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					UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF DIVINITY, HISTORY & PHILOSOPHY CULTURAL HISTORY PROGRAMME HS2502 HISTORY & PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE II (15 Credits) Session 2007-08 Course Co-ordinator Dr Ben Marsden
Information on the course This handout tells you about the organisation of the course. Please read it carefully and retain it for reference. Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Lecture and Tutorial Schedule Essential and Important Information Introduction to the Course Course Aims Course Objectives Course Co-ordinator and Course Team Books and other Sources Assessment Essays Essay Guidelines, Extensions and Penalties Plagiarism The Cultural History Programme Lectures in Detail Tutorials in Detail Student Feedback and Comment Cultural History beyond your Degree Mock Examination Paper Page 2 Page 2 Page 3 Page 3 Page 3 Page 4 Page 4 Page 5 Page 5 Page 6 Page 6 Page 6 Page 7 Page 20 Page 22 Page 22 Page 22

Ensure that you have a valid computing password. You can register from any campus networked PC by pressing <esc> to get the registration screen. Type in your ID number. If registering for the first time the system will give you a username and you create your own password. NOTE IT DOWN. If re-registering, type in your ID number and the system will recognise your username. Then create a new password. You need to re-register every year. Departmental Home Page Cultural History Home Page

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Lecture and Tutorial Schedule

Tuesday 10-11 NK10 Friday 10-11 NK10 Tutorials: One one-hour tutorial per fortnight, starting week 2 of teaching. Tutorials will take place on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. You must sign up for a tutorial electronically by going to the following link: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/diss/ltu/booking/. If you have difficulty doing this, please contact the Secretaries in Crombie Annexe or the course co-ordinator. Attendance is mandatory (and will be monitored – see the School‟s handbook on Class Certificates). PROGRAMME Lectures (for greater detail, see below) Week Tuesday 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Introduction/Resources (BM/GD) Scottish Enlightenment (BM) James Watt: Inventing Steam II (BM) Heroes of Invention / Relics of Industry (BM) Evolutionary Contexts II (BM) Darwin: Evolution (BM) Evolution: Science and Religion (BM) Experimental Psychology (BM)

Lectures:

Friday Newton and the Enlightenment (BM) James Watt: Inventing Steam I (BM) Agricultural Improvement (BB) Evolutionary Contexts I (BM) Darwin: Voyaging (BM) Evolution: Reception/Impacts (BM) Phrenology (BM) Freud in Context (BM)

Easter Break 9 10 11 12 IQ Tests and Measuring Minds (BM) Venereal Disease (DS) Big Science and the Bomb II (BM) Biotechnology: Science Privatized?* (MB) Women and Medicine (DS) Big Science and the Bomb I (BM) Big Science and Intellectual Property* (MB) Examination Workshop (BM)

IMPORTANT NOTE: the lectures on „Big Science and Intellectual Property‟* and „Biotechnology: Science Privatized‟* take place on THURSDAY MAY 1, 10-11 AND 11-12 IN TAYLOR A26. Tutorials (for greater detail, see below) Week 2 4 6 8 10 12 Science and the Enlightenment Inventing Steam / Improvement in Practice Evolution: Contexts, Theories, Impacts History of Psychology History of Medicine The Bomb and Big Science

BB = Brian Bonnyman BM = Ben Marsden DS = David Smith GD = Gilian Dawson MB = Mario Biagioli 2 Essential and Important Information

