BODY AND SOUL/ LIFE AFTER DEATH-FINAL MIX SYLLABUS REQUIREMENTS Plato, Hick and Dawkins Other concepts of body/soul distinction Different views about LAD – Resurrection and Rebirth Relative coherence of these AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PROBLEM OF EVIL Questions surrounding nature of disembodied existence Concepts of Heaven and Hell Distinctions between body and soul in the thinking of THINGS THAT YOU MIGHT WANT TO USE FROM A/S PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION THE TWO THEODICIES – HICK GOES FOR IRENAEUS – SOUL MAKING CONTINUES IN NEXT WORLD IDEA OF NATURAL / MORAL EVIL – INNOCENT SUFFERING KANTS POSITING OF AN AFTER LIFE TO ENSURE CONNECTION BETWEEN VIRTUE AND HAPPINESS PSYCHOLOGICAL IDEAS (FREUD) THAT RELIGION IS A COMFORTING ILLUSION INTRODUCTION The chocolate inside the walls feast … OUR BODIES ARE OUTER SHELL. Idea of inner Non Physical self, which will survive our death. Can we witness our own funeral? – Flew – He said then … no Importance LAD in religion – more vital than God? Need God? Based on A/S stuff Stephen T. Davis has stated that whether people survive death is "surely one of the most important questions that is asked in the philosophy of religion" Links to A/S RS – psychological criticisms – Freud: LAD as comfort in hostile world LAD basic to religion – Qur’an hereafter 113 times. TYPES OF LIFE AFTER DEATH REALIST THEORY 1. - DUALISM – MIND EXISTS INDEPENDENTLY OF BODY REALIST THEORY 2. MATERIALISM / RESURRECTION OF THE BODY ECOLOGICAL (BECOME ONE WITH NATURE AS YOUR ASHES ARE SCATTERED) ANTI REALISM – NO REAL LAD – DIFFERENT QUALITY OF LIFE HERE ON EARTH (DZ PHILLIPS) OR IMMORTALITY OF REMEMBRABNCE (YOUR DEEDS LIVE ON) KEY QUESTIONS 1. Our body rots… is that it? Is there SOMETHING that will survive? 2. IS DISEMBODIED EXISTENCE A CONTRADICTION - Is there a SOUL or non-bodily self? 3. Or will we be given NEW BODIES? 4. If we are given NEW BODIES…HOW WILL WE BE THE SAME PERSON (PROBLEM OF CONTINUITY)… we want to ensure it is US that will survive. 5. Do we need what Peterson calls A POWERFUL MEDIATING AGENT to ensure this will occur? Do we need God? 6. ARE WE THE KIND OF PERSONS THAT CAN SURVIVE OUR OWN DEATH? OPTION A – DUALISM “Throughout history there has been some distinction between material body and immaterial/immortal soul (non physical self)” – JOHN HICK. CANNOT KNOW WHAT I AM THINKING,. THEREFORE I HAVE THIS INNER LIFE. (HD Lewis) There are mental processes distinct from physical DUALSM ones. BEYOND our bodies? Further arguments for non-physical self (FROM PETERSON) 1. If the body can house multiple personalities, ideas of bodies plus behaviour. YOU is the body the only thing necessary for personal identity? 2. 3. Near Death Experiences – people see their own bodies…must be existence independent of bodies PARANORMAL – Mediums, telepathy, ghosts. PLATO “Plato painted an awe-inspiring picture of haunting beauty and persuasiveness which has moved and elaborated the minds of men and women in many different countries and lands. ". (Hick) Plato’s teaching and Soul from Foundation – SOUL LONGS TO RETURN TO WORLD OF THE FORMS, FROM WHERE IT CAME. Influence of re-incarnation? Allegory of The Cave. Plato believed in DISEMBODIED EXISTENCE. Socrates in Plato’s PHAEDO – why was he NOT afraid of death – argument from opposites – things die from life…things live from death. DESCARTES“The body-soul distinction, first formulated as a philosophical doctrine in ancient Greece, was baptised into Christianity, ran through the medieval period and entered the public status as a self-evident truth when it was redefined in the seventeenth century by Descartes “ (Hick) Descartes – I think, therefore I am. We can doubt we have a body but NOT that we exist. Descartes was devoted to the search for truth. He wanted to push doubt as far as it could go, to see what survived this doubt. Descartes believed a la Plato that the senses sometimes deceive us - nothing was such they led us to imagine. We also make mistakes in reasoning and commit logical fallacies. Furthermore we have waking and dreaming thoughts without them being true. Descartes concluded that everything which came into my mind could be false. Existence is no truer than the illusions of my dreams. However, Descartes