Drinking water production in Nigeria by pptfiles

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									PRODUCTION OF DRINKING WATER IN AFRICA
Drinking water can be produced from any natural sources like groundwater, Lakes and Rivers (surface water or seawater). Drinking water must be free of suspended solids, microorganisms and toxic chemicals. Mineral concentration recommendation varies from country to country but most of the minerals have a maximum concentration recommended to ensure safe, equilibrated and pleasant water to drink. Unsafe drinking water poses a threat in all regions of the world. In both developed and developing countries, such as Africa, failure to ensure safe drinking water may result in disease and death. These are guide to some of the popular drinking in Africa: 1. MINERAL WATER: Unlike some water, this contains a minimum amount of dissolved minerals and other elements. Water is derived from a protective underground source. 2. SPRING WATER: Retrieved from a natural spring, with the exception of Floride, no minerals are allowed to be added. 3. ARTESIAN WATER: From a well that taps an aquifer, an underground layer of earth that contains water. 4. PURIFIED WATER: Water has undergone a process to remove

minerals, metals, and other substances. The source is usually tap or spring water. 5. DRINKING WATER: General term means the water is intended for people to drink. But the form doesn’t tell you anything about where it’s from or how it’s being processed.

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT? Government has a major role to play in ensuring the adequate provision of safe drinking water. As the primary decision makers for planning human settlement, it determines the availability and quality of safe water. Effective planning and management can lower the cost of water and sanitation infrastructure, thereby increasing the ability of local governments to provide these services. Furthermore, the countries in Africa need to establish a quality standard for drinking water production and the elimination of microorganisms and chemical constituents of water that are known to be hazardous to the health of the public.

For example, in Nigeria the Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) covers all drinking water in the country except mineral water and packaged water, which were left under the supervision of the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) and the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON).

HOW DO YOU CONSISTENTLY PRODUCE QUALITY DRINKING WATER? Quality Drinking water is produced by a series of stages in which unwanted materials, substances and contaminants are removed, modifying the character of the water to assure good taste and purity.

These are the primary stages required to produce quality drinking water. A source water analysis will determine if additional treatment steps are required

FIRST STAGE: WATER SOFTENING The water softener’s primary function is to remove the hard minerals and replace them with soft minerals. This process pre-treat the water to protect the Reverse osmosis (RO) system to ensure a consistent, quality, purified drinking water. The

soft minerals remaining after water softening are later removed by the RO system.

SECOND STAGE: ACTIVATED PRE-CARBON FILTER The activated pre-carbon filter protects the reverse osmosis (RO) membranes by removing chlorine (chlorine is an oxidizer and RO membranes cannot tolerate oxidizers). It also reduces or removes organics, solvents and pesticides.

THIRD STAGE: 5 MICRO SEDIMENT FILTER This filter actually traps dissolved particulate matter and sediment as small as 5 microns (the human eye can see approximately 40 microns). The water treatment system automatically indicates when this cartridge filter needs to be changed to safeguard the system and quality of the water.

FOURTH STAGE: REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM This system utilizes a semi-permeable membrane which only allows pure water molecules to pass through (actually purifying the water at the molecular level). The bacteria, organics, and other contaminants cannot pass through the membrane and are passed to a separate waste stream. The membrane stays clean because the contaminants are washed down the drain and only fresh, pure drinking water is dispensed.

FIFTH STAGE: ACTUATED POST-CARBON FILTER The purified drinking water from the reverse osmosis system flows to the sealed storage tank and, upon demand flows through the activated post carbon filter. This filter ‘polishes’ or removes any taste or odour the pure water may have picked up from the storage tank, tubing etc.

SIXTH

STAGE:

ULTRAVIOLET

STERILIZATION

(OZONE

OPTIONAL) Ultraviolet light has unique ability to destroy all micro organisms it comes in contact with. The ultraviolet sterilization is the final safeguard step to ensure that your pure drinking water is also bacteria free.

SINCE THERE ARE MANY COMPANIES PRODUCING DRINKING WATER, WHAT SHOULD GOVERNMENT DO TO HELP IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER? Let us take Nigeria for example; the condition of public drinking water quality management in Nigeria is discouraging, due to non-enforcement of any of the existing standards for quality drinking water. Last year August 2008, the former Minister of Health, Dr. Hassan Lawal, launched the new Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality, known as the NIS.554:2007, to help improve drinking water production in the country. Creating new laws is one thing, but implementation and enforcing them is another.

By-Prince Engr. (Dr.) Jonathan Ezulike MD/CEO Angelis Minerals & Spring Water Nigeria LTD


								
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