Rather than make this document extremely long and replicate information found elsewhere, this section will direct you to important information which you must read and know. The most important document will be the School‟s Undergraduate Student Handbook. This contains a wealth of important information. In particular, it gives you details on: extensions & penalties for late submission of work;
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plagiarism (what it is, how to avoid it, and the consequences – which can be severe – for plagiarising); Plagiarism is a serious offence everywhere in the academic community. The University‟s definition is: ‘Plagiarism is the use, without adequate acknowledgement, of the intellectual work of another person in work submitted for assessment. A student cannot be found to have committed plagiarism where it can be shown that the student has taken all reasonable care to avoid representing the work of others as his/her own.’ and this very important rule about required work: In order to achieve a pass for a course, you must achieve a mark of at least six (6) on the CAS scale in every component piece of assessed work and achieve a mark of at least nine (9) overall when all elements of assessment are taken into account. The mark of 6 must be achieved with any deductions for late submission being taken into account, so for example if an essay is awarded a mark of 9, but it has 4 marks deducted due to late submission then it will be awarded a mark of 5. Thus you will be unable to pass the course, regardless of the marks that you achieve in the other elements of assessment. If you have failed to achieve a pass mark for a course for any reason you will be entitled to take a resit. This policy follows from the QAA expectation that a student who has passed a course has achieved all the specified learning outcomes; such an achievement is not consistent with a CAS mark of 0 – 5 on any piece of assessed work. A student who fails to achieve the threshold mark of six on all individual pieces of assessed work will be awarded a final mark for the course of eight (8), regardless of the average. The University‟s Policy on Student Complaints is available at www.abdn.ac.uk/registry/appeals. The VicePresident (Advice & Support) in the Students‟ Association is available to help students wishing to make a complaint (tel.: +44(0)1224 272965). The Guide to Writing Correctly has been designed to support your progress in University of Aberdeen courses. Its aim is to help you to become a more skilful and effective writer. There is also a Good Writing Guide which has additional useful information including details on the formatting of foot/endnotes and bibliographies. Queen Mother houses the current working collections of printed material for historians. The open access basement contains older but still useful resources. King‟s Stacks and Holland Street stores are not open access but material can be called up on the catalogue. There also extensive electronic resources. Gilian Dawson on Floor 1 of Queen Mother Library is available during office hours to give advice and instruction on databases and finding print resources in the library. g.d.dawson@abdn.ac.uk General information on history, essay-writing, exam-preparation, honours can be found in Introduction to Levels 1 & 2. 3 Introduction to the Course

History and Philosophy of Science courses (with HS codes) are co-ordinated from within the Cultural History Programme, located in the Department of History in Crombie Annexe, Meston Walk, Old Aberdeen. As a centre for teaching and research, the Cultural History Programme takes an interdisciplinary approach to the development of cultures – and this includes scientific cultures. This approach is reflected in the teaching of HS2502: the course is historical but also considers contemporary issues and impacts. 4    Course Aims This course aims to offer an introduction to the history of science, technology and medicine from the late eighteenth century to recent times. There is a particular emphasis on British science. Its focus is on key selected historical topics to include: Enlightenment Science, Agricultural and Industrial „Improvement‟, Geology and Evolution (including Darwin), Psychology, Medicine and a topic highlighting Ethical Issues in Science (e.g., the Bomb and „Big Science‟). It encourages you to consider continuity and change in science: what traditions did men (and women) of science, technology and medicine draw upon - even as they made radical innovations? Course Objectives

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By the end of the course, students should be able:  To demonstrate an awareness of relevant introductory scholarship in the history of science, technology and medicine (e.g., course text, lecture material, additional readings)
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To show critical skills in assessing historical sources (in particular, to understand what counts as a good source in this field) and arguments To engage with the key themes and issues raised by the course (i.e., to show the ability to discuss these issues with factual support and a degree of independence in argument) To assess the interconnections between science, its ambient culture, and existing traditions To show enhanced confidence and independence in the skills required for the composition of assessed essays; and the presentation of verbal argument (e.g., in tutorials) To understand the intellectual tools required to make considered judgements on the impacts of science, technology and medicine and to demonstrate the ability to use those tools Course Co-ordinator and Course Team

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Please feel free to contact any of the course team. From time to time we may need to contact you. We often use email to pass on important information and it is your responsibility to check it regularly. We will only use your University email so if you have another address set up a link to it from your University account. Overall responsibility for the course lies with the course co-ordinator: Dr Ben Marsden (Office: 204, Crombie Annexe; Phone: (27)2637; e-mail: b.marsden@abdn.ac.uk). Other members of the course team are: Prof Mario Biagioli Dr Brian Bonnyman Dr Ralph O‟Connor Dr David Smith 7    Room C06, Taylor Room 206, Crombie Annexe Room 215, Crombie Annexe Room 102, Crombie Annexe 272628 272456 272467 273676 m.biagioli@abdn.ac.uk b.bonnyman@abdn.ac.uk r.oconnor@abdn.ac.uk d.f.smith@abdn.ac.uk

