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					Medical Technology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Network Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Medical
                                                                                                                                                                                                24




                                                                                                                                                       Strategic Area Medical Technology




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Strategic Area Medical Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Professor Berit Johansen
– Generating innovative ideas and solutions                                                                                                                                                     20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (berit.johansen@bio.ntnu.no), Medical
                                                                                                                                                                                                18




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                16                                                                         Biotechnology
There will be an increased demand for services in future healthcare,                                                                                                                            14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Professor Finn Drabløs
                                                                                                                                                                                                12
thus focus on cost efficient patient treatment is essential. In an                                                                                                                                                                                                         (finn.drablos@ntnu.no), Programme for
                                                                                                                                                                                                10
effort to meet future demand for high-quality patient treatment, new      International evaluation of the strategic area                                                                         8                                                                         Bioinformatics
medical technology can be part of the solution. Medical technology        NTNU’s six strategic areas were evaluated by international panels in                                                   6                                                                       • Professor Olav Haraldseth
offer patients improved well-being due to less invasive procedures        2007. The objective was to evaluate the NTNU Strategic Areas as an                                                     4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (olav.haraldseth@ntnu.no), MI Lab
                                                                                                                                                                                                 2
and individually adapted treatments. NTNU contains some of the            instrument for NTNU to achieve its goals as a university of highest                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Associate professor Arild Faxvaag
strongest communities within technology and medical research              scientific quality and societal relevance. The evaluation should iden-                                                     1992     1994   1996   1998    2000     2002   2004   2006   2008     (arild.faxvaag@ntnu.no),
in Norway. When the six strategic areas at NTNU were evaluated            tify scientific results achieved with a special focus on added value of                                                           Total     Dr. med      Dr. ing                                 Health Informatics
in 2007 the conclusion was that taking advantage of the combined          the Strategic Area and assess whether the Strategic Area’s organiza-                                                  Table 1: PhD degrees in medical Technology.                              • Professor Hans Olav Myhre
expertise in engineering, bioscience and medical research was an          tional and financial circumstances were suited to promote its perfor-                                                                                                                            (hans.olav.myhre@stolav.no), The
excellent move, which should be further developed and strengthened.       mance. The launching of coordinated activities on thematic areas of                                                                                                                              Operating Room of the Future
                                                                          large importance in 1999 was expected to promote multidisciplinary                                                    The strategic area Medical Technology at                                 • Associate professor Aksel Tjora
The strategic area Medical Technology aims to be the key arena for        teamwork between already highly competent research groups, in                                                         NTNU includes:                                                             (aksel.tjora@svt.ntnu.no), Societal
technology and medicine at NTNU, and have an international impact         order to create knowledge and solutions for the society.                                                              • Medical Imaging                                                          Aspects
as well. The new St. Olav’s University Hospital is currently under                                                                                                                              • Medical Biotechnology                                                  • Professor Toril N. Hernes
construction in Trondheim, where we are integrating the university        The evaluation panel for Medical technology states that “… the                                                        • Bioinformatics                                                           (toril.n.hernes@sintef.no), National
and hospital floor space. Our experience is that the university hospi-    creation of the strategic area Medical Technology has been an excel-                                                  • Biomechanics                                                             center of competence for 3D ultrasound in
tal facilitates productive interaction between researchers, clinicians,   lent move by NTNU to take advantage of the combined expertise in                                                      • Biomedical optics                                                        minimally invasive surgery
students from different faculties and engineers on a daily basis. We      engineering, bioscience and medical research.” Focus areas such                                                       • Nanomedicine                                                           • Researcher Lise Randeberg
have experienced several important developments in technology             as Medical imaging, and sub areas such as Biomedical optics are                                                       • Health informatics                                                       (lise.randeberg@iet.ntnu.no), Biomedical
due to the proximity between the Engineering and Medical School at        described as scientific excellent and world leading. The evaluation                                                   • Operating Room of the Future                                             Optics
NTNU and St. Olav’s University Hospital. One result has been the de-      panel also particularly points out that integration of the research                                                   • Societal Aspects of New Technologies                                   • Professor Petter Aadahl
velopment in ultrasound technology, and I am proud that we in 2007        aspect into the clinical activity in the new university hospital is unique                                            • Medical Simulation center                                                (petter.aadahl@ntnu.no), Medical
established one of the few Norwegian centers for Research-based           in a global perspective. This represents a potential for further develo-                                                                                                                         simulation center
Innovation at our university in Ultrasound and MRI (Medical Imaging       ping the multidisciplinary cooperation between research, develop-                                                     Professor Stig Slørdahl is Dean at the                                   • Professor Bjørn Skallerud
Laboratory for Innovative Future Healthcare, MI Lab). In May 2007 the     ment and clinical application. The evaluation report gives valuable                                                   Faculty of Medicine and Director of the                                    (bjoern.skallerud@ntnu.no),
biomechanics group, which is one of the small research groups in          advice on how to further strengthen the strategic area both in means                                                  Strategic Area of Medical Technology.                                      Biomechanics
Medical Technology, signed a contract to be a formal partner in the       of scientific focus, organizational and strategically development. The                                                                                                                         • Associate professor Pawel Sikorski
Centre of Excellence ”Center for biomedical computing” at Simula          overall evaluation of NTNU’s strategic areas points out that changes                                                                                                                             (pawel.sikorski@ntnu.no), Nanomedicine
Research Laboratory in Oslo. 2007 was an exciting year for us in the      in how the strategic areas are organized, allocation of resources and                                                 Research Management Team
strategic area Medical Technology, and we are really looking forward      clearer objectives, are necessary to achieve the university’s main                                                    • Dean, professor Stig Slørdahl                                          Coordinator Karin Tømmerås
to continue all the projects we have started and to increase our          goals. The strategic area will put effort in following up the recom-                                                    (stig.slordahl@ntnu.no), director of                                   (karin.tommeras@ntnu.no)
impact internationally.                                                   mendations of the report in the years to come.                                                                          Medical Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Professor Catharina Davies                                             Visit us at
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (catharina.davies@ntnu.no), Faculty of                                 http://www.ntnu.no/medtek (Norwegian) or
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Natural Sciences and Technology                                        http://www.ntnu.no/medtech (English)
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Professor Bjørn Skallerud




