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  • pg 1
VOLUME 7, ISSUE 1 February 2002
departments etc. While states were slow to adopt what has been referred to as the Unicode, the Federal Government made it very clear that this was the direction that they wished to proceed. In fact, President Clinton in 1996 was the first president ever to mention food safety, in his Inaugural Address to the nation. In the preface to the 1999 Food Code the authors point out that the document “…addresses controls for [the major] risk factors identified … as contributors to foodborne outbreaks”. These factors are “… unsafe [food] sources, inadequate cooking, improper holding, contaminated equipment, and poor personal hygiene.” It goes on to list the… “5 key public health interventions to protect consumer health, specifically, demonstration of knowledge; employee health controls; controlling hands as a vehicle of contamination; time and temperature parameters for controlling pathogens; and the consumer advisory.

Inside This Issue Main Sections:
              1) THE NEW OREGON FOOD CODE Demonstration of Knowledge Hand-washing Cooking Temperatures Date Marking of Potentially Hazardous Foods Cold Holding Temperatures and Equipment. Proper Cooling Time as a Public Health Control Separation of Raw Animal Foods Variance Requirement Consumer Advisory Pasteurized Eggs Required for Certain Recipes Soiled Food Contact Surfaces: Critical Violation Fingernails and Jewelry Other Items 2) FOOD SAFETY SECURITY 3) SERV SAFE / FOOD PROTECTION MGMT. CLASS INFORMATION & CLASS REGISTRATION FORM

On January 1, 2002 Oregon food service workers began operating under a new food code. While in the main, this code is based on the 1999 FDA Food Code. The Oregon Health Division, has made several changes to bring the code in line with Oregon law. The FDA Food Code was introduced in 1993 as an attempt to: 1) update food safety laws in light of the most current scientific information; 2) to initiate HACCP principles as the basis of food protection programs and; 3) to consolidate the often conflicting codes of such agencies as the FDA, USDA, CDC, state and local health

DEMONSTRATION OF KNOWLEDGE Perhaps the most far-reaching change to the rules is the requirement that there be a person in charge and a “knowledgeable” person on duty at all times of operation. Usually these will be the same people. The need for this is obvious. If we find a situation where no one person is in charge and/or no one is “knowledgeable,” the food protection rules will be of little value. The “knowledgeable” person will be able to demonstrate “…knowledge of foodborne disease Food Protection Update / Page 1

prevention, application of the HACCP principles, and the requirements of this code”. There are three methods by which a person can demonstrate “knowledge”. First, compliance is achieved as long as the inspector observes no critical violations. Or a person can attend and pass the test of an accredited food protection management course such as Serv Safe or Multnomah County’s own Food Protection Management Class (more information and registration forms for these courses are on page 8 of this newsletter). Finally, the food worker can demonstrate their knowledge by being able to answer, or have immediate access to answers for questions posed by the health inspector that are relevant to the particular operation. Fifteen areas of information that the “knowledgeable” person needs to be able to explain to the inspector (if appropriate to the particular operation) are listed. Additionally, the person in charge has been assigned the new responsibilities of requiring food workers and job applicants to provide information on their health and activities, which relate to diseases that can be spread through food handling. For example, the person in charge shall be informed if a food worker lives with a person who is ill from Salmonella Typhi, Shigella spp., E. coli 0157:H7, or Hepatitis A virus. To be in compliance with these worker health notification requirements, three forms are included in the new code. These food rules and forms can be accessed online at: http://www.ohd.hr.state.or.us/esc/food/rules.htm. These forms are purely voluntary and food establishments can come up with their own method of compliance. The bottom line is that the person in charge must advise job applicants and employees what illnesses and conditions must be reported to management. It is then the responsibility of the applicant/employee to report this information. When these conditions are then reported to the person in charge it is their responsibility to decide whether the person is able to work or not. Form 1 is to ensure that food employee applicants and current workers advise the person in charge of past or current conditions and diseases that might pose a threat of foodborne disease transmission. Form 2 is an agreement by the employee to report certain future conditions or diseases, and Form 3 is an applicant and food

employee medical referral which allows employees to obtain medical clearance for conditions which, as in the other forms, might be associated with Salmonella Typhi, Shigella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Hepatitis A Virus.