Books and other Sources: Finding and using them You can find most of the recommended books in the History of Science section, Queen Mother Library, Level 2, classmark Sc. You are not expected to read all the material listed below. You are, however, expected to read the Core Readings given for each lecture and the material assigned for tutorials. (Asterisks in the lists of „further reading‟ denote particularly useful or accessible studies.) As this is a 15-credit course, the average student should spend a total of approximately 150 hours on it. Leaving 30 hours for preparing for and taking the exam, this works out at about 10 hours per week. Apart from lectures and tutorials, much of this time will be spent reading: „The library is the historian‟s laboratory‟. Discuss. It is essential that you consult material from the supplementary lists given with the lecture summaries when it comes to writing essays. If you do not show evidence of wider reading, you are very unlikely to score better than a 14. Neither historical nor philosophical interpretations are set in stone: use recent books rather than ancient ones. For the true devotee, relevant historical journals – in particular History of Science and Isis - and the very useful Isis annual bibliography, can be found on Level 2 – or electronically via such resources as JSTOR. Browse them for a taste of recent research.

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Essential course texts:  There is, sadly, no single text covering all the topics in the course.  Many of these topics are, however, covered in Peter J. Bowler and Iwan Rhys Morus, Making Modern Science: A Historical Survey (2005), which you are warmly recommended to purchase. Copies are available in Blackwells.  For eighteenth-century science, the best overview is Roy Porter, ed., Eighteenth-Century Science, The Cambridge History of Science, 4 (2003). For a good concise single-author survey see Thomas L. Hankins, Science and the Enlightenment (1985).  For technology and the Enlightenment, an elegant and accessible pocket-sized study is Patricia Fara, An Entertainment for Angels: Electricity in the Enlightenment (2002)  Another book, Ben Marsden, Watt’s Perfect Engine: Steam and the Age of Invention (2002), is also okay.  On evolution, see Peter Bowler, Evolution: The History of an Idea, 3rd ed. (2003).
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On Darwin specifically, a very useful collection of extracts from Darwin‟s major works with good introductions can be found in the book Charles Darwin, On Evolution (1996), edited by Thomas F. Glick and David Kohn (QML Heavy Demand Sc 575 Dar; £7.95). You might also read the introduction by Peter Bowler, Charles Darwin: The Man and His Influence (1996). On the history of medicine, the best introduction is Roy Porter, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present (1997). An introduction to that introduction is Roy Porter, Blood and Guts: A Short History of Medicine (2002). An accessible (and cheap) introduction to „the Bomb‟ and cultures of „Big Science‟ is Jeff Hughes, Manhattan Project: Big Science and the Atom Bomb (2002).

Two general reference works always worth consulting are:  Arne Hessenbruch, ed., Reader’s Guide to the History of Science (2000). Ref Sc 509 Hes.  R. Olby et al., eds., Companion to the History of Modern Science (1990) Ref Sc 509 Olb. Excellent thematic articles on most of the topics introduced in HS2502; one copy in Heavy Demand and one in Floor 2 Subject Reference. World Wide Web resources (and avoiding PLAGIARISM):  Always go to our recommended readings in books first.  There are relatively few good sites on the WWW relevant to this course.  Most sites simply recycle substandard material.  You will receive little credit if you use these sources indiscriminately in essays. The solution! Visit the on-line tutorial on information skills for historians and philosophers of science at: http://www.vts.intute.ac.uk/he/tutorial/hps. We will spend a little time in one of the tutorials discussing this exercise.  For more information on History of Science at Aberdeen University, visit: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/ch/hpsabd.shtml.  If you do choose to use WWW sources – ask yourself first whether they tell you more than any of the books or articles – and if so, give full references to them (including URL and date of access) just as you would with a book.  Be aware that PLAGIARISM (copying) from the WWW is easy to do – but it is just as easy to spot and it has serious consequences (SEE BELOW). 8  Assessment

