Tossups for Cornell at 1999 ACF Regionals _by Matt Colvin_

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					1999 ACF Regionals Questions by Cornell A (Matt Colvin) Tossups 1. His time spent at Trinity College was miserable, thanks to tuberculosis and malnutrition caused by his vegetarianism. In 1976, George Andrews of Penn State discovered this man's "Lost Notebook," containing 600 theorems on loose sheets of paper. A failed student at Madras University, he was invited to Cambridge by G.H. Hardy, on the basis of a letter containing some hundred theorems. FTP, name this Indian who taught himself mathematics from an elementary English textbook. Answer: Srinivasa Ramanujan 2. Alexander Stephens suggested that Confederate troops might secretly be used to assist the nationalist movement in Mexico, but Abraham Lincoln reminded him that his terms required the disbanding of all rebel forces. This meeting of the two men was designed by Jefferson Davis to secure peace for the tottering Confederacy. FTP, name this peace conference, held on board a steamship in 1865 near the same place where three years earlier the Monitor and the Merrimac had their duel. Answer: The Hampton Roads Conference 3. This melodrama's title refers to a song sung by German soldiers returning from World War I, which is sung by the main character when he is blackmailed by Count Teck de Bancovis. He kills Teck and the play ends with him explaining his actions to his American in-laws and departing for Germany. FTP, name this 1941 play about Kurt Muller, designed to rouse American sentiment against Hitler, written by Lillian Hellman. Answer: The Watch on the Rhine 4. This 1922 poem begins with an epigraph from Petronius, in which the Cumaean Sibyl replies to the question "What do you want?" by saying "I want to die." The imagery soon shifts to a place "where the sun beats // And the dead tree gives no shelter, the cricket no relief, // And the dry stone no sound of water." The next three sections are "A Game of Chess," "The Fire Sermon," "Phlebas the Phoenician," and "What the Thunder Said." FTP, name this T.S. Eliot poem in which "April is the cruellest month." Answer: The Wasteland 5. In the 1460's, Agostino di Duccio began work on a sculpture commission from the board of works of Florence Cathedral. He gave up after mutilating the stone, but this work was executed by a different artist and set up on the steps of the Palazzo Vecchio in 1504. After being broken by a chair thrown out of a window of the Palazzo, it was moved to the Accademia museum. FTP, name this symbol of Florentine civic virtue, a 14-foot tall contrapposto figure by Michelangelo. Answer: The David (prompt on Michaelangelo on early buzz) 6. Frustrated with the initial results, he performed his experiment again on top of California's Mount San Antonio, but with no luck. He redesigned the experiment in order to detect any effects caused by the earth's rotation; again, nothing. His half-silvered, half-transparent mirror worked just fine; his telescope received each half-pulse, and there was no difference in speed. An aether windspeed of only one or two miles per second would have had an observable effect, but none was seen. FTP, name this experimenter who disproved the existence of the aether. Answer: Albert Michelson (accept Michelson-Morley Experiment before “this experimenter”) 7. A fish with scales so hard a man could start a fire by striking them with steel, called the Devil-Jack Diamond, was a hoax with which this man duped the French naturalist Constantine Rafinesque. Born in Haiti, he published his masterpiece in 87 volumes between 1827 and 1838, and followed it with Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America. FTP, name this naturalist and artist of Birds of North America. Answer: John James Audubon 8. Used by Philo Judaeus and Josephus, this work is preserved in "Codex B" in the Vatican and in "Codex aleph" or Sinaiticus in London. Ptolemy Philadelphus commissioned it, begun in 250 BC on the island of Pharos near Alexandria. Originally the name referred only to the Pentateuch, but later it referred to the Greek text of 53 books, including apocryphal and deuterocanonical ones. FTP, name this Greek translation of the Old Testament, supposed to have been completed in 72 days by 72 scholars.