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Annual Report 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (bjoern.skallerud@ntnu.no), Faculty of
Stig Slørdahl                                                                                                                                                                                     Engineering, Science and Technology
Head of Medical Technology                                                                                                                                                                      • Professor Toril N. Hernes
Dean at the Faculty of Medicine                                                                                                                                                                   (toril.n.hernes@sintef.no), SINTEF Health
Director of the Strategic Area of Medical Technology                                                                                                                                              Research
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Professor Thomas Tybell
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (thomas.tybell@iet.ntnu.no), Faculty of
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Information, Technology, Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                                                                  and Electrical Engineering
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Associate professor Aksel Tjora
                                                                                                                                                                                                  (aksel.tjora@svt.ntnu.no), Faculty
                                                                                                                                                                                                  of Social Sciences and Technology
                                                                                                                                                           Strategic Area Medical Tehcnology      Management, and Faculty of Arts
                                                                                                                                                           NTNU                                 • Professor Gudmund Marhaug
                                                                          Dr. Sibylle Reichert (middle front) headed the international star-team of        Medical Technology Research Centre     (gudmund.marhaug@stolav.no), St.Olavs
                                                                          evaluators.                                                                      N-7489 Trondheim                       Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital
                                                                                                                                                           Tel: 73 59 88 59
                                                                                                                                                           Fax: 73 59 88 65



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          www.ntnu.no/medtech
Medical Technology – annual RepoRT 2007                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         www.ntnu.no/medtech