reasoned that he could not doubt that he was thinking this and because he was thinking he existed. The mind is "non-corporeal" distinct from material or bodily substance. Descartes thought we have a clear idea or ourselves as non-material. Descartes felt that our identity comes from our ability to reason and it was conceivable that we could exist without our bodies. For Descartes, the mind is an I which makes us who we are.He believed he could pretend he had no body or no world. For instance, we could believe we are stretching out our arm or we could be dreaming. Indeed all of life could be a dream…even the idea that we have a body. Descartes imagines a malicious demon of the utmost power and cunning employing all his energies to deceive him. Even if this malicious demon tricked us, we cannot doubt the flow of our thoughts. PRICE – 1953 – SURVIVAL HYPOTTHESIS H.H. Price – next world conceived psychologically as dream world. Here people do APPEAR to have bodies but do not in actuality. OPTION B – MATERIALISM/monism – self=nothing more than PHYSICAL body/actions In this century. Mind/Matter dualism has been strongly criticised by Materialism. This involved the rejection of the illusive and illusory non-material self. Identity Theory or Central State Materialism hols that human beings are nothing but physical organisms. An individual is a creature of flesh and blood behaves in a range of ways. There is not some non-physical soul incomprehensibly interacting with a physical body. We are finite, mortal, physio-physical life. A person is nothing but a brain attached to a body with a nervous system. Materialism states that our minds are inseparable from our bodies . Materialists do not support the idea that there is a separate part to the body called the soul. An individual is a living, physical body and nothing more. At death, the body dies and ceases to exist. GILBERT RYLE An example of this kind of thinking is Gilbert Ryle in "The Concept of Mind" (1949) argued that the idea of the soul, which he described as "the ghost in the machine" was " a category mistake". He argued that it was a mistake in incorrect use of language. It resulted to people speaking of the mind and body as different phenomena as if the soul was something identifiably extra within a person. He used the example of someone watching a cricket game and asking where the team spirit was. Or the person being shown around the University buildings and asking where the University was. The person expects the team spirit or University to be something identifiably extra to the players and umpires. In this way, Ryle argued that talk of the soul was talk about the way a person acted and integrated with others in the world. It was not separate and distinct. To describe someone as clever or happy did not require the existence of a separate thing called mind or soul. HARD AND SOFT MATERIALISTS Philosophers make distinctions within materialism. Hard materialists do not accept that an individual's characteristics are anything more than physical ones. Soft materialists do not accept that all characteristics are physical. Consciousness is more than just brain activity. The body does display inner emotions; a physical sign may be caused by something troubling the mind. But there is nothing we can do independent of our bodies. Materialists consider there is no scientific evidence for the existence of the soul. As such it is inaccessible to scientific activity that it would never be possible to prove the soul exists. TWO MATERIALIST THINKERS a) RICHARD DAWKINS Argues for BIOLOGICALLY MATERIAL system of life – we are survival machines. God is superfluous. Wrote a book called BLIND WATCHMAKER. One of most famous atheists in public life. Professor for the PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENCE at Oxford. Dawkins is a BIOLOGICAL MATERIALIST. Life amounts to bytes of digital information contained in DNA. The soul is a invented by primitive people. The concept of the soul is only for the weak minded. WE ARE SURVIVAL MACHINES WITH A PROGRAMME TO REPLICATE. “LIFE IS JUST BYTES AND BYTES OF DIGITAL INFORMATION...THERE IS NO PROPLASMIC, MYSTIC JELLY.” Richard Dawkins rejects any idea of the immortal soul. The human being for him is no more than the total