Continuous assessment (40%) made up of: Essay 1: 2000 words (30%); Tutorial assessment, including presentation (10%)  One 1½ hour written examination (60%): you answer TWO essay-type questions, one from each of two sections; each section will contain four or five questions. (See the end of this guide for a sample exam paper.) NOTE: IN THE EXAMINATION, YOU WILL NOT RECEIVE CREDIT FOR MATERIAL DUPLICATING WORK ALREADY PRESENTED IN YOUR COURSE ESSAY 9         Essays You are required to write ONE essay for this course. The essay should be 2000 words long It must be handed in by 4 pm on Thursday of the eleventh teaching week (Thursday 1 May 2007) You should select one of the Essay questions given in this Course Guide with each lecture summary. The essay counts for 30% of the total mark for the course. In special circumstances, you may write on a subject of your own choice, relevant to the course content but absolutely only in consultation with the course co-ordinator. You must submit two copies – and always retain one for your records. (If only one copy is submitted it cannot be returned.) We aim to return essays with written feedback within a fortnight of submission. Marked essays will be returned personally by your tutor.
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You must:  (in historical essays) make full reference to historical context (i.e., essays which go beyond disembodied „ideas‟ and „theories‟ in order to understand issues in the terms of the day).  (always) give full and consistent references to your sources (including WWW resources). All quotations must be carefully acknowledged, ideally in a footnote (e.g., Dem Bransen, The Diabelli variations: madness or method in the late works of Ludwig van Beethoven (3 vols., 1990-99), vol. ii, p. 67).  (always) include a bibliography. Your bibliography should list, in a consistent manner, all the works you have referred to, whether or not you actually quote from them. Only sad people cite works they have not read or used. Details on citation are given below. We look kindly on (i.e., award higher marks to) essays which:  target the question.  strive for and achieve a good narrative.  employ a clear sign-posted argument.  make good use of sources beyond lectures notes.  take a critical and independent approach to these sources.  show balance, good style and careful presentation.  (in historical essays) avoid hackneyed formulations like „the father of‟, „laid the foundations of‟, „was the first to discover what we know today‟ (and other species of present-centred or, technically, „whig‟ history) 10 Essay Guidelines, Extensions & Penalties

Before starting, consult the section on essay writing in the School‟s Advice on Essay Writing.      TWO COPIES of all assignments must be submitted – one with ONLY your ID number on the title page (please delete any use of your name, for example, in headers and footer, on the copy with no name on the title page). The other copy should have your name AND ID number. All pieces of work must be submitted to the departmental office (Crombie Annex, ground floor) where the time and date will be noted on the title page. Serious deviation from departmental formatting style in end/footnotes or bibliography (see below) will have a negative impact on the mark given to the essay. Evidence of inadequate proof-reading (such as repeated typographical errors, incomplete sentences, the use of contractions) will have a negative impact on the mark given to the essay. End/footnotes should be used not only for direct quotations but also to show where specific bits of information (not widely known) have originated as well as ideas, analysis and ways of considering an issue unique to a given author (when you are paraphrasing someone else‟s thoughts and ideas). Failure to make adequate use of end/footnotes will have a negative impact on the mark given to the essay. All work must come with an Assessment Cover Sheet which can be found on-line; an electronic copy will have been sent to all students registered for History courses. You should consult the School‟s handbook for more information on extensions & penalties for late submission of work and plagiarism. Plagiarism

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Students must familiarise themselves with information relating to plagiarism (also see above). If a student is any doubt on the subject the student should contact the course co-ordinator. Plagiarism can have very serious consequences. 12 The Cultural History Programme Dr Ben Marsden Room 204, Crombie Annexe Dr Ralph O‟Connor, Room 215, Crombie Annexe Dr David Smith, Room 102, Crombie Annexe History Office, Room G01, Crombie Annexe 272637 272467 273676 272199

Key staff:

Secretarial Support:

