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Introduction

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									Evaluation of lameness in dairy herds in India - Observation on associated pathogenesis and pain perception

S. K. Nandi*†, S. Roy*, P. Mukheerjee*, A. Goswami** and D. Mazumder***

Tables and Figures

Figure- 1. Photomicrograph of hoof revealed Haversian system (block arrow) of bony plate with regular orientation and formation of young plumped blood vessels (single arrow) in congested stage and hyperemia.

Table 1 -PREVALENCE OF LAMENESS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF RED LATERITE ZONE OF PURULIA DISTRICT
Name of dairy farm No. of total animals No. of lame animals Summer Month Rainy Winter Month Age of lame anim als (yrs.) Body wt of lame animals (kg) Stage of lactat ion of lame anim als Genetics and conformatio n Animal behaviour Avg. Avg. Standin Lyin g (hrs.) g (hrs.)

Mohan Dairy

150

10

16

4-6

350-400

5 th 9

th

Jersey and Holstein Friesian cross Jersey and Holstein Friesian Jersy cross (2), deshi Jersey and Holstein Friesian

8.4

15.6

Kamal dairy farm, Belguma GOSALA Asish dairy farm, Belguma DAIRY FARMS OF RAMKRI SHNA MISSION Dairy farm at Belguma (Parimal’ s)

60 CATTL E, Buff10 200 140 CATTL E, Buff4 45

2

7

7

350

5

th

8

16

3

10

4-6

250

4

th

7

17

7

11

5-7

300-350

4 th 6
rd

th

8.4

15.6

2

4

5-6

350-400

3

7.5 Jersey and Holstein Friesian

16.5

30

3

5

4-6

350-400

1 rd 3

st

Holstein Friesian

8.5

15.5

Table 2- PREVALENCE OF LAMENESS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF NEW ALLUVIAL ZONE OF NADIA DISTRICT
Name of dairy farm No. of total animals No. of lame animals Summer Month Rainy Winter Month Age of lame anim als (yrs.) Body wt of lame animals (kg) Stage of lactation of lame animals Genetics and conform ation Animal behaviour Avg. Standing (hrs.) Avg. Lying (hrs.)

Mayapur

45

4

5

3-7

350400

1 -4

st

th

SLF, Kalyani Haringh ata Farm, Mohanp ur Dairy farms of Nadia (Bijoy Ghosh) Dhiren

122 135

6 6

7 11

10 13

3-8 5-7

275390 300350

1 -5
nd

st

th

Holstei n Friesia n cross Jersey Sahiwa l, Gir

7.6

16.4

7 7.5

17 16.5

2 -4

th

12

3

4

4

3-6

400450

2 -5

nd

th

Buffalo

8

16

18

4

6

4

5-7

400-

3 -6

rd

th

Buffalo

7

17

2

Mondal, Chakdah a, Nadia Nadia Dairy and Allied Farms

450
th

85

12

17

13

6-7

350450

5 - 8th

Buffalo

8.5

15.5

Table 3- PERCENT REDUCTION OF MILK YIELD IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF RED LATERITE ZONE OF PURULIA DISTRICT

Name of dairy farm

Mohan Dairy

Kamal dairy farm, Belguma
GOSALA

Percent Reduction of milk yield in herd Summer Rainy Winter Month Month 9 12 16 5 14 18 10 6 8 7 18 17 14 16 20 19 16 17

Asish dairy farm, Belguma
DAIRY FARMS OF RAMKRISHNA MISSION Dairy farm at Belguma (Parimal’s)

Table 4- PERCENT REDUCTION OF MILK YIELD IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF NEW ALLUVIAL ZONE OF NADIA DISTRICT Name of dairy farm Percent Reduction of milk yield in herd Summer Rainy Winter Month Month 4 13 14 5 8 9 8 10 12 10 15 18 12 18 18 6 10 12

Mayapur SLF, Kalyani Haringhata Farm, Mohanpur Dairy farms of Nadia (Bijoy Ghosh) Dhiren Mondal, Chakdaha, Nadia Nadia Dairy and Allied Farms

