Slide 1 - Texas Tech University

					Openings and Closings


   Beyond Facts
Report Superstructure

                  Report Superstructure
Report Element       Readers’ Questions
Introduction         What will we gain from reading your report?

Method               Are your facts reliable?

Facts                What do you know that is useful to us?

Discussion           How do you interpret those facts from our
                     point of view?
Conclusions          How are those facts significant to us?

Recommendations      What do you think we should do?
The Introduction

   Needs a thesis statement.
   Identify a problem.
   Includes the purpose and scope of your
    report.
   Forecast the body of the report (its scope).
   List any relevant topics you don’t discuss.
   Provide background information the reader
    may need to understand your report. (If
    lengthy, do so in a separate section.)
                                  Introduction

   The Texas Tech University’s (TTU) women’s basketball team is a crowd
pleaser, selling out home games at the United Spirit Arena in good years.
However, the men’s basketball team suffers from low attendance figures filling
less than half the United Spirit Arena.

Purpose and Scope
   The purpose of this report, is to recommend ways to increase student
attendance at TTU men’s basketball games.

    I will focus on the three topics: the factors that affect student attendance,
ways that student awareness of the men’s team can be increased, and loyalty
programs as a way of increasing attendance. I will briefly discuss how
attendance and newspaper publicity correlate to the win/loss record.

   I will not discuss the cost of or the return investment of my
recommendations. I will not discuss how changes in coaching or recruiting
might affect attendance.
INTRODUCTION
When banner ads on Web pages first appeared in 1994, the initial response, or “click-
through” rate was about 10%. However, as ads have proliferated on Web pages, the
click-through rate has dropped sharply. Rather than assuming that any banner ad will
be successful, we need to ask, What characteristics do successful banner ads share?
Are the ads for certain kinds of products and services or for certain kinds of
audiences more likely to be successful on the Web? The purpose of this report is to
summarize the available research and anecdotal evidence and to recommend what
Leo Burnett should tell its clients about whether and how to use banner ads.


Report audience: Leo Burnett Advertising Agency
Introduction
___________________________________
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
       The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personally assessment based upon
       Jungian personality type principles. These principles are useful in identifying-the
       cognitive approaches and methods that people use when dealing with their
       environment and when solving problems; such information may be useful to teachers
       of composition. As my final project for the graduate seminar in teaching technical
       writing, I have studied the theory behind MBTI and research which has used MBTI and
       evaluated the feasibility of using the instrument in Writing Program courses.
       My study (1) examined the practical use of the MBTI for teachers, particularly of
       composition and technical writing; (2) examined the cost that would be incurred in
       using the assessment; (3) determined the possibility of useful research information
       resulting from use of the MBTI in Writing Program courses; and (4) on the basis of cost
       to practical value, determine the feasibility of the project.
       This report summarizes the results of the study, draws conclusions, and recommends
       actions to be taken. The central portion of the report provides a detailed discussion of
       the results of the study.
Background Section

Formal reports usually have a section that
  gives a background of the situation or a
  history of the problem. Depending on length,
  can be included in the
 Introduction, or

 A separate section at the beginning of the
  body of the report.
Overview: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

_______________________________
Background of MBTI

       The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a self-reporting instrument for the identification
       of personality type. Its personality type system is based on the personality types of Carl
       Jung, founder of analytical psychology. Jung postulated that individuals gravitate toward
       certain cognitive preferences. These cognitive preferences do not determine behavior, but
       rather, explain it. Thus, personality typing is a method by which individuals can
       understand their own cognitive styles, as well as become more aware of others’ styles.
       Understanding styles helps individuals to recognize differences in approach people have
       when dealing with the outer world, thinking processes, judgmental processes, and
       perceptual processes. Jung’s, and by extension, Myers and Brigg’s theory, in no way
       places value on any preference. The purpose of assessing personality and getting to know
       differing types is to learn to see the value in others’ ways of thinking. By understanding
       others’ processes, an individual is capable of using his or her own talents in combination
       with others’ to be more effective. Additionally, understanding different personality types,
       as well as our own, allows us to realize what areas of our own cognitive processes need
       development. It also shows how we may favor our own processes so much as to be
       biased toward other processes—it points out our “blind spots.”
Methods

   If you use only library and online services,
    you do not need a “Methods” section.
   Instead, briefly describe your services in
    short paragraph in the “Introduction” section
   If you collected original data, tell how you
    chose whom to study, what kind of a sample
    you used, and on what date's) you collected
    the information.
Methods
The information for this report comes from library and online sources, interviews
with Athletic department staff, and a survey of 50 Texas Tech students, using a
convenience sample. I surveyed students during the lunch hour in the Texas Tech
Student Union dining area on July 23, 2004. I walked around the room and asked
everyone if he or she would be willing to answer the survey, until I had 50
people.


