Inequality and Discrimination in
       Tertiary Education

              “The foundation of every state
               is the education of its youth.”

   By: Diogenes Laertius, author of The Lives of the Philosophers
                                      -4 -

      Inequality and Discrimination
          in Tertiary Education

   Historical overview of Tertiary
    Education in the Americas
                                                                                      -5 -

        Inequality and Discrimination
            in Tertiary Education

   Four basic structural ‘models’ for tertiary
    institutions:

       Elitist               –   aims at quantitative limitations
       Vertical              –   Structured and separated components
       Unitary model         –   aims to establish uniformity to reduce inequality
       Recurrent education   –   the acquisition of occupational qualifications
                                                               -6 -

         Inequality and Discrimination
             in Tertiary Education
1.   Martin Trow's definition of access to Higher Education

2.   Economic factors

3.   Lack of cohesion

4.   Student Affairs Components

5.   Weaknesses in the system

6.   Emergency Education

7.   Importance (value) given to education and other factors

8.   IMF and WB requirements and demands on countries

9.   Millennium Goals 2nd Summit of the Americas
                                                -7 -

     Inequality and Discrimination
         in Tertiary Education

1.   Martin Trow’s (1973) three phases in the
     development of higher education in every
     advanced society:

      Education for the elite    (5 %)
      Education for the masses   (20 %)
      Universal education        (60 %)
                                                                      -8 -

     Inequality and Discrimination
         in Tertiary Education
2.   Economic factors
        Initial inequality is related to the frequently inadequate
         health and nutrition of poor children
        Extremely high costs of tertiary education
        Tertiary education is exclusively private or extremely
         competitive
        During economic recession – tertiary education is affected
        Need for child to work
        Lack of opportunities after graduation
           -   High unemployment rates
           -   Lack of a labor market for given industry
           -   Need for a meritocratic and democratic society

        Universal approach versus a particularistic approach to
         education and economic reform
     - Contemporary proposals often attempt a ‘fix all’ approach
                                                           -9 -

Inequality and Discrimination
    in Tertiary Education
         U.S. Higher Education Institutions




    Source: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2005/10/19/tuition
                                   - 10 -

Inequality and Discrimination in
   Tertiary Higher Education
        Inequality and Discrimination                                   - 11 -




            in Tertiary Education
3.       Lack of cohesion
Skill level                                   Secondary and tertiary
                                               institutions are not working
     University                                together to bridge gaps in
                   Educational dead-end        tertiary opportunities
                            Short cycle
                                              Weak linkages between
     Learning           for non-university     universities and non-
       gap                   education
                                               university tertiary
     Low quality
      Secondary
                                               institutions
                                              No systems for the transfer
                                               of academic credits
             Inequality and Discrimination                                                                                                                                             - 12 -


                    in Tertiary Education
Low quality, lack of relevance
and brain drain
                                   Insufficient
           Professors with PhDs     qualifications of
                 45%
                                    university professors
                 40%

                 35%               Deteriorating physical
                 30%                facilities, lack of
                 25%
                                    equipment, obsolete
                 20%
                                    instruction material
                                    and outdated curricula
                 15%

                 10%

                   5%              University graduates
                   0%
                                    do not meet the skills
                                    needs in the economy
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Source: Brunner (2002), World Bank (2002); UK Higher Education Statistics Agency Individualized Staff Record 2001/02; García Gaudilla (1998) and Schwartzman and Balbachevsky (1996)
                                                 - 13 -

    Inequality and Discrimination
        in Tertiary Education

4. Student Affairs Components

        Feeling disenfranchised
        Special treatment leads to resentment
        Lack of or no cultural cohesion
        No extra curricular component
                   Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education                                    - 14 -




     5.                  Weakness in the system
                Degree of knowledge transfer between
  10                  universities and industry                                        Low production and
   9
                                                                                        mobility of Ph.D.’s and
   8
                                                                                        post-docs
   7

   6
                                                                                       Inward orientation of
   5                                                                                    university researchers
   4                                                                                   Lack of incentives to
   3
                                                                                        commercialize
   2
                                                                                        research and solve
                                                                                        real-life problems
   1