Answer: The Septuagint 9. The only contemporary portrait of this woman is a 1618 engraving that shows her in a Jacobean stovepipe hat and lacy ruff. At an interview with Ben Jonson, she answered a few questions, and then sat there for 45 minutes while Jonson stared at her. Her son Thomas was left in the care of her husband's uncle in London after her death. Christened "Rebecca" late in life, she was born Matoaka, but is best known by a nickname meaning "frolicksome." FTP, name this daughter of Powhatan and husband of John Rolfe, who probably did not save John Smith's life. Answer: Pocahontas (accept Matoaka on early buzz) 10. After Emile Cottin (Uh MEAL Cot ANNE) failed in his assassination attempt on him, this man asked for leniency for the young anarchist, recommending eight years in prison and "intensive training in a shooting gallery." The leader of the extreme left in the Chamber of Deputies, he was a friend, and then adversary of Boulanger (Boo lahn JHAY), and lobbied against the Dreyfus affair, publishing Zola's "J'Accuse" in his journal "L'Aurore" (Lau ROAR). FTP, name this man who presided at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, known as "The Tiger." Answer: Georges Clemenceau 11. In his 1912 monograph on apparent motion, he explored hysteresis and worked with a motion-blind patient, coining the word "phi-phenomenon" to describe the effect produced by a movie theatre marquee. His 1923 Untersuchungen zur Lehre explained how we perceive non-moving things by organization and not piecemeal; he termed this phenomenon the "bundle-hypothesis." FTP, name this experimenter whose results were extolled by Kurt Koffka in his Introduction to Gestalt Theory. Answer: Max Wertheimer 12. He preached sermons such as “A Caution against Bigotry” and “The Cause and Cure of Earthquakes.” Excited by the thought of William Law, he met in the evenings with three other Oxford students, including his brother Charles -- a group that a Christ Church student nicknamed after the saint who evangelized the Slavs with Cyril. In 1738, he went to Georgia as a missionary, and in 1739 he established the Foundry, which became his headquarters. FTP, name this founder of Methodism. Answer: John Wesley 13. Friedrich Kind ("kint") wrote the libretto for this 1821 opera. A contest is held for the hand of the lovely Agathe ("Agga THAY"). The woodsman Max enters the contest, but he requires a little help from Caspar, who is in league with the Devil. The Black Hunstman gives him seven magic bullets, and the seventh, aimed at a dove, would have killed Agathe, but bounces off her wreath and kills Caspar instead. FTP, name this opera by Karl Weber ("Vaybur"). Answer: Der Freischütz or The Freeshooter 14. This process involves the so-called "oxygen paradox." A diazotrophic actinomycete called "frankia" can do it, as can the blue-green algae Azolla in paddy rice. Lightning does it to the tune of 10 million tons per year. Rhizobium does it in legumes. And humans do it with the Haber-Bosch process. FTP, what is this necessary activity, defined as the conversion of a certain atmospheric gas into compounds for plant growth, such as ammonia. Answer: Nitrogen Fixation (prompt on "ammonia synthesis" if given on "Haber-Bosch") 15. He started philandering at the young age of eighteen, with a Welshwoman whom he met in The Hague, but he left her to a life of prostitution. He next took up with Moll Davis, a stage actress, who was dubbed "the most impertinent slut in the world" by Samuel Pepys. He soon dumped her for others, including the Duchess of Mazarin, Barbara Villiers, and Louise de Keroualle, nicknamed "Squintabella" by her rivals. FTP, name this English monarch most famous for his affair with Nell Gwynn, but married to Catherine of Braganza, the first king of the English Restoration. Answer: Charles II 16. On the fifth of February, 1925, an experimenter's notebook records the discovery of a crack in the vacuum trap in an electron scattering apparatus at Western Electric. Later, the nickel target formed ten crystal facets, producing a strange pattern of light, which was later seized upon by Max Born and Erwin Schrodinger as evidence for his theories. FTP, name the two experimenters whose discovery of photon scattering gave support to the wave theory of light. Answer: Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer (accept "Davisson-Germer"; prompt if only one name is given on a buzz before "two".)

