VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 15 POSTED ON: 11/29/2009
The Current Water Allocation Systems of Surface Water for Agriculture in Yellow River (Zhang Jianzhong, Zhao Yinliang, Wang zhongmei, Huang Jinhui) 1. Introduction With the development of industrialization and urbanization, human have gained a great many benefits from the water resources through electricity generation, water supply, etc. However, excess exploitation and utilization have resulted in deterioration of the river ecological system gradually, and it is inevitable that the human being themselves will be damaged directly or indirectly due to the degeneration of the ecological system as well. That is reason that we human being should not only concern the social and economic development but also should concern the healthy life of the river; not only focus on the utilization of the river, but also treasures the river ecological system which should be the long term target of the sustained development of the society. To solved the conflict between water resource, environment and sustainable development, Integrated water resource management (IWRM) emerged in the 1980s.There are three reasons result in its appearance. First, traditional environmental management had been largely reactive, disjointed and based on narrow or limited purpose. Second many environmental problems have been called ‘wicked’ problems. They arise from interrelationships among biophysical, human and economic systems, and therefore can rarely be treated in isolation. Finally, increasing resource demands have led to conflicts over environment. IWRM concept focus on the internal relationships between the water, natural resources and the sustainable social economic development, and also accord with the concept of the harmony between the human being and the nature and the theory of keeping healthy life of the river, China has made significant advances in adhering to basic principles of IWRM over the last decade. At present, there are many actions have been done and being done in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) according the principle of .IWRM. For example, water saving irrigation, soil and water conservation, water quality management and unified water regulation, etc. with the aim of maintaining the healthy life of the Yellow River (YR). Based on the understand of the concept IWRM, this paper analyses the current utilization situation of water resource of yellow river, explores the history of allocation surface water for agriculture, formulate and analyses the principle, frame of the allocation system, the current policy and water trade in Yellow River, and addresses the main issues and future development. 2. The Concept, Connotation and Practice of IWRM 2.1The definition of IWRM IWRM, emerged in the late 1980s, and it is emphasized on the Dublin Principle and UNCED Rio de Janeiro conference. There have been many definitions of IWRM which have similar theme running through them is co-ordination. Global Water Partnership defines the IWRM as follow: IWRM is a process which promotes the co-ordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximise the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems (Global Water Partnership Technical Advisory Committee, 2000). 2.2The connotation and understanding of IWRM We can understand the concept of IWRM though 3 levels: The first level is systematic consideration of the various dimensions of water, such as surface water and ground water, cleaning water and dirty water, the water in the river and the water used in the city, etc. the key issue is that the water system is formed with many interdependent components; the second level is IWRM focus on the interaction between water, land and environment, such as floods, pollution, wet land, fishery, irrigation, etc. the third level is emphasis on the interaction between the water, society and economic development. IWRM trying to promote, but not a barrier against, the social economic development of through efficiency water resources management, and the finial objective is the sustain water utilization and social economic development. So we can find that the implementation of IWRM is a complex and huge system process. The core target of IWRM is the balance between economy developments, the social equity and the environment protect. To improve the efficiency of water utilization is the key in the process of making the largest befit of social economy. To fulfill the social equity we must make sure that all the people can be supplied enough and safe water, which is the basic right of a human being. And we should pay more attention on the poor people in our society. To protect the ecological system, we need not only limits the river utilization, but also consider the sustainability of the healthy of the river significantly. 2.3 IWRM practice around the world IWRM tally with the requirement of the harmonious relationship between the human being and the nature, and the sustain development of the social economy. IWRM have been introduced for almost 20 year, and have been accepted world widely. Many countries, no mater developing or developed, are trying to find their own way to solve the problems occurred in their country with IWRM concept, such as: water shortage, water pollution and ecological system degradation, etc. The states of North Africa made plans to overcome severe water shortage through IWRM with special focus on desalination of seawater that is readily accessible to these countries. In Mediterranean countries wastewater reclamation and reuse for local irrigation is an important aspect of IWRM. Some countries in Europe, water resource management by public or government organizations also has many success stories, such as: France, Germany, The Netherlands, Portugal, England, they carry out the kind of management mode of integrated river basin and region. The integrated water quality management in Australia is also quite successful. 