3

Table 5-Two factor factorial ANOVA results to test the effects due to zone and season
# Note: Similar alphabets denote homogeneous means Note: Bold means of respective zone is significantly higher than the other Zone 1. Red laterite 2. New Alluvial

lame % ZONE 1 2 SE(m) F statistic Sig. SEASON Summer Rainy Winter SE(m) F statistic Sig. 17.40 24.42 1.63 9.33 0.00 17.07 b 22.00 ab 23.66 a 1.99 2.97 NS

Milk yield reduction 13.44 11.22 0.66 5.62 0.02 7.50 b 13.75 a 15.75 a 0.81 28.09 0.00

Table 6- Between zones mean comparisons of different independent variables Which may influence lame % or milk reduction. Zone 1. Red laterite 2. New Alluvial

Variable Age Body WT lactation stage Hours Standing Hours Lying houes type floor type foot bath SDS score SDS score F&W SDS score Back stroke SDS score fore limb palpation guarding posture Fodder feeding before calving

ZONE 1 2 5.58 5.58 341.67 378.75 4.33 4.17 7.97 7.60 16.03 16.40 1.67 1.00 5.17 2.17 0.00 0.33 3.20 1.75 2.32 1.30 2.62 1.57 2.98 1.43 1.10 0.00 2.67 2.00 0.83 0.17

Mann-Whitney U 17.00 11.00 16.50 12.50 12.50 12.00 0.00 12.00 0.50 1.50 6.00 0.50 0.00 6.00 6.00

Asymp. Sig. 0.869 0.252 0.805 0.372 0.372 0.140 0.003 0.138 0.005 0.006 0.054 0.005 0.002 0.019 0.027

4

Table 7- Between seasons mean comparisons of lame % and milk yield reduction 1. Summer 2. Rainy 3.Winter
# Note: Similar alphabets denote homogeneous means

1 Variable Mean 17.07 F statistics Sig. 7.50b F statistics Sig. SE 2.28

lame % Milk yield reduction#

0.7

SEASON 2 Mean SE 22.00 2.47 2.431 NS 13.75a 0.95 24.007 0.00

3 Mean 23.66 SE 1.79

15.75a

0.96

Table 8- Season wise between zones mean comparisons of lame % and milk yield reduction
Note: In each season bold mean of respective zone is significantly higher than the other

Variable for summer season

ZONE Red laterite Mean SE 12.51 t statistics Sig. 7.50 t statistics Sig. 17.98 t statistics Sig. 15.17 t statistics Sig. 21.710 t statistics Sig. 17.67 t statistics Sig. 1.62

New Alluvial Mean SE 21.63 -2.392 0.048 7.50 0 NS 26.02 -1.779 NS 12.33 1.599 NS 25.617 -1.102 NS 13.83 2.375 0.039 3.45

lame%

0.76

1.26

Milk yield reduction for rainy season

1.51

4.26

lame%

0.91

1.52

Milk yield reduction for winter season

1.954

2.959

lame%

0.67

1.47

Milk yield reduction

5

Table 9- Percent study of different independent variables
lactation stage 2 3 4 5 7 foot bath 0 1 house type 1 2 4 FODDER 2 3 feeding before calving 0 1 floor type 2 3 4 5 6 guarding posture 0 1 1.2 Table 10- Duncan’s Summer Season guarding posture 0 1 1.2 Percent 8.3 33.3 16.7 25 16.7 Percent 83.3 16.7 Percent 83.3 8.3 8.3 Percent 66.7 33.3 Percent 50 50 Percent 41.7 8.3 8.3 25 16.7 Percent 50 25 25

test results if any significant difference found
Winter Season Milk yield reduction 14.70 a 9.00 b Milk yield reduction 15.17 a 9.33 b 15.33 a Milk yield reduction 15.67 a 11.83 b foot bath 0 1 gurding posture 0 1 1.2 feeding before calving 0 1 Milk yield reduction 16.80 a 10.50 b Milk yield reduction 17.67 a 11.00 b 16.67 a Milk yield reduction 18.00 a 13.50 b

