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					CED, group 2

Water Report

29-11-2009

********** Lucy Curry, Clare Burgess, Charlotte Fielding, Louise Nielsen, Johan Jakobsen, Vanda Kralova & Lukas Krincvaj **********

Side 1 of 9

CED, group 2

Water Report

29-11-2009

Water Report
In this report we will examine the journey that water makes from the underground water supplies to the taps in our homes, to the sewage plants, and back again. This will include Bjørn Lomborg‟s theories on water on a local and global scale. This will also include a survey taken by the people of Haslev on water consumption. The world has a total of 1.4 billion km3 of water, which covers 70% of the world, but population sizes increase, and the ice melts the threat of global warming becomes more prominent will there be enough water for everyone in hundreds of years to come? Bjørn Lomborg (sceptical environmentalist) is a Danish professor of statistics, who has many outrageous theories to do with global warming, and the effects of this on water. He argues against global warming being a threat, as he believes the temperature will only rise by 2 or 3 degrees. He suggests that the reason prices of water are as they are because it keeps consumption low. He claims that the farmer irrigation systems are not good, and 70% of water use is agricultural and the further 30% is for personal use. He concludes that there are still lots of people in the world with no water, and they are mainly in less developed countries. This is backed up with the 1994 figures of Asia that 80% of people have water, however 627 million don‟t! As the worlds population grows, the amount of fresh water available for each person continues to decline, while consumption continues to increase. This is why in many developed countries such as Denmark they charge a water tax which means that consumers have to pay in relation to their consumption. This had lead to people being more careful with the amount of water that they use which is why consumption levels have dropped. However, the global consumption of water said to be doubling every 20 years with no leveling-off in sight. The amount of fresh water available for use has more or less remained constant, but the global population is growing by about 77 million people annually. This is then further reduced by the pollution of lakes and rivers. Now it may seem that there is enough water, however, of that 1.4 billion 97.5% of it is saltwater and only 2.5% is fresh water! So the amount of freshwater is minimal, and as most of it is stored in icecaps, if these melt then there will be even less, as 20% is in areas too remote to reach, and 80% often comes at the wrong time and place such as monsoons and floods. So although water is regarded as a renewable source it needs to be in a particular place and of a certain quality, so it is often scarce. Bjørn Lomborg also claimed that the melting of the icecaps wont affect the rise in water as ice is already in the sea it is just compact together, so it doesn‟t matter so much if it melts. However, if the sea rose it would have disastrous effects on places like Holland and Poland as they are countries which don‟t have much high land and so even a small rise in the sea level could flood them very Side 2 of 9

CED, group 2

Water Report

29-11-2009

badly. He claims that it is something that you can‟t change and even if you spend millions on cutting down pollution it will only delay the inevitable. This is why he believes that the money that would be spent on delaying global warming should be used to cut down on HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Lomborg dismisses concerns about the availability of water for an ever-increasing number of people, but his grasp of the issue is shallow at best and fails to adequately take into account the sustainable yield of aquifers.

The Water Cycle
The clean drinking water in Denmark is pulled up from underground, in water plants like the one we saw in Fakse Ladeplads. Luckily the groundwater some places is so clean that it does not need to be treated before it is being pumped out to the consumers. Fakse Ladeplads Water Supply has 7 drillings, placed approximately 60 meters under ground. Since the water is of such a fine quality none of it needs treatment before distribution out to one of the 2000 households, who are connected to the water plant. Every year about 250.000 m3 of water being pumped out to the consumers, which is not a lot for a water plant. Fakse Ladeplads Water Supply is owned by 29 private shareholders, who once a year choose two persons to run the plant. The water is regularly tested by a company called Rovesta, which is demanded by law, to keep an eye on the water quality. So far is their only problem a rising content of the natural occurring nickel and this causes a lot of problems since we do not know why it is rising, or how to get it out of the water.

After the water is being pumped out to the consumers the waste water returns to a sewage farm, like the one we saw in Rønnede. Here the water is first lead through a pipe where it is treated for solid particles like sand and other small objects. After that the water is pumped into a big tank where paper, phosphorus, nitrogen and ammonia is removed, then it is moved to another tank where bacteria is fed with oxygen so they can „eat‟ all organic material. The last tank is a clarification tank, where a filter purifies the water for the remaining dirt. When the water is lead out in to the river is it filled with bacteria, which nature will undermine by time. Altogether the water stays 28 days in the sewage farm. After being pumped out in to a river it will take about 40 years for the water to get back to the underground, where we eventually can pump it up again. Side 3 of 9

CED, group 2

Water Report

29-11-2009

On the picture below can you see the water cycle. Water from the rain goes either down in to the under ground (20 %), or to the sea (80 %). Here evaporates some it in to rain clouds, and so on.