17. Ill will over the defeat of this piece of legislation contributed to the drive to impeach Andrew Johnson. Co sponsored by the chairman of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, it was killed when Abraham Lincoln pocket-vetoed it. It introduced as a voting condition an oath of past and present loyalty to the Union. FTP, name this 1864 bill that required 50% of each state's electorate to pass that test before it could be readmitted to the Union. Answer: The Wade-Davis Bill 18. Two of the moons of Uranus take their names from it. Robert, Lord Petre was the culprit; Arabella Fermor was the victim, and this rather silly incident was the cause of great strife for certain Roman Catholic families. To heal the breach, John Caryll suggested to Alexander Pope that he write this poem, which begins, "What dire Offence from am'rous Causes springs, // What mighty Contests rise from trivial Things!" FTP, name this mock-epic making light of Belinda's loss of some hair. Answer: The Rape of the Lock (the moons are Umbriel and Belinda) 19. The victor in this battle reported that "the enemy were moored in a strong Line of Battle for defending the entrance of the bay, flanked by numerous Gun-boats, four Frigates, and a battery of Guns and Mortars...but nothing could withstand the Squadron your Lordship placed under my command." Thomas B. Thompson commanded the Leander, Samuel Hood was in the Zealous, and Thomas Louis in the Minotaur, while the flagship was the Vanguard. FTP, name this battle of August 1798, which Lord Nelson won in the waters of the Egyptian delta. Answer: The Battle of the Nile 20. Martin and Primavesi recently discovered a new fragment of a treatise called On Nature, written by this philosopher. Born in Sicily to a rich family, he dressed in purple robes and a golden diadem, claiming magical powers for himself. Reported to have kept a woman alive for a month after she stopped breathing, he also claimed to be a god and died by jumping into the crater of Mt. Etna. FTP, name this Presocratic philosopher, who taught that the universe was created by Love and Strife, and is composed of Earth, Air, Fire, and Water. Answer: Empedocles of Acragas 21. For strong solutions, it is generalized as Duhring's Rule, which uses water as a model -- but other electrolytes do not obey it. For it to apply, the activity coefficient must be 1.0, making the solution ideal. When attraction between the solute and the solvent is stronger than the attraction of either substance for itself, the principle applies only imperfectly. FTP, name this principle of chemistry, which states that the mole fraction of a solvent times its vapor pressure in a pure state equals the vapor pressure of the solvent. Answer: Raoult's law ("Rah-OOH") 22. Set in Lesbos among sheep and goatherds, this story's hero is carried off by pirates from Tyre, and saved from shipwreck by his rival Dorcon ("DOOR Khan"). The heroine is kidnapped in a war between Mytilene ("Mittle EENY") and Methymna ("Muh-THIM-nuh"). The two of them lie down together, but just don't know what to do until they receive erotic lessons from Philetas and Lycaenion. FTP, identify the two protagonists in this novel by Longus, later set to music by Maurice Ravel. Answers: Daphnis and Chloe 23. A supporter of trade unionism in Mexico, during the Versailles conference, he was instrumental in the creation of the League of Nations' International Labor Organization. His first job was as a shoemaker's apprentice in London, but he soon changed trades and came to America with his parents in 1863. As a cigar maker, he was the de facto head of the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Councils, which he galvanized into a major union. FTP, name this first president of the AFL. Answer: Samuel Gompers 24. In curved spacetime, this phenomenon is explained by applying Bogoliubov transformations to the solutions of Maxwell's equations. writing them as positive-frequency and negative-frequency parts; one gives you particles, and the other, antiparticles. The resulting prediction is a blackbody glowing at a temperature equal to six times ten to the negative eighth kelvins per solar masses -- in other words, FTP, for particle-antiparticle pairs created near the event horizon, one falls into a black hole, and the other escapes as what kind of radiation? Answer: Hawking Radiation

1999 ACF Regionals Questions by Cornell A (Matt Colvin) Bonuses 1. Bulgarian author Victor Palchow wrote the touching "Ballad for Georg Henig," in which a young boy becomes friends with a dying violin-maker. But history's famous violin-makers are all from Cremona, Italy. Name these, 10 each. 1. This Cremona native's experimental designs perfected the string instruments, and it is thought that he made over a thousand of them before his death in 1737, including the celebrated "Le Messie" violin in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Answer: Antonio Stradivarius 2. Also from Cremona, this master was given the nickname "del Gesu" for his practice of signing his labels with the letters IHS -- "Jesu hominum salvator." His instruments are known for their tonal qualities. Answer: Giuseppe Guarnieri 3. Guarnieri and Stradivari learned their trade from the son of another Cremona violin-maker, whose earliest instrument dates from 1564. Answer: Andrea Amati 2. Identify these literary movements named after the years of their founding, 15 points each: 1. This movement, started by Hans Werner Richter in the United States after World War II, attempted to purify German literature of Nazi propaganda. Returning to Germany, they founded the journal The Call, and encouraged Gunter Grass to publish. Heinrich Boll was also involved. Answer: Gruppe 47 or Group 47 2. Led by Antonio Machado, this group of Spanish writers searched for