Medical technology research award to Husebye and Halaas                                       Health Informatics                                                                                                                                                       Biomedical optics                                                                                                                                                                                                 Biomechanics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Improved physiological understanding of the mitral apparatus
                                                         In 2007 the Medical Technology       The Health Informatics Programme is                                                                                                                                      D etec t i o n of ca rd i ov a s c u l a r d i s ea s e
                                                         Research Award was granted           a joint research programme between                                                                                                                                                                                                 One of the most dangerous features of arterial plaques is that they can rupture, obstruct the                                                           The mitral valve, located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart, prevents
                                                         to Harald Husebye and Øyvind         the strategic areas of Information and                                                                                                                                                                                             vessel, and cause a sudden heart attack. Being able to detect plaques likely to rupture is of                                                           blood from flowing back into the atrium during systole. Hence, it is of utmost importance
                                                         Halaas from the Department           Communication Technology (ICT) and                                                                                                                                                                                                 great clinical interest.                                                                                                                                for the circulation and health. Diseases related to the mitral valve often occur in the
                                                         of Cancer Research and Mole-         Medical Technology. The main focus of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      population. However, the detailed understanding of its function, both under healthy and
                                                         cular Medicine, based on their       the programme in 2007 is the Nor-                                                                                                                                                                                                  The topmost structure of plaques (the cap) consists mostly of collagen and can be imaged                                                                pathologic conditions, is not yet established. To remedy this, advanced porcine studies have
                                                         publication entitled ”Endocytic      wegian Centre for Electronic Patient                                                                                                                                                                                               and detected with multiphoton microscopy (MPM) using second harmonic generation. One                                                                    been carried out, where 3D ultrasound, morphology, mathematical modelling of the bio-
                                                         pathways regulate Toll-like re-      Records (NSEP) and its unique usability                                                                                                                                                                                            of the features which render plaque unstable is a thin cap. Due to the three-dimensional                                                                logical materials, and numerical simulations have been combined. An anatomically correct
                                                         ceptor 4 signaling and link innate   laboratory where up to three ward                                                                                                                                                                                                  sectioning capability of MPM we can also use this technique to measure the thickness of the                                                             geometry of the valve has been analysed, using 3D finite element simulations. The relative
                                                         and adaptive immunity” (EMBO         rooms can be set up for experimental                                                                                                                                                                                               plaques, characterizing one of the most important features of vulnerable plaques.                     operating Room of the Future                      importance of the chordae tendinae in carrying the heamodynamic load on the leaflets has
                                                         J 2006;25(4):683-92). The work       development of mobile health-it                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            been established. Furthermore, the importance of leaflet thickness and annulus shape
                                                         has made a great contribution to     systems. The usability lab has become                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (oRF)                                                                                have been quantified. This study has focused on healthy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Lilledahl MB et al. Characterization of vulnerable plaques by multiphoton microscopy. J
                                                         the understanding of molecular       a national test bed for both commer-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Operating Room of the Future (ORF) is a                                              objects, and will be followed up by investigating effects of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Biomed Opt. 2007;12(4):044005.
                                                         mechanisms underlying the            cial-grade and experimental, research                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    resource centre for future integration and                                           diseased tissues in the valve.
                                                         immune response through Toll-        based health-ICT systems. In 2007 an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     implementation of new technology and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Collagen fibers (red) and elastic fibers (green) imaged using second harmonic generation and
                                                         like receptor 4.                     all-time-high number of PhD students                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     instruments in hospital operating areas.                                            Prot V, Haaverstad R, Skallerud B. ”Finite element ana-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 two-photon excited fluorescence, respectively.
                                                                                              have completed their PhD.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In 2007 altogether 70 groups visited ORF, of                                        lysis of the mitral apparatus: annulus shape effect and
The two price winners, Øyvind Halaas and Harald Husebye receiving the award from Pro-Rector                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            which 31 were international and represented                                         chordal force distribution”. J Biomechanics and Modeling
of Research and Innovation at NTNU, Astrid Lægreid. Photo: Thor Nielsen/NTNU Info             Together with SINTEF and Operation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       26 different nationalities. One PhD-degree,                                         in Mechanobiology. (DOI 10.1007/s10237-007-0116-8).
                                                                                              Room of the Future, NTNU health                                                                                                                                        S o c i e ta l a Sp e ctS                                                                                                                                         two Master degrees and three Bachelor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       degrees were finished in 2007 and six PhD-
                                                                                              informatics has been awarded appro-                                                                                                                                                                                                  Medical Imaging:                                                                                                                                                                        The shape of the mitral valve at peak systole, predicted with