3、The Yellow River surface water resource The Yellow River (YR) is the second largest river in China, which covers nine provinces and is the main source of water in the Northwest and North China. The prominent characteristic of the water resources of the Yellow River is “short of water”. The average annual natural runoff (58 billion m³) represents only 2% of the national total. The amount of water resources per capita is 593 m3, which is about 23% of that of the national average and 1/16 of the world average. Moreover, the spatial and temporal distribution of the natural runoff in the Yellow River is uneven. The watershed above the Gansu province, with an area of 312,000 km2 (about 39.3% of the total basin area), is the main source of runoff to the Yellow River and produces about 55.6% of the total annual average runoff; 60% of the year’s average natural runoff at every station on the main stream occurs during the flood season from July to October. The peak discharge is large and rises and falls sharply during the flood season. Conversely, the discharge is very small in the dry season and variation is limited. The natural runoff also varies from year to year. The average surface water yield is 58 billion m3/year, and surface water intake is about 33.2 billion (2005 Yellow River Water Resource Bulletin).The Yellow River total irrigated areas are about 5.08 million ha (Table 1). There are three main irrigation areas in YRB, Ningmen irrigation area(located in Ningxia and Inn- Mongolia,)，Fenwei irrigation area(located in Weihe and Fenhe basin which is the tributaries of YR ), Yulu irrigation（located inHenan and Shandong provinces of down stream of YR. The distribution of Irrigation areas are shown in figure1. Irrigated agriculture is the main water user in the basin, about 78.4% of total water use. Table1: The Yellow River irrigation areas and water use province Qinghai Sichuan Gansu Ningxia Inner Mongolia Shaanxi Shanxi Henan Shandong Total basin area (× 103km2) 152.3 17 143.2 51.4 151 133.3 97.1 36.2 13.6 795 cultivate area (×103ha) 557.79 6.19 3481.45 1293.13 2177.73 3893.92 2846.53 1426.75 557.53 16241.03 effective irrigation cultivate area (×103ha) 175.67 0.27 501.63 400.52 1035.64 1094.43 819.15 722.69 333.06 5083.04 Irrigation water use (×106m3) 1218 9 2340 6524 6270 1958 910 2165 4627 26021 Source: 2005 Yellow River Water Resource Bulletin So the IWRM should be applied in Yellow River agriculture water allocation system in order to use water resource more efficient, improve economy and society development and maintain the healthy life of the Yellow River as well. 4、Allocation systems of irrigation surface water The irrigation water occupies about 80% of total YR water supply. Therefore the allocation of irrigation surface water is based on the whole system and difficult to separate the irrigation surface water allocation system. The system operation depends on the supports of administration, engineering, technique, law and economic measures. YRCC have put into practice the irrigation allocation system as the main part of the whole allocation system. So the following discuss focusing on the irrigation water and based on the YR water resources allocation system. 4.1 The evolution of the allocation systems Because of the complications, difficult cure and frequent disasters, the Yellow River are been in charge of directly by the central government during the past dynasties. According to the different society and economical conditions, the allocation systems of water resources have gone through the different stages. Freely using stage: Before 1950’s, there was not united management system in Yellow River Basin as the water resources were far more than water demand with the undeveloped economic. First come, first serve: During 1950s to 1960 ’ s, according to the increasing demands of different department, the Water Resource Development and Utilization Plan of the YRB was established for the society and economic developed. However the unite management organization and the relative water resources policies had not been made. 1987 water allocation scheme stage: In 1987 the state department issued ‘the allocation scheme of Yellow River available water resource’, which was administration allocation and defined the prime allocation for nine province along the YR. The water license system was put into practice in 1994, which regulated the apply action, and gave more details for prime water allocation in table 2. Table 2 The allocation scheme of YR available water resource (1987) Qinh ai Sichu Gans an u Nix ia Inner Shaan Mongol xi ia Shan xi Hena n Shando ng Hebe i Tian jin 2.0 Su m Provinc e Quantit y (Billio n m3) Percent (%) 1.41 0.04 3.04 4.0 10. 81 5.86 3.8 4.31 11.6 5 5.54 14.9 7 7.0 37 .0 10 0 3.81 0.11 8.22 15.84 10.27 18.92 5.41 Integrated water resource management stage: In December 1998, the State Development Planning Commission company the Ministry of water resource issues the ‘the annual regulation scheme of YR mainstream available water resource ’ and ‘ YR water resource regulation rules’(YWRR). The Yellow River Conservancy Commission was accredited in charge of regulation YR whole basin water. And then in 2006, the state department issued ‘ the regulation of YR water resource regulation’ as a mark of the integrated water resources management system. , The regulation water resources in the whole basin were put into practice for the first time in China. 