meaning in their country's defeat in the Spanish-American War. Other writers included Perez de Ayala, Benavente, and Unamuno. Answer: Generacion del 98 3. Identify these mac-daddy chemists, 10 each: 1. In 1858, this native of Bohemia argued that carbon is a 4-valent element, and seven years later, announced his theory of the structure of benzene. Answer: Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz 2. In 1890, this 1905 Nobel winner and student of Kekule came up with his eponymous "strain theory" to explain why five- or six-atom rings are more common than rings with fewer atoms. He is most famous for synthesizing indigo dye. Answer: Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer 3. In 1931, this American published The Nature of the Chemical Bond, in which he explained the quantum mechanical basis for resonance such as that which occurs in benzene. Answer: Linus Pauling 4. 30-20-10, name the American statesman. 30: Thomas Jefferson said of him, "So great is his sophistry that you must never assent to anything he says, or you will be forced to admit his conclusion." A committed Federalist, he wrote a five-volume "Life of George Washington." 20: He was offered jobs as Secretary of War and of State by John Adams; he had earlier drafted the memo rejecting the demands of the XYZ affair, and later presided at the treason trial of Aaron Burr. 10: From 1801 to 1835 he was chief justice of the Supreme Court, and decided such cases as McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden. Answer: John Marshall 5. Lest anyone complain about the sexist, all-male distribution of this packet, here is a sexist bonus about beautiful women, 15 each, or for less if you need another clue. 1. 15. This Athenian hetaira, or courtesan, was the mistress of Alexander's general Ptolemy. According to one story, while Alexander was as drunk as only a Macedonian could be, she convinced him to burn down Persepolis. 10. Massenet composed an opera that bears her name. Answer: Thais ("TAH iss" or "THAH iss") 2. 15. Exhibited as the goddess Hygeia by the quack doctor James Graham, this English beauty had born two children by the age of seventeen.

5. Eleven years later, she became the mistress of Horatio Nelson. Answer: Lady Emma Hamilton 6. Identify the following scientists from clues relating to Isaac Newton, 10 each. 1. Isaac Newton superintended the publication of this man's Greenwich Observations, which contained data he needed to work out his lunar theory -- data which he used without this man's consent. Answer: John Flamsteed 2. This man financed and edited Newton's 1687 Principia Mathematica. He succeeded Flamsteed as Astronomer Royal in 1720. Answer: Edmond Halley 3. In June 1696, Newton solved two famous problems proposed by this man, who was employed by the Marquis de l'Hospital to draw up the first differential calculus textbook. His son was also a famous mathematician. Answer: Jean Bernoulli (prompt on "Bernoulli", do not accept Daniel or Jacques) 7. The pope may be a spiritual authority now, but he used to gather secular allies into confederations to kick some temporal ass. Name these alliances, 10 each: 1. Formed in 1510 by Pope Julius II, this pretentiously-named alliance was dedicated to driving Louis XII of France out of Italy, and it included the Swiss cantons, Venice, Ferdinand V of Spain, Henry VIII of England, and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Answer: The Holy League 2. Milan, Venice, Mantua, Padua, and Brescia formed his alliance of 1167, and defeated Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I at Legnano. The league was revived in 1226 against Frederick II, who had similar aspirations to control northern Italy. Answer: The Lombard League 3. Taking a page out of the pope's book, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I entered into this 1686 alliance with Holland, Sweden, Spain, Bavaria, the Palatinate, and Saxony. The league was replaced by the Grand Alliance in 1689. Answer: The League of Augsburg 8. The Greek name Merope was applied to at least six mythological women. One was a victim of rape at the hands of Orion; another was one of the Pleiades. Identify these others, 10 each: 1. One Merope, as wife of Polybus of Corinth, was the foster mother of this hero. Answer: Oedipus 2. Another was the daughter of Cypselus, the legendary king of this city whose citizens later became Helots after the Spartans conquered their city in 715 B.C.. Answer: Messenia 3. A third was the wife of this villain, who left her instructions not to bury him, so that he could cheat death by telling Hades he needed to go back to the upper world and punish his wife for neglecting his burial rites. But he eventually suffered a proverbial punishment in Hades. Answer: Sisyphus 9. The Crusades gave rise to several military religious orders. Name these, 10 each: 1. Also known as the Knights of St. John, of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, or of Malta, this wealthy order took Rhodes after the Saracen conquest of Akko, and defended it until Sulayman ousted them. Answer: The Knights Hospitalers 2. These "Poor Knights of Christ" began as a band of nine knights organized to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. They settled in Cyprus, but their wealth made them a target for Philip IV of France, and their leaders were burned as heretics in 1314. Answer: The Knights Templars or Knights of the Temple of Solomon (prompt on "Knights of the Temple") 3. This order was made up of nobles, and began a crusade against the heathen Prussians in 1226, eventually becoming the ruling government of the region until the grand master of the order, Albert of Brandenberg, proclaimed secular rule with himself as duke. Answer: The Teutonic Knights 10. Name these biologists, 10 points each.