Results of MitS survey
We were asking people about water consumption and about the fee they pay for water. Altogether we tried to find out answers to nine questions. In our presentation we would like to refer to results of five main questions and to sum up the survey. Graph #1 and #2 – about age and sex We asked 22 people of all ages – from 16 to 97. Ten of them were men and 12 were women.
Sex
men women
10 8 6

Age

10 12

4 2 0 16-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100

Side 4 of 9

CED, group 2

Water Report

29-11-2009

Graph #3 – about the cleanness As the first question we wanted to know if the Danes appreciate their clean drinking water. The answer was always the same – all of them with no difference done from age or sex appreciate the cleanness of water in Denmark. The question was “Do you appreciate that we have clean drinking water ??”

25 20 15 10 5 0 yes no

Graph #4 – about the usage Our second question was: “Do you think about how much water you use?” We were quite surprised because nearly ¾ of people is thinking about how much water they use. Exactly 16 people from 22 said “Yes” and this is 73%. One of them said “Sometimes” and rest of them – 5 people – said that they do not think about it. This is very pleasant surprise that too much people cares about sparing water. We hope that the reason for so many people thinking about their water consumption is not just only the fee for water that is, according to our survey, too high.

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

16

5 1

yes

sometimes

no

Graph #5 – about bath/shower An other thing we wanted to find out about the Danes is whether they take bath or shower. It is very closely related to sparing water because if you take a bath it takes 7 times more water than taking a shower. Our survey shows that most of the people we asked prefer taking a shower. The percentage says that 82% of all people we asked prefer taking a shower. 4% do not prefer anything – they are taking both. 14% prefer taking a bath although it takes more time, more water and therefore also more money.

Side 5 of 9

CED, group 2

Water Report

29-11-2009

bath

both

shower

3

1

18

Graph #6 – about the amount a year As we have mentioned before lot of people thinks that the fee for tap water is too high. But when we asked them about whole amount paid for water a year more than half did not know this - exactly it was 54,7%. Instead of this we found out that 18,2% pays between 1 and 2 000 danish crowns a year, 13,6% pays between 3 and 4 000 a year, 9% pays between 2 and 3 000 a year and 4,5% pays less than 1 000 crowns. As we expected most of the people, who do not know the price for one year‟s consumption, were women – especially the women, whose water consumption pays someone else (husband or parents).

Graph #7 – about the fee Our last question was about the fee for tap water. We have mentioned twice that lot of people thinks that the fee is too high. Actually, this is the opinion of half of the people we asked. The other half thinks that the fee is normal.

too high 50% 50% too low ok 0%

Conclusion of the survey As a conclusion of our survey we would like to point out that the most of the people we asked care about how much water they use and therefore they use it sparingly. One of the reasons for so many people trying to spare the water might be the fees that are paid for it. Those fees are, according to our survey, considered too high for the half of the people. The situation thus looks very good, providing all the people told us the truth. Side 6 of 9

CED, group 2

Water Report

29-11-2009

Supplement #1
photographic documentation by Lukas # Section 1 – Bjorn Lomborg lecture (31th January) Bjorn Lomborg himself Lomborgs Book “The Skeptical Environmentalist”

# Section 2 – The Sewage ”Farm” in Roennede (2nd February) Water tank with dirty water

Side 7 of 9

CED, group 2

Water Report One of cleaning devices

29-11-2009

The water pumps

Side 8 of 9

CED, group 2

Water Report

29-11-2009

# Section 3 – Private water distribution center in Fakse Ladeplads (2nd February) Water supply hold

The pumping and water re-distribution system

Conclusion
From our study of water we have found that many different people have different opinions on how much water we have now, and will have in the future. Many people take care with how much water they use and try to use it sparingly (according to the survey we took). We have learned this week where the water comes from, in Denmark, what happens to it, and where it goes to get purified, and how this is done. However, it is clear that problems with water in developing countries will continue in years to come and there is a danger that it will never be solved!

Side 9 of 9


				
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