HANDWASHING The new code requires that double handwashing be required statewide, as has been required in Multnomah County for many years. After food workers use the toilet they must wash their hands once in the restroom and then a second time prior to doing any work at the nearest handsink whether this is in kitchen, bar, service area, etc. The code goes on to say that anytime the food worker contacts bodily fluids outside of the restrooms, such as after coughing or sneezing into ones hand, or contacting saliva via eating or smoking; or cleaning up feces or vomitus, double handwashing is also required. The worker would wash their hands once and then again at the nearest handsink. Because there is a good possibility that employees will contact bodily fluids when off duty or on breaks, they are required to double handwash prior to beginning work and when returning from breaks. COOKING TEMPERATURES Cooking temperatures for raw animal foods have been brought into line with the latest scientific knowledge. While poultry cooking temperature remains 165°F, comminuted nonpoultry meats (i.e. ground, tenderized, etc) must be cooked to 155°F, and most other animal foods such as fish, pork and eggs must be cooked to 145°F. Additionally, the code requires certain minimum oven cooking temperatures for whole beef and pork roasts, as well as ham depending on the weight of the piece of meat and the type of oven used.

Food Protection Update / Page 2

Specifications are given for the final temperature and holding time at that temperature for these meats, ranging from 130°F. for 121 minutes to 145°F. for 3 minutes. Steaks must be “…cooked on both the top and bottom to a surface temperature of …145°F…or above and a color change is achieved on all external surfaces.” If raw animal foods are cooked in a microwave they must be rotated or stirred (at least midway) during cooking, be covered, heated to a temperature of 165°F. throughout, and must stand covered for 2 minutes after cooking. DATE MARKING OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOODS Due to dangers of Listeria moncytogenes, potentially hazardous foods that do not receive a future cooking kill step and that are held for more than 24 hours require a system of date marking. Potentially hazardous foods held between 41 and 45°F. must be discarded after 4 days, while foods held at 41°F. or below can be held for no more than 7 days. The reason for this is that Listeria grows at refrigeration temperatures, doubling its numbers daily at 41°. This is of great concern since this organism is a killer, especially among immunocompromised individuals. It is also responsible for spontaneous abortions and stillbirths among pregnant women. Listeria is not a spore former and does not produce a toxin, and is therefor readily destroyed by adequate cooking.


9 a.m. to 5 p.m.

March 25, 2002 May 13, 2002
10123 SE MARKET Education Center A on lower level CALL (503) 988-3400 FOR A MAP

COLD HOLDING TEMPERATURES AND EQUIPMENT The new Food Code requires that potentially hazardous foods be held at 41°F. or colder. All refrigeration equipment must by January 1, 2007 hold these foods at that temperature. Until then, any piece of cooling equipment placed in service must be able to hold 41°F.In Practice, for the next 5 years the only critical violation that will be issued relative to refrigeration equipment being between 41 and 45°F. will be dealing with proper date marking and disposal of foods reaching their time limit. See previous section, “Date Marking of Potentially Hazardous Foods.”

Restaurants will be required to either mark foods with the production, packaging opening date, or the discard date.

PROPER COOLING Food Protection Update / Page 3

Potentially hazardous hot foods must be cooled within a reasonable period of time. The new Food Code allows extra time to do that. It requires that foods be cooled from 140 to 70° within 2 hours and then 70 to 41-45°F. within the next 4 hours. Standard operating procedures that specify cooling in an ice bath with frozen ice wands to your end point temperature; or cooling in shallow uncovered pans (2” for most products, 4” for watery products) will generally guarantee compliance. That is, as long as the cooling process begins at a little above 140°F. Yes, it is perfectly proper to let hot foods cool to 140°F., but not below, at room temperature. Please consult your inspector about other cooling strategies. If you have prepared potentially hazardous foods at room temperature, such as tuna salad, it must be cooled to 45° or below within 4 hours.