Rainy Season foot bath 0 1 gurding posture 0 1 1.2 feeding before calving 0 1

lame % 12.51 b 18.11 ab 25.16 a

# Note: Similar alphabets denote homogeneous means

# Note: Similar alphabets denote homogeneous means

# Note: Similar alphabets denote homogeneous means

6

Table 11- MANAGEMENTAL ASPECT IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF RED LATERITE ZONE OF PURULIA DISTRICT Name of dairy farm Table 11- MANAGEMENTAL ASPECT IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF RED LATERITE ZONE OF PURULIA DISTRICT Type of housing Pacca Kachcha Loose Tie up stall √ √ Condition of floor Foot bath

Bed mat

Concrete Smooth

Mohan Dairy

Abrasive with moisture √

Rough

Given

Not given √ √

Given

Kamal dairy farm, Belguma
GOSALA

√

√ √

Asish dairy farm, Belguma
DAIRY FARMS OF RAMKRISHNA MISSION Dairy farm at Belguma (Parimal’s) √

√ √

√ √

√

√

√

√

√

Table 12 -MANAGEMENTAL ASPECT IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF NEW ALLUVIAL ZONE OF NADIA DISTRICT

7

Name of dairy farm

Type of housing Pacc a √ √ √ √ Kac hcha Loos e Tie up stal l

Condition of floor Concret e √ √ √ √ Abrasiv e with moistur e √ Roug h

Foot bath Give n Not give n √ √ √ √ √ √

Bedding material Give No n t √ √ √ √

Mayapur SLF, Kalyani Haringhata Farm Mohanpur Dairy farms of Nadia (Bijoy Ghosh) Dhiren Mondal, Chakdaha, Nadia Nadia Dairy and Allied Farms

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

Table 13- NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF RED LATERITE ZONE OF PURULIA DISTRICT Name of dairy farm Carbohydrate in large meals Yes No √ √ High dietary protein Yes No √ √ Balanced diet Yes No √ √ Mouldy feed Yes No √ √ √ √ Concentrate Roughage

Green fodder

Fodder and straw √

straw √

Feedin before calving Yes N √

Mohan Dairy

Kamal dairy farm,

√

8

Belguma
GOSALA

Asish dairy farm, Belguma
DAIRY FARMS OF RAMKRISHNA MISSION Dairy farm at Belguma (Parimal’)

√ √

√ √

√ √

√ √

√ √

√ √

√ √

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

Table 14-NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF NEW ALLUVIAL ZONE OF NADIA DISTRICT Name of dairy farm Carbohydrate in large meals Yes No √ √ √ √ High dietary protein Yes No √ √ √ √ Balanced diet Yes √ √ √ √ No Mouldy feed Yes No √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Concentrate Roughage Feeding before calving Yes No √ √ √ √

Green fodder

Mayapur SLF, Kalyani Haringhata Farm Mohanpur Dairy farms of Nadia (Bijoy Ghosh) Dhiren Mondal, Chakdaha,

Fodder and straw √ √ √ √

straw

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

9

Nadia Nadia Dairy and Allied Farms

√

√

√

√

√

√

√

Table 15-MANAGERIAL FACTORS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF RED LATERITE ZONE OF PURULIA DISTRICT Name of dairy farm Field and maintenance of farm track Brick soiling Mohan Dairy Hard soil √ Muddy soil Stockman ship (Hoof examination) Yes No √ √ √ √ √ √ Claw trimming Yes No √ √ √ √ √ √

Kamal dairy farm, Belguma
GOSALA

√ √ √ √ √

Asish dairy farm, Belguma
DAIRY FARMS OF RAMKRISHNA MISSION Dairy farm at Belguma (Parimal’s)

Table 16-MANAGERIAL FACTORS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF NEW ALLUVIAL ZONE OF NADIA DISTRICT