   0

                                                                                       Red tape impeding
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                                                                                        cross-sectoral mobility
Source: IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2003
                                                                                                 - 15 -

            Inequality and Discrimination in
                  Tertiary Education
                  Weak system and institutional management
       Regional
     governments
                                                                            Weak university
                                                                             management
                                                                             structures
     Regional             Private           Public             Science
Tertiary institutions   Universities      Universities         Agency



                                                                            Insufficient capacity in
 International
                               Tertiary
                              Education
                                                         Private             ministries of education
                                                                             for sector oversight
   networks                                              Sector
                               System


                                                                             and strategy
                         Ministry of Education,
                        Science and Technology
                                                                            Low access to relevant
                                                                             management
             Multilateral Organizations
                                                                             information
                                             Inequality and Discrimination                                                                        - 16 -


                                                 in Tertiary Education
                                          Large increase in tertiary enrollment
                                                   in recent decades
                                 60


                                 50
Tertiary gross enrollment rate




                                 40


                                 30


                                 20

                                 10


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                                                                        1965   1975    1985      1995      2000
                                                                                                                                                  Source: WDI 2003
               Inequality and Discrimination in Tertiary Education                                                                      - 17 -



Growth in private provision and non-university tertiary
education
              Percent of total enrollment
      Year     75%-40%        40%-30%                30%-20%                     20%-10%                     Less than
                                                                                                             10%


      1985     Brazil         Chile                  Argentina                   Costa Rica                  Bolivia
               Colombia       El Salvador            Guatemala                   Ecuador                     Panama
               Dom.           Peru                   Paraguay                    Honduras                    Uruguay
               Republic                                                          Mexico                      Cuba
                                                                                 Nicaragua
                                                                                 Venezuela


      2002*    Brazil         Venezuela              Costa Rica                  Honduras                    Bolivia
               Colombia                              Ecuador                                                 Panama
               Chile                                 Argentina                                               Uruguay
               Dom.                                  Guatemala                                               Cuba
               Republic                              Mexico
               El Salvador
               Nicaragua
               Paraguay
               Peru

                                          Source: Schwartzman (2002); World Bank (2002c and 2003); Zúñiga (2003); OECD (2002a) and García Gaudilla (1998)
                                                 - 18 -

     Inequality and Discrimination in
           Tertiary Education
6.    Emergency education
         Poor preparedness for:

              Civil war or armed conflict
              Natural disasters
                  I.E. Hurricane Katrina

              Economic issues
              Political climate (lip service)
              Epidemics
                                                    - 19 -

     Inequality and Discrimination in
           Tertiary Education
7.    Importance of education

       Political lip service (campaign promises)
       Funding and proper allocation

       Parents own educational achievements

       Gender inequality

       Ethnic divisions

       Tertiary education seen as a luxury
                                   - 20 -

Inequality and Discrimination in
   Tertiary Higher Education
                                                        - 21 -

 Inequality and Discrimination in
    Tertiary Higher Education
8.   IMF and World Bank
      Lack of seriousness: UN Millennium Project has
       found that multilateral and bilateral institutions
       have not encouraged the countries to take the
       MDG seriously as operational objectives
      IMF and WB loan requirements are stringent and
       lead developing nations to compromises that are
       not always in their country’s economic and socials
       best interests.
      Knowledge based economy (WB, 2003)
                                                     - 22 -

      Inequality and Discrimination
          in Tertiary Education
9. Millennium Goals:

     Education
         Universal primary education, expanded
          secondary and tertiary education by 2015
     Gender equality
     Science, technology and innovation
                                   - 23 -

Inequality and Discrimination in
   Tertiary Higher Education
                                      - 24 -

Inequality and Discrimination in
   Tertiary Higher Education




              Source: UN MDG Report
                                                                                   - 25 -

              Inequality and Discrimination
               in Tertiary Higher Education
          2nd Summit of the Americas
           The principal objective set by the 2nd
           Summit of the Americas consisted of:
                       Universal access to quality primary education for all children
           and access to quality secondary education for at least 75 percent of
           young people while providing the general population with opportunities
           for life-long learning

                      However, secretary general Jose Miguel Insulza recently
           stated that the most talked about and advanced topic was the free
           trade negotiations. Primary example of lip service.



CP15633

								
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