The regulatory authority may grant variances to the rule requirements if a health hazard or nuisance will not result. The Code describes what type of documentation is required when applying for a variance. At this point no decision has been made as to who will issue variances (State or County), how long they will be in effect and how they can be rescinded. Stay tuned for further developments! CONSUMER ADVISORY As mentioned previously the consumer advisory is one of the five major interventions proposed in the FDA Code to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness. Simply put, a consumer advisory warns customers that the consumption of raw or undercooked animal products increases the possibility of acquiring a foodborne illness, especially if one is immunocompromised, very young, elderly, pregnant; or suffers from liver disease, alcoholism, decreased stomach acidity, cancer, chemotherapy treatments, AIDS, diabetes or steroid use. The Oregon Health Division (now the Oregon Department of Human Services -- DHS) decided not to include it in the Oregon Food Code, at least not at this time. The FDA Food Code dictates that compliance with this rule could be attained by disclosing on the menu, e.g. animal foods that are served raw or undercooked, and issuing a reminder such as “Consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness, especially if you have certain medical conditions.”

TIME AS A PUBLIC HEALTH CONTROL Potentially hazardous foods may be held out of temperature control for up to 4 hours provided that any remaining product is discarded at the end of the time period, and “Written procedures shall be maintained in the food establishment and made available…” to the inspector. We will have forms available for you to fill out to help ensure compliance.

SEPARATION OF RAW ANIMAL FOODS Raw animal foods with different cooking temperatures must be separated from each other. Storage as an example, where raw animal foods are stored vertically as in a walk-in refrigerator, the foods with the highest cooking temperature need to be at the bottom, lowest cooking temperature at the top just below cooked and/or ready to eat foods. Other raw meat products need to be arranged accordingly.


When considering that Multnomah County does have a relatively high number of immunocompromised individuals, and in light of Food Protection Update / Page 4

the fact that this is after all a health department, it is our feeling that the consumer advisory should be part of the new food code. Hopefully, the DHS will reconsider this issue in the near future. Meanwhile, the Multnomah County Food Service Advisory Committee has agreed to study the issue with an eye toward adopting the advisory by county ordinance.

The Food Code says that, “Food employees shall keep their fingernails trimmed, filed, and maintained so the edges and surfaces are cleanable and not rough.” Also, “Unless wearing intact gloves in good repair, a food employee may not wear fingernail polish or artificial fingernails when working with exposed food”, i.e. foods that the nails or flakes of polish could contaminate. In discussing jewelry the Code states that, “While preparing food, food employees may not wear jewelry on their arms and hands. This section does not apply to a plain ring such as a wedding band”. OTHER ITEMS A few other items of more limited or questionable importance to public health have been adopted and may result in some minor changes for restaurants. Three issues of importance are: 1. Wiping cloths used for raw animal foods must be kept soaking in a sanitizing solution separate from wiping cloths used for other situations. 2. Gloves are to be used for only one task, such as working with ready to eat foods (hands must be washed before new gloves are put on). Note: Due to recent allergic reaction of customers to food handled with latex gloves as well as food workers allergic responses to these same gloves, we recommend that they not be used. Several states have banned their use, and the DHS is in the process of doing the same. 3. Sponges are not to be used on sanitized surfaces nor “in-use food contact surfaces.” The Oregon Department of Human Services is already beginning the process of reevaluating the code in light of experience so far. We welcome questions and/or comments, which we can share with other readers in this publication, or for us to use in evaluating the implementation of this new code.

PASTEURIZED EGGS REQUIRED FOR CERTAIN RECIPES No more than one raw whole egg can be served raw or undercooked (below 145°F.). Pasteurized eggs must be used instead. Individual customers may request a raw or undercooked egg (e.g. “sunnyside up”) for themselves only. This rule is important due to the transfer of the bacteria Salmonella enteritidis into eggs within the hen. While this rarely happens, one infected-pooled egg can make many people quite ill. SOILED FOOD CONTACT SURFACES: CRITICAL VIOLATION Soiled food contact surfaces such as slicer blades, cutting boards, reach-in coolers, etc. are now considered critical violations, and must be cleaned immediately.