4.2 The basic principles of water allocation system Maintaining the healthy life of YR is the basic concept. The key is keeping water resources sustainable utilization and promoting the society and economic development of YR basin and relative regions. The basic principles include: The model combining the government macroscopic control, democratic consultation and market principle, ensuring the roles of government control; Following the plan of the basin and water long-term plan, to reasonable development, optimize allocation, efficiently using and protection, comprehensive management; Combining the integrated basin management and regional administrative management, maintaining the key function of integrated basin management. Using the integrated functions of law, economic, technique and administration, allocation water resources. Prime object to ensure domestic water demand, then making reasonable arrangement irrigation, industry, ecosystem water demands, and avoiding YR run dry. 4.3 The framework of the allocation system The allocation system of surface irrigation water mainly includes three parts of administration, engineering, technique. YRCC have put into practice the irrigation allocation system as the main part of the whole allocation system. 4.3.1 Administration systems The perfect organization system The management and allocation of irrigation water utilization in YRB is operated by river authority and local government etc. separately. The allocation system is quit complex system, the perfect organization is the one key conditions. Current allocation system including as follows: The state department The ministry of water resource YRCC State level: Ministry of water resource. Basin commission: YRCC is responsible for the whole basin water resources allocation and unify regulation. Local department: The department of water resource is set up in province, city (prefecture), country (district) respectively, and in charge of the water resource allocation and management in relevant regions. Association: In some regions, the water users associations (WUA) have been built up. The WUA manage the water to improving the water effectivity. Province department of water resource City DWR Country DWR Water users association Water users Figure 2 Province department of water resource Province department of water resource Province department of water resource Nine provinces … … Operation Company The framework of organization … Professional unit: relative profession such as hydrology unit. Operation unit: relative company which transport the water from the river to farm. Chief Executive Responsibility System As an important administration method, the CERS ensure the object of water resource regulation to be realization. Coordination and Negotiation System Based on ‘Public, Equity, Fair’ principle, for avoiding the impacts among domestic, agriculture, industry, ecosystem and generation power and so on, it’s very important indeed enhancing coordination and negotiation. 4.3.2 Engineering aspects (1) Exerting the regulation function of Control reservoirs There are many reservoirs on Yellow River mainstream, such as Longyangxia, Liujiaxia, Xiaolangdi, Sanmenxia, Wanjiazhai, and also some reservoirs such as Luhun, Guxia, Dongpinghu reservoirs on the tributaries. Main reservoirs in YR are shown in figure 3.It is a key measure for Yellow River water resource uniform controlling that combined applying these reservoirs to regulate water resource. The joint operation of Liujiaxia and Longyangxia reservoir has played a tremendous role in the upstream flood control, Ice Prevention, irrigation and water supply. The Xiaolangdi Reservoir has greatly eased the regulation pressure of Sanmenxia Reservoir. Now, the Longyangxia, Liujiaxia, Wanjiazhai, Sanmenxia, Xiaolangdi, Luhun, Guxian and Dongpinghu reservoirs have formed the backbone of the runoff regulation layout, which is the most basic method in Yellow River water resource regulation. (2) Exerting the control function of diversion inlets There are many inlets in Yellow River main stream, and the design water intake capacity is over 8000 m3 /s. The effective monitoring and adjusting the condition of these water inlets is an important ways to ensure the realization of the Yellow River water resource regulation objectives. 4.3.3 Technology aspects In order to improve Yellow River water resource management allocation level, high and new-technology has been used, for example, the modern Yellow River water Integrated regulation and management system(WIRMS).The WIRMS is based on GPS, GIS, RS and computer technology to collect, translate, and treat the information. The WIRMS provides the several modules due to meet the need of water regulation and management, which are as follows: Information services and integrated monitoring module, which can query the water resource regulation information quickly, including water regime, rainfall, drought and the water diversion information, and real time survey the possible emergencies that might occur in the River main sections as well. Information processing system module, which can achieve water diversion program online report and regulation documents online operating. Yellow River water regulation scheme constitute and management subsystem, which can constitute the water regulation scheme of a year(or month, period) quickly, carry on flow routing from upstream to downstream, provide online flood forecasting. Yellow River Diversion information monitoring system, which can on line control, survey and monitor the main inlets and outlets of the main stream and its tributaries timely. 4.4 legislation and criteria system The rules and regulations are as important as technology, engineering, economical and administrative approaches for water resources management. 