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Lectures in Detail

Introduction (BM) / Resources (GD) The aim of lectures is to provide you with a general framework of the topics they tackle – attending regularly makes it easier for you to reach a deeper understanding of the issues. Taking notes in the lectures helps you remember the main lines of thought, but in order to make the knowledge useful for yourself, you absolutely need to use additional material. To find and understand relevant information in any discipline is not as simple as it may seem at first sight. There is an infinite wealth of texts and data available in the libraries and, most of all, on the internet; however, while printed publications undergo at least some process of checking in the form of assessment by other academics, everybody can publish on the web whatever s/he likes, and it requires a broad experience in the field to estimate the usefulness of any site you come across. As a rule of thumb, you therefore ought to avoid the use of web sites for your assessed work in this course; you will find enough material in the library to deal with all the topics covered in the lectures and tutorials. At most, internet material may complement your work which should be based mainly on books and journal articles. Once you have obtained some knowledge, you will want to do something with it. A useful way to structure your own thinking is to apply your knowledge to specific questions. This is what the tutorial and essay questions help you to do. In order to transform what you have read into a convincing essay, you will need some time. Choose your topic as early as possible, and start selecting and reading the material you are going to use at least a fortnight before the due date. The probability that you are able to write a decent essay in the night before submission is close to zero. In writing an essay, you have to observe a number of general rules. If you have not yet acquired experience with essay writing, you should in any case consult some sort of manual. There is a special section in the main library (QML), next to the daily newspapers, called “Study and Enterprise Skills (SES)”, which contains useful texts on a variety of general topics which will be helpful to improve your study skills. Suggested Reading: Ashman, Sandra, & Phyllis Crème, How to write essays (1996) (at Blackwell‟s, 99p) Very short (24 pp.), but if you read it carefully, you will at least not be totally lost in writing your essay. Germov, John, Get Great Marks for your Essays (2000) (the book costs approx. £6.50). An accessible, quite detailed guide to essay writing, with an updated chapter on the use of the internet (chap. 6: Untangling the Web, pp. 58-68) which whoever decides not to refrain from using the web should absolutely read and follow. on-line tutorial on information skills for historians and philosophers of science at http://www.humbul.ac.uk/vts/ or http://www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/hps NB: You should work through this in preparation for the Week 4 Tutorial. SCIENCE AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT Newton and the Enlightenment (BM) How can we assess the Enlightenment project of the eighteenth century? What were its origins? What were its chief aims? Was the Enlightenment confined to elite „thinkers‟ and philosophers or was there a popular, public and practical „low Enlightenment‟? Were the French Philosophes anti-clerical (against the Church) or simply anti-Establishment? Could „materialist‟ explanations suffice in a new secular world free from divine intervention? How important was science in this Age of Reason? What were the new sciences typical of this age? Which of the varieties of science – empirical, rational – dominated? Could Isaac Newton legitimately be seen as the stimulus for both experimental/empirical and rational/deductive science? What was the relationship between science, technology and the Enlightenment ideal of progress? Could the rational methods of the physical sciences be extended to the human sciences? Questions questions questions…. Essay questions: 1. What was new about Enlightenment science? 2. What role did science play in the culture of the Enlightenment? Core readings: One of:
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Hankins, Thomas L. (1985): Science and the Enlightenment, chapter 1: “The character of the Enlightenment”. Sc 509 Han Dorinda Outram (1995): The Enlightenment, chapter 4: “Science and the Enlightenment”. 9019(4) Out Roy Porter (2000): Enlightenment: Britain and the creation of the modern world, chapter 6: “The culture of science”. 941.07 Por Further readings: Brown, Stuart (ed., 1979): The philosophers of the Enlightenment. 1904 Bro p. Buchdahl, Gerd, The image of Newton and Locke in the age of reason. (1961) Sc 501 Buc i. Clark, William, Jan Golinski and Simon Schaffer, eds., The Sciences in Enlightened Europe (1999) Sc 509 Cla Goodman, David & Colin A. Russell (1991): The Rise of Scientific Europe 1500-1800, ch. 10: “The reception of Newtonianism in Europe”, pp. 253-278. Sc 509 Goo. Norman Hampson (1982) The Enlightenment [1968] 190.4 Ham (Heavy Demand). Hankins, T. L. (1985): Science and the Enlightenment. Sc 509 Han. Outram, Dorinda (1995): The Enlightenment. 9019(4) Out. Porter, Roy (1990): The Enlightenment. 