Docstoc

Slide 1_9_

Document Sample
Slide 1_9_ Powered By Docstoc
					   COPING WITH STRESS
     TO BENEFIT YOUR
MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH
   AND QUALITY OF LIFE

      YOU CAN
   MAKE IT HAPPEN
Bruce S. Rabin, M.D., Ph.D.
   Professor of Pathology, Psychiatry, Psychology
              University of Pittsburgh

 Medical Director, UPMC Healthy Lifestyle Program
    THE REALITY


 DEATH IS INEVITABLE

A LIFE OF ILL HEALTH IS
          NOT
THE LONGER YOU REMAIN
  HEALTHY AS YOU AGE,

 THE SHORTER WILL BE
     YOUR DEMISE
   Dependent Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) for Each Month Cohort, by Trajectory
                                         Group




 7 activities of
  daily living
    (ADLs):
    walking
across a small
room, bathing,
   grooming,
    dressing,
     eating,
  transferring
  from bed to
   chair, and
    using the
      toilet




                   Lunney, J. R. et al. JAMA 2003;289:2387-2392.
        THE REALITY

There is an increased risk of
 mental and physical health
problems in individuals who
cannot COPE with the stress
         in their life
SOMETHING CAN BE DONE TO REDUCE
    THE RISK OF DISEASE AS ONE
 GOES THROUGH THE AGING PROCESS

            CARING
         SPECIAL PEOPLE
            GROUPS
              TIME
           REPETITION
            What is stress?

  Stress results when something that
    happens or something that you
                 observe
               EXCEEDS
           the ability of your
mind to effectively COPE with the event
When your mind cannot COPE with
           the stress:

 Stress reactive areas of your
   brain become activated

  The concentration of stress
 hormones in blood increases
         The increased amount of
             stress hormone is
the reason that stress has an effect on the
quality of your mental and physical health

IT IS THE HORMONES THAT ALTER
            HEALTH
   COPING with stress is the use of
 behaviors and techniques to reduce
  the response of the brain to stress
resulting in less of an elevation of the
stress hormones when you experience
                 stress

 THIS IS WHAT YOU WANT
       TO ACHIEVE
What do the stress hormones do to mental
                 health?

 Depression-Stress causes you to feel
depressed because the stress hormones
   change the way your brain cells
   function in the area of the brain
     associated with depression
Memory-Stress hormones damage brain
   cells responsible for memory

Focusing-Stress hormones interfere with
your ability to think clearly and to focus
 (this may be why you sometimes say
  something to someone when you are
  stressed that you are sorry you said)
What do the stress hormones do to physical health?

Blood pressure - Stress hormones
cause blood pressure to increase by
making blood vessels smaller. The rise
in blood pressure may cause a stroke.
Heart disease - Stress hormones cause
 blood vessels in the heart to increase
     how quickly they accumulate
   cholesterol deposits and become
               narrowed
Heart attacks - Stress hormones cause
  blood platelets to stick together and
 form clumps that may plug up blood
    vessels and cause a heart attack
 Infections - Stress hormones decrease
    the ability off the body to resist
           infectious disease
Autoimmune disease - Stress hormones
cause diseases such as psoriasis, multiple
sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative
  colitis and Crohn’s disease to become
               more active
Asthma and Irritable Bowel Disease -
Stress hormones cause these diseases to
               flare up


  Wound healing - Stress hormones
decrease the ability of the body to heal
               wounds
 Diabetes - Stress hormones cause
blood sugar to rise and increase the
 likelihood of difficulty managing
              diabetes
Weight Management – Stress hormones
contribute to central obesity (fat around the
belly) which contributes to developing
diabetes.
Stress hormones also interfere with making
healthy decisions about what to eat as they
interfere with the ability to think clearly
 STRESS CANNOT BE
     AVOIDED
  IF YOU CANNOT COPE WITH
   STRESS IT IS DIFFICULT TO
 ENGAGE IN BEHAVIORS THAT
PROMOTE A HIGH QUALITY OF
    MENTAL AND PHYSICAL
           HEALTH
  IF STRESS CANNOT BE
    AVOIDED IS THERE
SOMETHING THAT CAN BE
 DONE TO MINIMIZE THE
  NEGATIVE EFFECTOF
        STRESS ON
         HEALTH?
          YES, THERE IS