Food Protection Update / Page 5

The events on September 11, 2001 changed the ways many of us interact in our personal and work relationships. Visible changes in airport security, the war against terrorism both at home and abroad, and subtle changes in the work environment has created a sense that things are different now than before that tragic day. The food service industry is not exempt from these changes. In January of this year, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued the Food Security Preventive Measures Guidance as guidelines to prevent a bio-terrorist attack on the nation’s food supply. An online access to this document can be found at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/secguid.html This guidance is designed as an aid to operators of food establishments (i.e. firms that produce, process, store, re-pack, re-label, distribute, or transport food or food ingredients or that prepare or distribute food at retail). Operators should review the guidance in each section (seven, including security strategies and the evaluation of the security system) that relates to a component of their operation, and assess which preventive measures are suitable for their operation. Oregon, specifically, The Dalles, is recognized as having the first bio-terrorist action in the United States, where food was intentionally poisoned (Salmonella- at several city restaurant salad bars). The terrorists’ strategy was to create illnesses (succeeded in making persons ill) that would affect voter turnout regarding a local measure that would be in their favor. Quick action by public health and enforcement agencies resulted in criminal prosecution of members of the religious sect. Locally, here are examples of what you can do to prevent a bio-terrorist event.

1. Management of food security (examples) Security procedures (develop)  Encouraging all staff to be alert to any signs of tampering with product or equipment, other unusual situations, or areas that may be vulnerable to tampering, and alerting identified management about any findings.  Conducting daily security checks of the premises for signs of tampering with product or equipment, other unusual situations, or areas that may be vulnerable to tampering.

2. Building Security (examples) Visitors  Restricting entry to the establishment (e.g., checking in and out at security or reception, requiring proof of identity, issuing visitors badges, collected upon departure.  Restricting access to food handling and storage areas (e.g., accompanying visitors, unless they are otherwise specifically authorized).

Physical security  Accounting for all keys to establishment.  Minimizing places that a person could use to hide temporarily.  Contaminants (e.g., minimizing nooks and crannies).

3. Employees (examples) Pre-hiring screening

Food Protection Update / Page 6


Screening employees (e.g., obtaining and verifying work references, addresses, and phone numbers).  Identification.  Collecting the retired identification badge when an employee is terminated, either voluntarily or involuntarily. Training in food security procedures  Providing food security training to all new employees, including information on how to prevent, detect, and respond to tampering or criminal or terrorist activity.

5. Raw materials and packaging (examples) Suppliers  Using only known, appropriately licensed or permitted (where applicable) sources for all ingredients, compressed gas, packaging, and labels.  Inspecting incoming ingredients, compressed gas, packaging, labels, and product returns for signs of tampering (e.g., abnormal powders, liquids, or odors) or counterfeiting (inappropriate product identity, labeling).

6. Operations (examples)  Security of water  Securing access to air intake points for the facility. 7. Finished Products (examples)  Security of finished products  Monitoring closely the serving of foods in open display areas (e.g. salad bars, open bulk containers) 8. Evaluation (examples)  Performing routine and random food security inspections of facility Post September 11, 2001 is a different time in our lives. All Multnomah County Environmental health specialists carry county photo identification. We expect you to challenge anyone entering sensitive areas of your food service facility. Please don’t hesitate to ask for the appropriate identification. From both business and public health perspectives you are very important players in preventing bio-terrorist actions in our community. Be alert, train your employees on identifying unusual situations, and creating a proactive approach in the security of the foods you serve will provide a new sense of security for each of us.

Unusual behavior  Watching for unusual behavior by new employees or workers (e.g., workers who stay unusually late after the end of their shift, arrive unusually early, access files/information/areas of the facility outside  of the areas of their responsibility; remove documents from the facility; ask questions on sensitive subjects; bring cameras to work). 4 Computer Systems (examples) Access  Eliminating computer access to past employees immediately upon voluntary or involuntary termination.

Food Protection Update / Page 7

A Food Safety training class is being offered with encouragement from the Multnomah County Food Service Advisory Committee All managers, owners, supervisors, chefs, food workers and other interested individuals are encouraged to attend. This is an advanced class. We assume that students are familiar with basic food safety as explained in the food handlers book. Although the focus of this class will be the latest concepts of food safety, it is also designed to: 1. 2. 3. Help you tailor a food safety program to your particular establishment. Show how a HACCP approach can be a useful tool in keeping food safe and having a profitable business. Provide the information and certification to demonstrate that you are “knowledgeable” per the 2002 Oregon Food Code.