9019(4) Por. (revised edition 2001) Porter, Roy, Enlightenment: Britain and the Creation of the Modern World (2000), chapter 6: „The Culture of Science‟ 941.07 Por *Porter, Roy, „Introduction‟, in Roy Porter, ed., Eighteenth-Century Science, Cambridge History of Science, 4 (2003), pp. 1-20 Reill, Peter Hanns, „The Legacy of the “Scientific Revolution”: Science and the Enlightenment‟, in Roy Porter, ed., Eighteenth-Century Science, Cambridge History of Science, 4 (2003), pp. 23-43 Rousseau, G. S. and Roy Porter (eds., 1980): The ferment of knowledge: studies in the historiography of eighteenth-century science. Sc 5072 Fer. Van Horn Melton, James (2001): The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 197225: “Women in public: enlightenment salons”, QML floor 1, 940.28 Mel. The Scottish Enlightenment (BM) In this lecture we consider the pattern of the Enlightenment in Scotland. What role did the universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen play in nurturing the new sciences? What was the importance of medicine in the Scottish Enlightenment? What was the role of the new scientific societies and the „philosophical clubs‟ that sprang up in this period? Why, indeed, was Scotland such a „hotbed of genius‟ in this period? We introduce some of the key figures: the chemist Joseph Black; the engineer James Watt; and the geologist James Hutton. We will meet all of them again in later lectures. Essay questions: 1. What was distinctive about the Scottish Enlightenment? 2. Why was eighteenth-century Scotland so open to developments in medicine and science? 3. Discuss the relationship between science and technology in the Scottish Enlightenment. Core readings: Broadie, Alexander (2001): The Scottish Enlightenment. The Historical Age of the Historical Nation. Edinburgh: Birlinn, ch. 7: “Science in the Enlightenment”, pp. 186-218. 941.107 Bro. Or dip into: David Daiches (1986): The Scottish Enlightenment QML floor 1, 941.107 Dai s, or: D. Daiches, P. Jones, and J. Jones (eds., 1986), ‘A hotbed of genius’. The Scottish Enlightenment, 1730-90. Edinburgh: Inst. Advanced Studies, ch. 1. QML floor 1, 941.107 Dai h. Further readings: A. C. Chitnis (1979): The Scottish Enlightenment: a social history. Sc 941.1 Chi. A. Cunningham and R. French (eds., 1990): The medical Enlightenment of the eighteenth century. Sc 610.1 Cun. David Daiches (1986): The Scottish Enlightenment. 9(41)7 Dai. D. Daiches, P. Jones, and J. Jones (eds., 1986), The Scottish Enlightenment, 1730-90: ‘A hotbed of genius’. 9(41)7 Dai. David Goodman & Colin A. Russell (1991): The Rise of Scientific Europe 1500-1800, ch. 11 “Science in the Scottish Enlightenment”, pp. 279-304. Sc 509 Goo. D. Hamilton (1981): The healers: a history of medicine in Scotland. Sc 610.9411 Ham.
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N. Phillipson (1981): “The Scottish Enlightenment”, in Roy Porter and Mikulas Teich (eds.): The Enlightenment in National Contect, 19-40. QML 1909 Por e. Charles W. J. Withers and Paul Wood (eds., 2002): Science and medicine in the Scottish Enlightenment, especially ch. 1, “Introduction”, pp. 1-16. ON ORDER, QML Paul Wood (ed., 2000): The Scottish Enlightenment. 941.107 Woo., esp. ch. 1 on the concept of “the Scottish Enlightenment” (pp. 1-35) and ch. 4 by Richard B. Sher: “Science and Medicine in the Scottish Enlightenment”, pp. 99-156 (quite specialised paper). idem (1988): “Science and the Aberdeen Enlightenment”, in Peter Jones (ed.): Philosophy and Science in the Scottish Enlightenment, pp. 39-66. Sc 190.9 Jon. idem (1992): “The Scientific Revolution in Scotland”, in: Roy Porter & Mikuláš Teich (eds.): The Scientific Revolution in National Context, ch. 10, pp. 263-287. Sc 509 Por. idem (1994): “University science in eighteenth-century Scotland” from History of Universities 13, abridged in Malcolm Oster (2002): Science in Europe, 1500-1800. A Secondary Sources Reader, pp. 194-202. Sc 509.4 Ost. James Watt: Inventing steam (BM) These lectures focus on Scottish Enlightenment figure James Watt and his plan to create a „perfect‟ steamengine with a fuel-saving, economical, „separate condenser‟. Watt worked closely with key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment (many of them, like the chemist Joseph Black associated with the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh). Once in Birmingham he fraternised with the industrialist Matthew Boulton and other members of the famous „Lunar Society‟ (like chemist Joseph Priestley). What, then, can this crucial episode tell us about the culture – or social environment - of technological invention in the late Enlightenment, and also about the much-debated question of the relationship between „science‟ and „technology‟? Was Watt a badtempered technological reactionary, forever fending off competitors, a part-time natural philosopher, or a national figurehead symbolising more than any other individual the successful „appliance of science‟ in British engineering? Essay question: 1. What does the special case of James Watt tell us about the general relationship between scientific culture and technological innovation in the late eighteenth century? Key readings: Ben Marsden (2002): Watt’s perfect engine: steam and the age of invention. Sc 621.1092 Mar Ben Marsden and Crosbie Smith (2005): Engineering empires: a cultural history of nineteenth-century technology. Especially chapter 2: „Power and wealth: reputations and rivalries in steam culture‟. 306.460941