of his DNA. Life on earth is a natural consequence of a process of evolution. For Dawkins… genes are the replicator. We are survival machines. Culture is passed on through MEMES or the ideas we leave behind. Genes are reproduced by sexual reproduction. myth THE FUNCTION OF LIFE IS ENSURING DNA SURVIVAL. “The universe is one of blind physical forces and genetic replication and you won’t find any rhyme or reason to it. “ We dance to the music of DNA. Death brings to an end this survival machine. Our genes continue through their life form entered through reproduction. EVEN ALTRUISM ( GOOD ACTIONS ) IS DOWN TO DNA SURVIVAL – (sge) I HATE THIS REDUCTIONIST THEORY!!! b) (an example of DAWKINS – style thinking) Linda Badham also uses scientific arguments for materialism. For her, leading scientists are less likely to be Christian than other groups in society because science and religion are anithetical. (OUTDATED VIEW – SGE) She especially argues that Creedal statements. For Badham, LINDA BADHAM modern science is damaging for beliefs in life after death as stated in the are biological systems in dynamic equilibrium with our environment. She believes we are continually At death, she believes our atoms return to the environment to become part of others. exchanging matter with our environment so our bodies are changing all the time. There are serious problems with the whole idea of people being immaterial things. This seems to be the verdict of most contemporary philosophers. There are serious problems with the view that people can survive their deaths because they are essentially incorporeal. BADHAM’S CRITICISMS our flesh is only ours temporarily. We Which organisms count as having souls? Why does not God give Souls to some and not others ? Where and when in the, evolutionary pathway, we were souls given? NO BODY = NO EXPERIENCE - Our personal experience and emotions are intimately linked to our body chemistry. The limits on our thought are set by our genetic endowment. It is one person's physiochemical equipment which leads him to become a brilliant mathematician. If our diet is inbalanced our bodies may be starved of nutrients to the extent that the human personality can be affected CHANGING SELF - Our awareness of self is transitory. "My stream of consciousness is far from being continual or ever-present". It is not there, for instance, when we are asleep but we do not cease to exist. This awareness of self changes with age. The only thing that supplies continuity through change is matter. The physically-based blueprints from the chemistry that keeps my body going are passed from one generation to another. It is physical continuity that keeps the subject of my conscious experiencing belonging to the same person . The dualist definition does not provide adequate criteria of identifying the same person through change. BODY NOT BRAIN - A great deal of what I am does not involve conscious thoughts at all even when I awake. Badham gives the example of an experienced driver driving a car and going into autopilot The conscious subject may fail to recognise a significant part of all he was. He might think he had a rapier wit when he really was a bore. If he were to arrive in the resurrection world without his familiar characteristics - clumsiness of speech, repeatativeness, triviality, self-centredness - would he really be the person who had died? NEAR DEATH EXP -- On OBE: An absence of satisfactory normal explanations for these cases does not imply that there are no explanations ever to be found On OBE: How does a soul see objects when it hovers over the ceiting? What exacvtly is an out-of-body eye? If minds are non-physical objects, how can the mind cause anything to happen in the physical world? HICK – HE’S BACK – AGAIN – GET A LIFE, HICK. REJECTS PLATO’S DUALISM - PROPOSES PSYCHO-PHYSICAL PERSON. Soul name for moral, spiritual self formed by interaction of genes and environment Human = psychophysical person with a divine purpose Person resurrected through divine re-creation This will be a spiritual body in a spiritual world Remember that Hick came up with THE SOUL MAKING THEODICY. This continues beyond DEATH. His idea of eternal life is called THE REPLICA THEORY. Hick asks us to imagine John Smith, a resident of