The people filling out the survey represent all academic ranks at TTU from
undergraduate students to graduate students. Sixty percent of the respondents are
male, and forty percent are female. Sixty-eight percent of the people surveyed
have never attended a men’s basketball game, although 62% watch men’s games.
(See Appendix A for the raw data.)
Facts

   Facts are individual pieces of information that
    you gathered.
   You can present facts by interpreting them for
    your reader.
   You also can combine facts with your
    discussion of them into the same section.
___________________________
Type Distribution
       The distribution of the type dichotomies in the general population of adults in the United
       States according to Jefferies (p. 48-9) is as follows:
       Extravert (E) 70%                    Introvert (I) 30%
       Sensory (S) 70%                      Intuitive (N) 30%
       Thinking (T) 50%                     Feeling (F) 50%
       Judger (J) 55%                       Perceiver (P) 45%
       Although it appears that Ts and Fs are equally spit in the population, this trait is theonly
       one that shows a male-female bias. Of the 60% reporting F, about 66% are female, and
       of the 60% reporting T, about 66% are male. This gender bias has stayed constant over
       the course of many years of testing. Keirsey (2001) estimates that the sixteen types
       break down into the following percentages:
                   ISTJ, ISFJ, ISTP, ISFP              6% each
                   INTJ, INFJ, INTP, INFP              1% each
                   ESTP, ESFP, ESTJ, ESFJ 13% each
                   ENFP, ENTP, ENFJ, ENTJ              5% each
       From these two sets of figures, it is clear that the previously noted percentage of 90%
       intuitives teaching composition (PTC, p. 165) is dramatically different from the population
       at large, where approximately 30% are Ns. More dramatically, the Jensen and DiTiberio
       survey showed that 55% were INs, which should only account for 4% of the population
       at large (167).
Discussion

The Discussion is the interpretation of facts
Interpretation: The university’s horseback riding courses have
   grown substantially in recent years, due largely to the
   enthusiastic and effective leadership of Mr. Lucas, who took
   over as Stable Manager five years ago.
Facts: When Mr. Lucas, arrived, the university offered three
   courses: beginning, intermediate, and advanced riding. Since
   then two courses have been added, one in mounted instruction
   and on in the training of horses.
I. Introduction
II. Overview: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
III. Usefulness of MBTI in the Classroom
         A.Applications
         B. Possible Research Topics
IV. Costs of Implementation
         A. MBTI Materials
         B. Alternative Materials
         C. Training Costs
IV. Conclusions and Recommendations
         A. Conclusions
         B. Recommendations
Conclusions

   General statements based on your facts, and
    the most widely read part of your report.
   Answer the readers’ question, “How are
    those facts significant to us?”
   Repeat points made in the report.
   Combine the Conclusion section with the
    Recommendations if they are short:
    Conclusions and Recommendations.
   Can present in paragraphs or a bulleted list.
Recommendations

   Actions the readers should take.
   Numbering points make it easy for readers to
    discuss recommendations.
   The list also provides visual emphasis.
   Make sure items in a list are parallel (Is this list
    parallel?)
   Provide enough information so that the reason is
    clear all by itself.
   The ideas must be logical extensions of the points
    made in the body of the report.
   Give brief rationale after each recommendation if it
    is controversial or complex.
Conclusion
In conclusion, my investigation indicates that the university’s riding programs could
    benefit substantially from a fundraising effort. However, the appeal of such a
    program will be limited primarily to the very supportive alumni who used the
    university stables while students took classes.
OR
V. Conclusions
A. There are some potentially serous morale problems
B. But the study results show that there is time to address the underlying sources of these
    problems.
VI Recommendations
A. Immediately distribute a report on the results throughout the company
     1. Let it be written by the Human Resources Department with help from Public
        Relations.
     2. This report will demonstrate company concern for employees.
V1. Conclusions and Recommendations
A. Conclusion
  1. The riding program would benefit from more funds.
  2. The major contributors would be alumni for the program.
B. Recommendations
  1. Conduct a fundraising drive for a new barn.
  2. Do not seek funds for arena and classroom.
                      Conclusions and Recommendations

   A majority of students like basketball and might be interested in going to the TTU
   men’s games if it occurred to them to go or if their friends went, too. To increase
   attendance, the Athletic Department should

1. Implement short-term marketing in the fall. Capitalize on the Raider Men’s
    winning streak last year to attract a higher attendance this year. Since basketball
    season is only a quarter away, it might be smart to focus on increased awareness
    for the upcoming season.
•     Ask the men basketball players to host impromptu meet-and-greets.
•     Ask Coach Bob Knight to sign autographs during pre-game activities.

2. Use TTU students to develop long-term marketing program and a formal
   publicity campaign. Changing perceptions takes time and many messages.

3. Consider adopting a loyalty program. A loyalty program allows the Athletic
   Department to reward students for behaviors it wants to encourage by giving
   them useful marketing information. Further research is needed to study the
   financial implications of implementing such a program.
Conclusions and Recommendations
______________________________
Conclusions
Several conclusions come out of this feasibility study.
• Teachers can utilize personality typing to better understand their own cognitive approaches to
           writing and teaching.
•Personality type is useful for coaching basic writing students such as those found in in English 104.
•Personality typing is useful for coaching advanced writing students.
•Many research opportunities exist for using personality typing for the analysis of writing, cognitive
          strategies, and teaching strategies.
•Training costs would be negligible, as volunteer led pre-semester workshops would cover all
            necessary information.
_______________________________
Recommendations
The TTU English department and the Writing Program staff should take the necessary steps for
implementing the Keirsey-Bates personality typing system in Writing Program classes. The steps are
as follow:
• Approve the plan so that I can develop the written materials necessary to administer the instrument
and lead the pre-semester workshop on Myers-Briggs personality typing.
•Propose the project to the English department so that it can receive consideration for the ’93-’94
fiscal year.
•If approved, reproduce the materials necessary for the administration of the instrument to students,
and the materials for the workshop.
Headings

Single words, short phrases, or completes sentences
  that cover all of the material until the next heading.
 Use Talking Heads within the body of the report.
    Which is more specific: “Background” or “Attendance of TTU
    Men’s Basketball Home Games”
   Triple space(2 blank spaces) before major headings;
    double-space after (one blank space).
   Create subheadings when you have two or more
    sub points.
   For further subdivisions within headings use bold,
    capitalize all main words, and end with period.
                Increasing Marketing Through Attendance
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Loyalty Program
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