4.4.1 Water Abstraction Permission Management The Regulation of Water Abstraction Permission was promulgated by State Council of China in 1993. In order to make the water taking and using management more effective in YR basin, the Regulation of Water Permission total quota Control management on Yellow River was promulgated and put in practice by Yellow River Conservancy Commission (YRCC) in 2002, it is also the first management rule in a basin in China. The range, responsibility, gross control principle, license and measure have been stipulated in this regulation. The Detailed Rules of Water Abstraction Permission on Yellow River was also promulgated by YRCC. Up to now, all the water users have obtained the water abstraction license. The issues of out-of-order taking water from YR have been prevented. 4.4.2 Water Regulation Management In order to make the water resource allocation more effective, in 1987, the report of available water supply allocation scheme was issued by State Council of China. This is the basic of YR resources allocation before the South-North Water Transfer Object finishing. It divided the 37 billions m3 available water supply to 9 provinces in YR basin and Hebei province and Tianjin city. To alleviate the water demand and supply conflict occurred in 1990s, a Scheme for Annual Distribution of Available Water Quantity and Water Regulation on the Trunk Stream of the Yellow River and Regulations for Management of Water Regulation on the Yellow River was issued by State Council in December 1998, which authorizing the YRCC to perform centralized water regulation on the YR. But the sole Regulations for Management of Water Regulation on the Yellow River lacks corresponding detailed rules for performance. According to the Water Law of the People’s Republic of China, Statute for Management of Water Uniform Regulation on the Yellow River was constituted. It had been promulgated by State Council of China in 2006 and began to put in practice from 1st Aug 2006. The management system had been established in this statute. There was also a special chapter regulation in urgency which given a regulation process in dry period, serious water pollution accident to ensure the safety of water supply. 4.5 Water Right and Water Trade 4.5.1 The Water Trade Overseas and Inland Water is recognized as an economic good in many international declarations. The study and practice about water right and water trade overseas, such as Australia etc., indicate that it is an effective economic process to build a water market in a water resources shortage area. The aim of water right transfer is to content other water users’ demand by water trade without enhance the total water supply from river. In China, the study and practice on water right and water market are more active recently than before, the water right transfer between Dongyang and Yiwu city in 2000 is the first practice in China, in this case the water right of 50 million m3 water which worth 0.2 billion RMB was transferred. 4.5.2 The Practice of Water Trade in Yellow River Basin The initial water trade in YR was operated in 2003. At the experimental site in internal-Mongolia municipality, the phenomena of water waste were very serious in irrigation areas due to the lower irrigation water utilization ratio, and on the other hand, the new industry projects could not be built because of the water shortage. In this case, the water was saved in south irrigation areas through reconstructing water saving project and transferred to Da-la-te eletricity industry. The industry paid the cost for water saving project reconstruction. In the same way, in Ningxia province, the water trade was operate between the Qintong gorge irrigation areas and Qintong gorge electricity industry and Maliantai electricity industry. In order to make the water trade canonical, the Regulation of Water Right Transfer in Yellow River Basin was constituted in June 2004. In this regulation the principle, examine and approve process, technical document, the time limit and price of water trade, organization and management etc. were defined. Up to now, seven water trade projects have been approved, 18 project technical documents have been censored. There are about 70 water trade projects in internal-Mongolia municipality and Ningxia province during 2004 to 2010. The outcome of water trade is profuse. The industry water demand was ensured without increase the total water supply. The investment approach of water project was enlarged. The situation of water saving works is improved and the loss of water transport reduced. The water utilization cost of farms decrease. The application of economic principles to the allocation of water is acceptable, and provides a simple tool for the development of water services in a more efficient direction. 5. The main issues The integration of different sectors related to water management is very challenging. The exploitation and management of Yellow River water resources is a transregional and transindustrial comprehensive systematic project. With the development of water regulation of the Yellow River, it can be seen that the existing river basin management mechanism does not suit the requirements of unified management of water resource， and also does not suit the concept of IWRM. The main issues refer to several aspects, such as policy, technology and institution and so on. (1) Integrated management mechanism of water resource and effective supervising mechanism have not been established The management of water resource of Yellow River is in a situation of segmentation, some huge reservoirs and intake works locate in the main stream of Yellow River are managed by different regions and departments. Sometimes YRCC can not