1. His line, extending from the Indian Ocean, between the islands of Bali and Lombok, northward between Borneo and the Celebes, and south of Mindanao into the Philippine Sea, is supposed to separate Oriental fauna from Australasian. Answer: Alfred Russel Wallace or Wallace line 2. This Frenchman foreshadowed Darwin's ideas, and taught that the development or atrophy of organs by use or disuse can be inherited. He died blind and poor, suffering the taunts of anti-evolutionists. Answer: Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck 3. Among Lamarck's critics was this father of paleontology who accounted for the fossil record with a theory of "catastrophism." He extended Linnaeus' classification system, dividing animals into four phyla. Answer: Georges Cuvier 11. Identify the following literary awards, from famous winners for 15 each, or from clues for 10. 1. 15. The first of these went to Ezra Pound for his Pisan Cantos, creating a huge controversy. 10. First presented under the auspices of the Library of Congress, it is now awarded by the Yale University Library, from a philanthropic trust created by Paul Mellon. 2. 15. Michael Ondaatje won for The English Patient in 1992; Salman Rushdie for Midnight's Children in 1981; Thomas Keneally for Schindler's Ark in 1982, and Kingsley Amis for The Old Devils in 1986. 10. Administered by the BookTrust, this prize is open to new novels by British Commonwealth writers. Answer: The Booker Prize 12. Identify these questions about epithelial tissue FTSNOP. 15. For five points each, identify the three categories of epithelial cells. Answers: squamous, cuboidal, and columnar 5. This is the term for epithelial tissue that is only one cell thick. Answer: simple epithelium 10. This is the term for epithelial tissue that is two or more cells thick, and only the cells in the lowest layer are in contact with the underlying membrane. Answer: stratified epithelium (do not accept pseudostratified) 13. "The best laid plans of mice and men gang aft agley," and none more aft than those laid by bungling 17th century Brits. Identify these, which either didn't exist, or were foiled FTSNOP. 20. This 1678 conspiracy was a fiction concocted by Israel Tonge and another man, who perjuriously swore before a judge that Roman Catholics were planning to overthrow Charles II. Identify both the plot and the other major conspirator FTP each. Answers: The Popish Plot and Titus Oates 10. Commemorated on November 5th, this planned uprising was halted when a conspirator warned a relative not to attend Parliament, and another conspirator, Guy Fawkes, was arrested as he entered the basement of the House of Lords. Answer: The Gunpowder Plot 14. Identify the following periodicals, 10 each: 1. Edited first by James Russell Lowell and later by William Dean Howells, this magazine featured the works of Emerson, Longfellow, Whittier, Holmes, and Hawthorne during its first 15 years from 1857 to 1872. Answer: The Atlantic Monthly 2. This magazine founded in 1890 by William D'Alton, AKA Colonel Mann, featured the young F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sinclair Lewis, and William Rose Benet. Its "Americana" department attacked what it called "the booboisie." Answer: The Smart Set 3. George Jean Nathan and H.L. Mencken were the editors of Smart Set before Alfred Knopf gave them charge of this new magazine in 1924, in which Mencken found it "an agreeable duty to track down some of the worst nonsense prevailing and do execution upon it." Answer: The American Mercury 15. Identify the following about the acme of Colvin Science, 10 each: 1. In the 1690s, a famous experiment produced a salt called vitriolated tartar from liver of sulfur by burning, and then treated it with charcoal, producing the original liver of sulfur again. It was thought that this was because charcoal contained an abundance of what substance?