    We call it the development of
 “buffering skills” that minimize the
activation of the stress reactive areas
             of the brain.
  COPING BEHAVIORS
  BLOCK ACTIVATION                           STRESS




                        Areas of brain
                      responsive to stress




     Increased stress hormones
in blood are reduced by coping behaviors
 People who incorporate buffering
skills into their lives will REDUCE
  the stressor induced alteration of
              their health
Religion/Spirituality
Expectations
Laughter
Acquaintances
Xercise
            BUFFERS

  Religion (and/or Spirituality):
Having a belief system in religion or
having a spiritual nature that allows
you to relax and calm yourself when
          faced with stress
  Expectations (Optimism): Being
 optimistic that things will go well for
you and those problems that occur will
not alter your basic belief that you are
             a good person
    Laughter (Sense of Humor):
 Having a sense of humor so that you
can find amusement in events and can
even laugh at yourself (remember the
 old saying that “laughter is the best
             medicine”)
Acquaintances (Social Support):
Having a social support system that
 you enjoy and can depend upon
Xercise (Physical Fitness): Being
  physically fit as appropriate
 for your age, rather than being
            sedentary
Acute stress – lasts for a few
minutes (although you may
continue to stew over it for
hours)
Chronic stress – lasts for
hours, days, weeks, years
TECHNIQUES TO COPE WITH
     ACUTE STRESS
  DEEP BREATHING FOR
CALMING YOURSELF WHEN
 EXPERIENCING AN ACUTE
       STRESSOR
DO NOT TAKE MORE THAN 3-5 DEEP
 BREATHS AS YOU MAY GET DIZZY

IF AFTER 3 YOU ARE DIZZY DON’T
        TAKE ANY MORE

 IF YOU ARE NOT DIZZY AFTER 5 –
             STOP

 YOU CAN WAIT 15 MINUTES AND
      THEN DO IT AGAIN
HUMOR FOR CALMING
  YOURSELF WHEN
 EXPERIENCING AN
  ACUTE STRESSOR
  CHANTING FOR
CALMING YOURSELF
WHEN EXPERIENCING
AN ACUTE STRESSOR
      TECHNIQUES TO COPE WITH CHRONIC STRESS

     WRITING ABOUT WHAT BOTHERS YOU TO BRING
             CALMNESS AND RELAXATION
Take a sheet of paper and something to write with. Find a quiet
place where you will not be disturbed for 15 minutes.
Pick any issue of concern to you to write about
The only rule is that you write continuously for 15 minutes. If
you run out of things to say, just repeat what you have already
written. Don’t worry about grammar, spelling, or sentence structure.
While writing DO NOT READ what you have already written
Do not be concerned if you start crying while writing, it is
common for this to happen.
    Your writing is completely
          confidential.
  When you finish writing, tear
up what you have written and toss
  it out so that NO ONE WILL
EVER SEE WHAT YOU WROTE
     TECHNIQUES TO COPE WITH CHRONIC STRESS

  GUIDED IMAGERY TO HELP YOUR MIND COOL DOWN

Guided imagery is a script that someone reads and
you listen to that directs you to create beautiful and
comfortable thoughts and pictures in your mind
where temperature, smell, sounds, beauty, people,
sights, are comfortable and relaxing.

Somewhat similar to a wonderful vacation taken
without going anywhere.
The importance of your behavior
        before walking
through the door into your home
   _______________________
          AB U S E
 Think about your influence as a ROLE MODEL
            for the next generation:
Children usually have a limited ability to
understand the long-term consequences of their
behavior.