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Richard L. Hills (1989): Power from steam: a history of the stationary steam engine, chapter 4: “The economy of power” (on Watt‟s route to the separate condenser) Sc 621.1 Hil Further readings: Donald Cardwell (1994): The Fontana history of technology, pp. 153-168 (on “James Watt and his colleagues”). Sc 609 Car. H. W. Dickinson (1936): James Watt: crafstman and engineer (valuable biography). Sc 621.1 Wat D j A.N. Davenport (1989): James Watt and the patent system. London: British Library. pSc 621.1 Wat (among the pamphlet collection). Richard L. Hills (1996): “James Watt, mechanical engineer”, History of Technology [Journal] 18, pp. 59-79. Per Sc His Peter M. Jones (1999): “Living the Enlightenment and the French Revolution: James Watt, Matthew Boulton, and their sons”, Historical Journal [Journal] 42, pp. 157-182 (on their activities in the Lunar Society). Christine MacLeod (1998): “James Watt, heroic invention and the idea of the industrial revolution”, pp. 96-115 in Maxine Berg and Kristine Bruland (eds.), Technological revolutions in Europe: historical perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. QML Floor 1, 306.46 Ber. David P. Miller (2000): “ „Puffing Jamie‟: The commercial and ideological importance of being a „philosopher‟ in the case of the reputation of James Watt (1736-1819)”, History of Science [Journal] 38, pp. 1-24. Per Sc His David P. Miller (2006): “Watt in court: specifying steam engines and classifying engineers in the patent trials of the 1790s”, History of Technology 27 pp. 43-76. [on order for QML; copy available from BM] Eric Robinson (1972): „James Watt and the law of patents‟, Technology and Culture 13, pp. 115-39.
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Anyone who thinks there must be more to life than steam might like to look at: Ben Marsden (1998): “Blowing hot and cold: reports and retorts on the status of the air-engine as success or failure, 1830-1855”, History of Science [Journal] 36, pp. 373-420. Per Sc His There are numerous biographies (Rolt, Smiles) and documentary accounts of Watt (mostly shelved at Sc 6211 Wat) but choose with care. The definitive biography is now that by Richard Hills (all three volumes of it) You are strongly advised to avoid tacky Internet sources for this topic. Agricultural Improvement (BB) Agricultural improvement transformed rural society, reshaped the landscape and provided the essential economic foundations for later urban and industrial growth. Using lowland Scotland between 1700 and 1830 as a case study, this lecture examines the process of agrarian change, its ideological background, and its social, economic and environmental consequences. Three key themes are: What was agricultural „improvement‟? Was there an agricultural revolution in Scotland during our period? What were the social, economic and environmental consequences of agrarian change? By the end of this lecture you should: be aware of the main debates surrounding agricultural improvement; and understand the key characteristics of agrarian change and the reasons why it took place. Essays questions: 1. To what extent did agricultural improvement in eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century lowland Scotland have to be imposed from above? 2. What were the social consequences of agrarian improvement in lowland Scotland? 3. To what extent can the changes in Scottish agriculture between 1760 and 1830 be described as „revolutionary‟? Core readings: T. M. Devine, The Scottish Nation (1999), chapter 7 I. Whyte, „Rural Transformation and Lowland Society‟, in A. Cooke, I. Donnachie, A. MacSween and C. A. Whatley (eds.) Modern Scottish History: 1707 to the Present Vol. 1, The transformation of Scotland, 17071850 (1998) vol. 1. Further reading: I. H. Adams, „The Agents of Agricultural Change‟, in M. L. Parry and T. R. Slater (eds.), The Making of the Scottish Countryside (1980) R. H. Campbell, „The Scottish Improvers and the Course of Agrarian Change in the Eighteenth Century‟, in L. M. Cullen and T. C. Smout eds., Comparative Aspects of Scottish and Irish Economic and Social History, 1600-1900 (1977) M. Gray, „The Social Impact of Agrarian Change in the Rural Lowlands‟, in T. M. Devine and R. Mitchison (eds.), People and Society in Scotland. Volume I, 1760-1830 (1988) T. M. Devine, Clearance and Improvement: Land, Power and People in Scotland, 1700-1900 (2006) T. M. Devine (ed.), Farm servants and labour in lowland Scotland, 1770-1914 (1984) T. M. Devine, The Transformation of Rural Scotland: Social Change and the Agrarian Economy 1660 – 1815 (1994). M. L. Parry and T. R. Slater (eds.), The Making of the Scottish Countryside (1980) T. C. Smout, A History of the Scottish People 1560-1830 (1969), chapter 12. T.C. Smout, „The Landowner and the Planned Village in Scotland, 1730-1830‟ in N.T. Phillipson and R. Mitchison (eds), Scotland in the Age of Improvement (1970, reprinted 1996) T.C. Smout, „The Improvers and the Scottish Environment: Soils, Bogs and Woods‟ in T.M. Devine and J.R. Young, (eds), Eighteenth Century Scotland: New Perspectives (1999) Heroes of Invention / Relics of Industry (BM) This lecture sketches the history of invention and industrialization through the nineteenth century, touching upon railway networks, telegraph systems and the gradual replacement of sail with steam. It is easy to see that such ventures re-shaped economies, societies – and cultures. But to what extent were they shaped by British ambitions – for example, of empire building? A further theme of this lecture, linking it to cultural history, will be the commemoration of engineers as „heroes of invention‟.