Name of dairy farm Mayapur SLF, Kalyani Haringhata Farm Mohanpur Dairy farms of

Field and maintenance of farm track Brick soiling √ √ √ Hard soil Muddy soil √

Stockman ship (Hoof examination) Yes No √ √ √ √

Claw trimming Yes No √ √ √ √

10

Nadia (Bijoy Ghosh) Dhiren Mondal, Chakdaha, Nadia Nadia Dairy and Allied Farms

√ √

√ √ √

√

Table 17-PAIN PERCEPTION AND OTHER RESPONSES BY LAME COWS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF RED LATERITE ZONE OF PURULIA DISTRICT Name of dairy SDS SDS SDS Score SDS Activity Posture Vocalization farm Score Score (Backstroke) Score Rest Eating Guarding Recumbency by F (Fore & W, limb 05 palpation) Mohan Dairy 4.2 2.8 4.4 4.2 0 0 0 0 0 Kamal dairy 3 2.5 2.0 2.8 0 0 0 0 0 farm, Belguma GOSALA Asish dairy farm, Belguma DAIRY FARMS OF RAMKRISHNA MISSION Dairy farm at Belguma (Parimal’s) 2.5 3.0 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.8 2.2 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

0

0

0

0

0

3.0

2.6

3.2

3.2

0

0

0

0

0

Table 18-PAIN PERCEPTION AND OTHER RESPONSES BY LAME COWS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF NEW ALLUVIAL ZONE OF NADIA DISTRICT Name of dairy farm SDS Scor e 2.5 1.6 1.5 SDS Score by F & W, 05 1.8 1 1 SDS Score (Backstr oke) 2.4 1.4 1.2 SDS Score (Fore limb palpation) 2.2 1.4 1 Activity Rest Eating Posture Guarding Recumbency Voc aliza tion 0 0 0

Mayapur SLF, Kalyani Haringhata Farm Mohanpur Dairy farms of Nadia (Bijoy Ghosh) Dhiren Mondal, Chakdaha, Nadia Nadia Dairy and Allied Farms

0 0 0

0 0 0

1.2 1 1

0 0 0

2.2

2

2.2

1.8

0

0

1.2

0

0

1.5

1.0

1.2

1.0

0

0

1.2

0

0

1.2

1

1

1.2

0

0

1

0

0

11

Table 19-VAS-SCORE BY LAME COWS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF RED LATERITE ZONE OF PURULIA DISTRICT Name of dairy farm VAS-score Summer season Rainy season Winter season Mohan Dairy 70.5 72.5 74.0 60.2 65.5 68.5 Kamal dairy farm, Belguma GOSALA 40.5 55.5 60.5 45.5 45.5 60.0 65.5 50.0 47.0 64.5 68.5 55.0

Asish dairy farm, Belguma
DAIRY FARMS OF RAMKRISHNA MISSION Dairy farm at Belguma (Parimal’s)

Table 20-VAS-SCORE BY LAME COWS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF HILLY REGION OF NEW ALLUVIAL ZONE OF NADIA DISTRICT Name of dairy farm Mayapur SLF, Kalyani Haringhata Farm Dairy farms of Nadia (Bijoy Ghosh) Dhiren Mondal, Chakdaha, Nadia Nadia Dairy and Allied Farms Summer season 55.5 45 40 52.5 50 45.5 VAS-score Rainy season 60.0 50 45.0 55 54.5 50.0

Winter season 62.5 52.5 47.0 58.5 55.0 58.5

Table 21-PHYSIOLOGICAL VALUES OF LAME ANIMALS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF NORTH 24 PGS DISTRICT

Name of dairy farm 1 2 3 4 5 6 Average

Average temperature of lame animals (0c) 102.2 101.4 101.0 102.0 102.4 102.2 101.9

Average pulse rate of lame animals/minute 55 60 50 44 40 52 50.2

Average respiration of lame animals/minute 20 21 18 17 16 19 18.5

12

Table 22- PHYSIOLOGICAL VALUES OF LAME ANIMALS IN ORGANIZED DAIRY FARMS OF HOWRAH DISTRICT Name of dairy farm Average temperature of lame animals ( c)
0

Average pulse rate of lame animals/minute

Average respiration of lame animals/minute

A B C D E F Average

100.2 100.4 101.2 100.2 102.2 102.4 101.1

45 47 48 50 43 56 48.2

16 17 18 20 16 20 17.8

13


								
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