                                                                                              ximately 20 MNOK research grant for a                                                                                                                                  o f N ew tec h N o lo g ieS                                                                                                                                       projects are under preparation. The focus                                           nonlinear finite element analysis.
                                                                                              project entitled ”Co-operation Support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   New MR method for improved head trauma diagnosis                                                    is navigation in laparoscopic and endovas-
MedICAl BIoTeCHNoloGy                                                                         Through Transparency” (COSTT). The                                                                                                                                     With new medical technologies, economic                                                                                                                           cular therapy, stentgraft with sidebranches,
Researchers within the Medical Biotechnology area published in 2007 major contributions                                                                                                                                                                              reforms and emphasis on the patient role                      Severe head trauma causes a gradual loss of brain connections, called diffuse axonal in-            strain for evaluation of rupture risk in aortic
                                                                                              Health Informatics Programme has
to the molecular understanding of disease within cancer, infectious and inflammatory                                                                                                                                                                                 as active and participative, there is a fair                  jury, also in areas distant to the impact site. This causes no functional impairment, but the       aneurysm, characterisation of atherosclero-
                                                                                              also developed a master’s programme
diseases. Moreover, new targets for therapeutic intervention were discovered, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  patients suffer from problems like irritability, apathy, depression and slow brain function in      tic plaques and ultrasound imaging of blood       B i o i n fo r m a t i c s
                                                                                              in health informatics tailored to the                                                                                                                                  chance that today’s patients may be dif-
technology enabling genetic manipulation of model organisms was developed. For one                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 general. There is limited knowledge about the cause of this condition, and no established           flow for intraoperative control. Dyna-CT is       The research group for Bioinformatics & Gene Regulation at Faculty of Medicine developed
                                                                                              needs of healthcare and ICT-personnel                                                                                                                                  ferent than yesterdays. On basis of research
such technology, a vector system for selective target gene knock out, the successful                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               therapy or diagnostic method to neither localize the damage nor monitor the development.            evaluated as adjunct during stentgrafting for     in 2007 new computational tools for research on gene regulation, in particular for studies
                                                                                              already working within the domain.                                                                                                                                     within the social sciences, 15 contributors
negotiations for commercialisation by the international company Sigma Aldrich, was                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     aortic aneurysms. Other projects in laparo-       on microRNAs, transcription factors and promoter regions. These new tools outperform all
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     reflect critically in the new edited book ”The
concluded. In addition, five novel technologies were reported to NTNU Technology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   At the MR Centre in Trondheim the fMRI group managed by associate professor Asta                    scopic surgery are the treatment of morbid        comparable tools. They are important for understanding the structure of our genome and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Modern Patient” (Gyldendal akademisk,
Transfer, and one patent application was submitted.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Håberg recently showed that quantitative diffusion tensor imaging is a potential new                obesity, the application of navigation within     how that affects our genetic profile and disease risk. The research has identified unique
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     edited by A. Tjora) about how patients relate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   method for this purpose. This was mainly carried out by medical student researcher Jian             laparoscopic surgery and the application of       physical properties of DNA in gene start regions. This is used for identification of new genes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to health, illness, and health services. The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Xu and published in the internationally most prestigious journal for head trauma research.          HD-transmission in teaching of specialist         in particular genes that do not produce protein as the end product.
                                                                                              NANoMedICINe:                                                                                                                                                          interdisciplinary approaches to medical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       candidates.                                       For more information see: http://tare.medisin.ntnu.no/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     technology have provided an important
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     background for the reflection of the modern                   In a group of chronic head injury patients a pattern of reduced connectivity in several major
                                                                                              In order to increase the strategic focus                                                                                                                                                                                             white matter tracts were found, and this was in accordance with previous knowledge about
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     patient.
                                                                                              on bionanotechnology/nanomedicine                                                                                                                                                                                                    the most common sites for diffuse axonal injury. The method has a practical potential as a
                                                   Technoport Awards 2007
                                                   – Prize winners in Medical Technology
                                                                                              the Strategic area Medical Technology                                                                                                                                                                                                diagnostic tool to identify as early as possible the patients that should receive intensive re-                                                       NATIoNAl CeNTRe FoR 3d UlTRASoUNd IN SURGeRy
                                                                                              started in 2007 a network in nano-                                                                                                                                                                                                   habilitation programs. The method is also promising as a clinical research tool to generate                                                           The national centre aims to improve patient therapy by use of ultrasound and navigation in
                                                   For the second time since 2005,
                                                                                              medicine.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            new knowledge about the cause of the disease and for discovery of potential therapeutic                                                               neurosurgery, vascular surgery and laparoscopy.
                                                   Technoport was arranged in Trondheim,