America, suddenly disappearing. An exact replica of John Smith appears in India. THIS REPLICA IS EXACT IN EVERY DETAIL INCLUDING MEMORY AND EMOTION. The replica thinks of himself as being the very same John Smith. His friends do a number of tests – but they are convinced. Hick then asks us to imagine that John Smith dies and that at that moment a replica appears in India. WE WOULD STILL BE FORCED TO CONCLUDE THE REPLICA WAS JOHN SMITH. We would have to admit John Smith had been miraculously re-created. Finally, Hick asks us to imagine that when John Smith dies, his replica is created in another world altogether. THIS IS A RESURRECTION WORLD POPULATED BY RESURRECTED PERSONS. Hick claims his theory is in line with ORTHODOX Christianity (1 Cor 15 – St Paul’s teaching). Hick believes the body and soul are ONE. He rejects the idea that the SOUL survives the body at death. HE ARGUES THAT WHAT SURVIVES DEATH IS A REPLICA. God creates this replica to live after death. PROBLEMS WITH HICK Is the exact replica the same as the original person? IF WE DESTROY ROOM 11 AND BUILD A NEW ROOM ( A REPLICA) IS THIS THE SAME. For that body to be truly identifiable it would need to be situated in an environment enabling it to behave as though it appears it is as the person appears to be. A replica would be a new biological organism with the original’s experiences superimposed upon it. What if a whole army of replicas were created – would we be able identify the original? WHERE are all the bodies resurrected? What Badham calls a space problem. IN WHAT FORM are we resurrected? At what age? Are we resurrected in our FORM at death? If our body is RESTORED AT DEATH what is the continuity to this life? Davies – knowing that a replica of myself will be wining and dining somewhere does not give me much comfort HEAVEN/ HELL/ RESURRECTION/ REBIRTH HEAVEN AND HELL In the NT Heaven is a place with God where good people go after The Day of Judgement. Roman Catholic theology sees eternal life as a timeless beatific vision of God. In the New Testament, parables speak of the judgement of God. HELL according to Hick is to be found on earth. He takes it to mean the suffering in this life. Jesus used the Hebrew word GEHENNA to refer to Hell- this was a rubbish dump outside Jerusalem. Jesus said the devil could destroy body and soul in Gehenna in Matt 10. Does this help with the problem of evil. Those who suffer to go Heaven. What about those who don’t suffer. Hick – hell is scientifically fantastic, morally revolting, self contradictory. Aquinas infinite sins justified by infinite Hell. Roman Catholic doctrine of purgatory – waiting room – purification Anti realist views – the absence of God. RESURRECTION – NT Jesus brings dead back to life. Proclaims he is the Resurrection. Nothing said about the PROCESS. Paul in 1 Corinthians 15 CONTINUTY – seed to plant NATURAL BODY BECOMING SPIRITUAL BODY DEAD WILL BE RAISED INCORRUPTIBLE CHRISTIANS BELIEVE IN THE RESURRECTION OF THE BODY AND THE LIFE EVERLASTING REINCARNATION Hindus believe that the atman or soul is eternal. IT CAN APPEAR IN MANY DIFFERENT BODIES. REUNIFICATION with life itself (ie Brahman) is the aim of the rebirth cycle. THIS IS CALLED MOKSHA. It is wrapped up in a complete system about ethical behaviour and religious ritual. At birth the Hindu is given a complex chart mapping their duties. THE INDIVIDUAL MUST KEEP THEIR DHARMA OR DUTY. Doing all this accumulates good karma. A REBORN SOUL CARRIES NO MEMORY OF IT PAST LIFE. However its state is based on karma from its previous life. Good karma builds up and influences the quality of life enjoyed in the next life. It is not the conscious self that is `reincarnated but rather an enter spiritual reality. THE JIVA UNDERLIES THIS SERIES OF SELVES. It is encased in various bodies. There is also the subtle body that survives death and attaches itself to a new human being. This carries the Karma. The jiva carries the entire memory of the series of our lives. Once the process of samsara has been completed the jiva attains enlightenment. Here we become aware of our lives and become one with Brahman HANS KUNG – IF PAST LIVE FORGOTTEN…WHAT USE ARE MORAL LESSONS LEARNT HANS KUNG - IS IT A HARSH LAW IF GOD DOES NOT EXIST, GOD WOULD NEED TO BE INVENTED FOR IMMORTALITY.