With this course, students have a choice to be Serv Safe certified by the National Restaurant Association, by passing an exam and paying a registration fee* of $100.00 which includes the cost of the textbook and testing. Or students may pay $40.00 to attend the class and receive Multnomah County Environmental Health’s manual: Food Service Risk Management, Introducing the Principles of H.A.C.C.P. and an Oregon Health Division approved statewide certification. All students who pass will receive either a SERV Safe or a Food Protection Management card good for 5 years. All participants will receive decaffeinated refreshments and a $5.00 vegetarian lunch coupon. To register for the class, complete the registration form and return it with your payment. For more information call (503) 988-3400. The upcoming class dates for 2002 are the following: March 25, May 13, July 29, September 30, November 25. *WE RECOMMEND THAT YOU REGISTER EARLY, SO THAT YOU WILL HAVE YOUR BOOK TO STUDY PRIOR TO THE CLASS. WE WILL BE COVERING QUITE A LOT OF INFORMATION. ATTENDANCE WILL BE LIMITED TO 20.

ADVENTIST MEDICAL CENTER 10123 SE Market Education Center A on lower level

Class for Spanish Speaking Food Handlers  April 29, 2002 Serv Safe and Food Protection Management Class from 9AM to 5PM Food Protection Update / Page 8

SERV SAFE/FPM Class Registration Form
Complete Registration Form and Certification Record and send with payment of $100.00 for Serv Safe Certification Class OR $40.00 for Multnomah County Food Protection Management to the address listed below. Payment includes cost of training manual, lunch certificate and card or certificate for class. A written request is required to cancel and receive a refund for pre-paid class fees. Written cancellation/reimbursement request must be received in Environmental Health Services office or postmarked no later than 3 weeks prior to the class date. Written cancellation requests NOT received 3 weeks prior to the class date will be ineligible to receive refund(s). Multnomah County Environmental Health

426 SW Stark Street, 3 Floor Portland, OR 97204
_________SERV SAFE ($100.00) _________SERV SAFE Retest


Class Date:

____March 25, 2002 ____May 13, 2002

____September 30, 2002 ____November 25, 2002

(Please Check One)

____July 29, 2002

(503) 988-3400 / Fax: (503) 988-5844

___April 29, 2002 (For Spanish speakers only)


(Re-test fees as follows: Serv Safe and FPM 1st re-test $25.00, Serv Safe 2nd re-test $75.00, FPM 2nd re-test $40.00) Replacement manuals: Serv Safe $70.00, FPM $5.00. Replacment Cards $5.00. Payment Type Enclosed: (PLEASE COMPLETE) Cash ___________Amount____________

Check #____________Amount __________ OR Name: Date of Birth: Job Title: Business Name: Mailing Address for Certificate:

Daytime Telephone:


) For Office Use Only

Date: ________ /Issued (Circle One):Serv Safe Card # _________FPM Certificate #__________ Issued by (initials): ___________

Food Protection Update / Page 9

Food Handler’s Certification Record for SERV SAFE/FPM
Class Date/Fecha de clase Year/año

Month/mes Day/dia Last Name / Apellidos

First Name / Nombre

Middle Initial

Date of Birth / Fecha de Nacimiento

Years of School Completed / Años de escuela completados

Test / Lenguaje Language/ del Examen English Spanish Español Chinese Vietnamese Korean Russian

Month/Mes Day/Dia Year/Año Job Responsibilities / Responsabilidad de Trabajo Server/Bartender Mesero/Cantinero Cook/Food Prep Concinero/Preparacion de comida Dishwasher/Bus Lavaplatos Combination of Duties Combinacion de Labores Manager Gerente/Encargador Other Job Responsibility Otra Responsabilidad

Home / Codigo Postal Zip Code / de la Casa

Specify Other  Language  Please review, ask client to complete any information not provided. Do Not Write Below This Area / No escriba en esta area por favor  COMPLETE FOR OFF-SITE ONLY Client Number W. Test O.Test Score Video Repeat Start End

Date Paid Date Mailed Serv Safe/FPM Card # Dup. Card #


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