Answer: phlogiston 2. This personal physician to the King of Prussia was the main exponent of the phlogiston theory in his "Zymotechnia fundamentalis", and also believed that animism was behind living organisms. Answer: Georg Ernst Stahl 3. In Stahl's experiment, the vitriolated tartar was considered to be this sort of substance, which when combined with phlogiston, produced a metal? Answer: a calx 16. Identify the following Greek plays, named after their choruses, 10 each. 1. The daughters of Danaus flee from their black Aegyptid suitors in this tragedy of Aeschylus. Answer: The Suppliants or Suppliant Women or Hiketides 2. Peisthetairos ("Pace that EYE russ") and Euelpides ("You ELP ih deez") flee from debt and juries in Athens armed with a scheme to usurp power from the gods by helping Tereus controlling the flow of smoke from sacrifices. Answer: The Birds or Ornithai (by Aristophanes) 3. By sheer sexual attraction, Helen sways her husband Menelaus from his intention to kill her. She seduces him over the objections of Hecuba, who urges him, "Do not put that woman into your ship!" "Why?" he asks," Is she heavier than she was?" Euripides wrote it. Answer: The Trojan Women or Troades (by Euripides) 17. Identify these architects of the Federal period from buildings FTP each. 1. Baltimore Cathedral, Bank of Pennsylvania Answer: Benjamin Henry Latrobe 2. Design for the US Capitol, 1792 Answer: William Thornton 3. Massachusetts State House, India Wharf, Harrison Gray Otis House Answer: Charles Bulfinch 18. For 10 points each, identify these works of Ralph Waldo Emerson. 1. Printed as a pamplet titled "An Oration Delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Cambridge on August 31, 1837," this speech urged Harvard students to get in touch with the Divine Soul, shake off European modes of thought, and start thinking like that nutcase Swedenborg. Answer: The American Scholar 2. In this poem of 1847, Emerson says that the shrub in the title is beautiful even if no one sees it , but he is thankful that God brought him there to see it. It is subtitled "On Being Asked, Whence is the Flower"? Answer: The Rhodora 3. This 1841 essay protests that "the civilized man has built a coach, but has lost the use of his feet. He has got a fine Geneva watch, but has lost the skill to tell the hour by the sun." Answer: On Self-Reliance 19. Identify these musical variations, 10 each: 1. Count Kayserling rewarded the composer of this fourth part of the Klavieruebung ("Claff FEAR eww' bung") with a golden goblet. Answer: The Goldberg Variations 2. The first 5 notes of this 1830 piano piece spell out the last name of a fictional "Comtesse Pauline" to whom it is dedicated, but the name was really that of a friend of the composer, Robert Schumann. Answer: The Abegg Variations (published in 1831, written in '29-30) 3: Max Bruch employed Hebrew themes in this set of variations for cello and orchestra. Answer: Kol Nidrei 20. Name the writer, 30-20-10: 30: When Cambridge was reluctant to grant his degree, the Queen's Privy Council intervened on his behalf, which may have been because he was affiliated with the royal secret service. 20: Accused of atheism and treason by Thomas Kyd, then beaten up in a brawl with an innkeeper named William Bradley, he was at last stabbed to death by Ingram Frizer in an argument over the bill at an inn. Frizer was pardoned because he had acted in self-defense. 10: His plays include Edward II, Tamburlaine the Great and The Jew of Malta.

Answer: Christopher Marlowe 21. Two of the sons of Louis the Pious met on Valentine's Day in the year 842 to swear an oath of mutual non-agression and alliance against their brother. For 10 points each, answer the following: 1. They swore the oath in both Old High German and Old French. They did so at what city? Answer: Strasbourg 2. For 5 each, who were the two brothers, later kings of separate nations, who swore alliance against their brother Lothar? Answer: Charles the Bald and Louis the German 3. A year later, the treaty of Verdun divided up Charlemagne's empire, giving France to Charles the Bald and Germany to Louis. The third brother, Lothar, was given what central region that still bears his name in a corrupted form? Answer: Lorraine (from "Lothari regnum") 22. 30-20-10-5, name the thing: 30: In Leonardo da Vinci's painting The Last Supper, Judas is depicted as having knocked over one of these objects. 20: Nicholas and Alexandra were given one of these objects by the religious sect of the Old Believers; like many 19th century specimens, it is in the shape of a throne, with the lid in the shape of the seat. It is now in the Kremlin museum. 10: Benvenuto Cellini crafted one from gold for Francis I, which features reclining nudes of Neptune and Amphitrite. 5: In 1930, Mahatma Gandhi led a 200-mile march to protest Britain's tax on the product usually contained in these objects. Answer: A Salt cellar

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