If adults demonstrate that healthy behaviors
contribute to good health and the joy of life, it is
more likely that children will use these behaviors.

The behaviors you teach and demonstrate to
children when they are young are likely to be the
behaviors they use when they are adults
 Let’s be realistic - stress will not go
                 away
   To maintain health we must
    change the way our brain
        and that of children
respond to stress so that there will
be less depression and more joy of
                life
Don’t just use stress coping techniques when you
are experiencing stress

Use them throughout the day when you are happy.

This will train your mind to associate the techniques
you use with feeling good.

Then when you use the relaxation techniques when
you are experiencing stress they will work more
quickly and effectively because your mind will
associate them with your being relaxed.
As an example of the effectiveness of the program here is data
   of pre vs post-program changes in several psychosocial
 measures from a program just completed for 10 local non-
                     profit organizations:

Analyzing by paired T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA,
     all results were significantly different pre vs post
          Cynicism pre vs Cynicism post: p<0.000
           Hostility pre vs Hostility post: p=0.001
        Aggression pre vs Aggression post: p<0.000
        Depression pre vs depression post: p<0.000
          Optimism pre vs optimism post: p<0.000
  Perceived stress pre vs perceived stress post: p<0.000
  Life engagement pre vs life engagement post: p<0.000
  Changing a behavior (habit) is not
                easy
    Behavioral change takes time,
patience, support, and recognition that
  life is lived over years-not weeks
 Eventually, your new behavior will
      replace the old behavior
What helps when you are trying to change a behavior?
              Positive social interaction
           Tricks to help you think clearly
   The motivation of knowing that you will be a
   meaningful role model for those who love you
                Be physically active
 Be highly optimistic you will do it and it’s OK if it
                    takes awhile
            Don’t try to do it all at once
 The earlier in life a
 habit is learned-the
harder it is to change
 Therefore, it is important to learn
healthy lifestyle habits at the earliest
  stages of life and use the healthy
     behaviors throughout life.
 Adults need to make sure children
 understand what behaviors are bad
     for their long term health.
             SUSTAIN

Believe in the importance of your goal
                   of
 being healthy and a meaningful role
model for those who love you and who
                you love
                       Religion/spirituality
         Mind          Expectations (optimism)
                       Laughter
Stress                 Acquaintance (social interaction)   Techniques
                       Xercise
         Body
                       To create a new journey from
                          unhealthy to healthy


                                                             Happy and healthy

                Stressed Out


                           Ill and blue




                                                Your journey choice
Techniques            For rapid relaxation and calm:
                      Abdominal breathing to increase clear thinking
                      Humor to increase clear thinking
                      Chanting to increase clear thinking

                      For coping with chronic stress:
  Happy and healthy
                      Guided imagery
                      Expressive writing
                      Tai chi or Yoga
                      Meditation
                      Physical activity
                      Body awareness
                      Progressive relaxation
It is not our purpose to make the stress in your life
                      go away
            Indeed, we cannot do that
   However what we can and will do by your
participation in our Journey is to lessen the impact
   of stress on your mental and physical health
   We will do this by increasing your ability to
                COPE with stress
            Will I learn to do this quickly?
   Probably not. You must practice and repeat the
          techniques being taught to you
  If you have taken piano lessons, you know that
without practice your mind could not get your fingers
          to where you wanted them to be
        Your mind gets better with practice
The more you practice relaxing your mind, the easier
         and more effective it will become
   Learning to relax will not make you a less
    effective person or negatively affect your
               work performance.
 In fact, learning to relax will make you more
efficient in your everyday life, calmer, and will
    enable you to interact with others better.
 If implemented on a wide scale:
   Health care providers lose $
   Health care insurers make $

    RESULTS WILL TAKE
A LONG TIME TO BE ACHIEVED

      SO WHAT!!!!!!!!!!!!

				
DOCUMENT INFO