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aksel Tjora (red.)
                                                                                                                                                 Med ny informasjonsteknologi, endrede økonomiske modeller og større vekt på
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   targets.                                                                                                                                              In laparoscopic surgery, the manipulation of the surgical field, limited access through small
                                                   Norway’s capital of Technology. At this                                                       deltakelse, pekes det ofte på at dagens norske pasienter har fått en endret rolle i
                                                                                                                                                 forhold til helsevesenets behandlere. Likevel ser vi at tradisjonelle roller, maktforhold
                                                                                              The main focus during 2007 has been                og myndighetsstrukturer bevares i stor grad.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            incisions with rigid instruments, and reduced free sight, dexterity, and tactile feedback
                                                   event technology-related prizes are                                                              Denne boken tar utgangspunkt i samfunnsvitenskapelig helseforskning for å

                                                                                              strategic development of the area,                 forstå hvordan og hvorfor dette skjer. De 15 bidragsyterne tar utgangspunkt i
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         make the procedure challenging. In 2007, the National Centre for 3D Ultrasound presented
                                                                                                                    www.gyldendal.no/akademisk




                                                   awarded to focus on the people behind
                                                                                                                                                 egen forskning og viser gjennom temaer som forebygging, risikotenkning, kunde-
                                                                                                                                                 og markedsorientering, ekspertkunnskap, pasient-behandler-kommunikasjon og                                                                                                        Xu J et al. Diffuse axonal injury in severe traumatic brain injury visualized using high-reso-
                                                                                              including focus on how to equip the                informasjonsteknologi hvordan ”den moderne pasienten” er sammensatt og
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Aksel Tjora (red.)                                        lution diffusion tensor imaging. J Neurotrauma 2007;24:753-65.                                                                                        results from the first pilot studies using a self-developed navigation platform for improved
                                                   the technology and new technological                                                          preget av et tvetydig forhold til helsedomenet. Hensikten er å gi en større forståelse
                                                                                                                                                 av hvordan dette forholdet oppstår, blant annet ved å legge hovedvekt på studier
                                                                                              forthcoming NTNU NanoLab in order                  av de situasjoner hvor helserelatert kommunikasjon utspilles.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           image guided laparoscopic
                                                   innovations.
                                                                                              to optimize the research til studenter, praktikerepolitikere og andre beslutningstakere
                                                                                                                                      possibilities innen medisin, andre
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         DEN                                                                                                                                                                                                             procedures. In the publication
                                                                                                               Boken henvender seg                            og forskere
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             DEN MODERNE PASIENTEN




                                                                                                               helsefag og samfunnsvitenskap, men også til
                                                                                                               innenfor helserelaterte felt.
                                                                                              within nanomedicineer at NTNU. In ved NTNU, Norges teknisk-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                “Navigation in laparoscopy –
The Technoport Festival has been arranged biannually to celebrate and present progress
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MODERNE
                                                                                                               Aksel Tjora førsteamanuensis i sosiologi

                                                                                                                information, Norsk senter for elektronisk pasientjournal
                                                                                              order to gather telemedisin (NST) i Tromsø og create a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Prototype research platform
                                                                                                               naturvitenskapelige universitet. Han er også tilknyttet Nasjonalt senter for

within advanced technological development and the application of technology. The festival                      i Trondheim.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              New St. Olav’s Unversity Hospital under
is a combination of conferences, workshops, exhibitions and events.
                                                                                              fellow team spirit, and to coordinate
                                                                                              future activities it was arranged a                                                                                                                                        PASIENTEN                                                                                                                                                       construction june 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         for improved image-guided
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         surgery” in Minimally Invasive
                                                                                              work-shop on bionanotechnology with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Therapy 2008;17:1, navigation
In 2007 researchers from the strategic area of Medical Technology were awarded two                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       THe MedICAl SIMUlATIoN CeNTRe
                                                                                              more than 20 participants from both                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        technology, software and
of the Technoport Awards. Professors Bjørn Angelsen and Hans Torp were awarded the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The Medical Simulation Centre has
                                                                                              NTNU and SINTEF. Current and future                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        methods used in pilot studies
NTNU and SINTEF Technology Prize for their long term contribution within the area of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     constructed a portable simulation center
                                                                                              bionanotechnology research at NTNU                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         are described. The initial results
ultrasound technology development. Both are members of the Medical imaging network                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       for on-site simulation. This makes it
                                                                                              wasidentified and the most important                                                                                                                                                                                                 The corpus callosum (main brain connections between the two hemispheres) in a healthy                                                                 using this technology with pre-
group. Researcher Lise Lyngsnes Randeberg received the Young Innovators Award for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        possible to carry out training in advanced
                                                                                              areas include theranostics, sensors,                                                                                                                                                                                                 volunteer (left) and a head trauma patient with diffuse axonal injury of medium severity (right).                                                     operative images and guidance
development a product that dates skin bruises, and which may help solve murders and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      emergency medicine in facilities both in-
                                                                                              and bio-active surfaces.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   in the retroperitoneum during
assault cases more quickly. Randeberg is part of the Biomedical optics network group.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    side and outside the University Hospital.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         laparoscopy are promising.