control effectively intake of water quantities to realize unified management in the whole river basin, due to the absent of strong restrict mechanism and management means. (2) The measures to implement the water resource management is insufficiency, there are empty of necessary laws, economy regulation and other modern techniques. In Yellow River, the sole "Regulations for Management of Water Regulation on the Yellow River" lacks corresponding detailed rules for performance. However, a draft Yellow River law is being designed and has formed a basic frame under the assistance of Asian Development Bank. While the draft Law is designed principally to address the unique problems of the Yellow River Basin, and as a major advance in efforts to reform primary water and environmental laws in China. The implement of Yellow River Law will promote the development of integrated water resource management. Water price is the most powerful economic lever to promote the development of water-saving irrigation in agriculture. But water price is so low that it can not exert the function of economic regulation in Yellow River Basin. So the need to establish a scientific and reasonable mechanism for water pricing is very urgent. (3)The administration and irrigation technique need to improve for many water waste problem In most of irrigation areas in Yellow River, the phenomena of wasting water is very serious, the irrigation water utilization ratio is only about 0.4. The reasons are irrigation works is aging and unrepaired for a long time, match works is vulnerable, the irrigation technology is behindhand and the weak water management. (4)The absence of combination of general planning and special planning For the river basin water resources management, the special planning and regional planning should be guided by the general planning. But sometimes both of them do not integrate together due to the management of different department. The agriculture water utilization planning should accord with the general planning and region development planning. 6. Conclusions IWRM is a process with the aim of maximizing the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. IWRM have been introduced for almost 20 years, and have been accepted world widely. Yellow River Basin have been try to use it in many fields including unified water resource regulation with the aim of maintaining the healthy life of the Yellow River. This paper firstly defined and described the current allocation systems for Yellow River surface water for agriculture, then analyzed the main issues comparing with the integrate water resource management thinking. From the article we can get conclusions as the follows: 1) The core target of IWRM is the balance between economy developments, the social equity and the environment protect. So the IWRM is useful in improving the water resource management for Yellow River for agriculture, because the Yellow River is suffering from water resource scarcity, distribution uneven in spatial and temporal distribution, river unhealthy. 2) From the Yellow River management evolution and actuality, it can seen that the Yellow River authorities are trying to use water resources integrated thinking to allocate the water resource in order to keep water resources sustainable utilization and promoting the society and economic development of YR basin and relative regions and maintain the healthy life of YR as well. The main measures have been used included administrating, engineering, technology, policies legal and criteria, water right and water trade fields etc. 3) There are still some issues should be solved in order to exerting the integrated water resource management in Yellow River in agriculture, which mainly includes lack of integrated management mechanism of water resource and effective supervising mechanism; insufficient measures of implement the water resource management; weak administration and supervisory technique; emphasizing the sustaining development and ecological environment protect; absence of combination of general planning and special planning etc. Reference: A. CAMPOS, L. PEREIRA, J. GONCLAVES, M. FABIÃO, Y. LIU, Y. LI, Z. MAO, AND B. DONG. 2003. WATER SAVING IN THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN, CHINA. 1. IRRIGATION DEMAND SCHEDULING, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL: THE CIGR JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. *Bruce Hooper. 2005. Integrated River Basin Governance, ISBN: I843390884 *Bo Yu. 2006. The study of YRB water right allocation, 8/11/2006, http://www.chinacitywater.org Cao huiti, Cao Donghui.etc, 2007. Study on Management Measures for High Efficient Irrigation Water Utilization in the Yellow River Basin Chen Xiaoguo. 2006. River Basin authority and Water Resource Uniform Management in Yellow River. http://www.66wen.com. Chen Xiaoguo, The countermeasure of Yellow River water resource exploring and using, http://www.yrcc.gov.cn George F. McMahon, Ph.D.2005.The Yellow River Law: A Framework for Integrated River Basin Management Proceedings of the 2005 Georgia Water Resources Conference, held April 25-27, 2005, at the University of Georgia, Kathryn J. Muhammad Mizanur Rahaman & Olli Varis. 2005. Integrated water resources management: evolution, prospects and future & challenges. Policy | Sustainability: Science, http://ejournal.nbii.org Practice, YRCC.2006. Yellow River water Integrated regulation and management system YRCC. 2006, 2005 YELLOW HTTP://WWW.YRCC.GOV.CN RIVER WATER RESOURCE BULLETIN, YRCC. 2006. The Brief Report of Yellow River Water Resource Comprehensive Planning(draft).
Pages to are hidden for
"The Current Water Allocation Systems of Surface Water for "Please download to view full document