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Essay question: 1. To what extent were the nineteenth-century technologies of rail, steamship, and telegraph culturally shaped? 2. „The telegraph, steamship, and railway were tools of empire‟. Discuss. Note: if you wish, you may focus on one of these technologies alone. Core readings: Ben Marsden and Crosbie Smith (2005): Engineering empires: a cultural history of technology in nineteenth century Britain, „Introduction: technology, science and culture in the long nineteenth century‟ and „Conclusion: cultures of technological expertise‟. Further readings: Michael Adas (1989). Machines as the Measure of Men. Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance. Michael Michael (1999). Railways and the Victorian Imagination. Daniel Headrick (1981): The Tools of Empire. Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century. Daniel Headrick (1988): The Tentacles of Progress. Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850-1940. * Ben Marsden and Crosbie Smith (2005): Engineering empires: a cultural history of technology in nineteenth century Britain. There are separate chapters on steamers, railways and telegraphs. David Nye (2006): Technology matters: questions to live with. A brilliant introduction to the idea of seeing technology as culturally and historically situated. Wolfgang Schivelbusch (1980). The Railway Journey. Trains and Travel in the Nineteenth Century. THE HISTORY OF EVOLUTION Evolutionary Contexts (BM) What could geologists say about the age, formation, or progression of the earth‟s history and how might that change conceptions of species? What were the changing views of natural historians – like Linnaeus and Buffon - on the order of the natural world? Where did the idea that species might evolve originate? Why were ideas of evolution politically charged and socially significant? We consider in these lectures the transformism of Lamarck; and we discuss the geological „uniformitarianism‟ of Darwin‟s contemporary Charles Lyell who extended the work of James Hutton – but was in radical disagreement with those „catastrophists‟, like Georges Cuvier, who construed the history of the earth as one of sporadic, cataclysmic change. Essay question: 1. How did men and women of science use natural history and geology to promote rival views of the status and possible transmutation (or evolution) of species? Core readings: D. R. Oldroyd (1980): Darwinian impacts, chs. 2, 3 and 4. M.J.S. Hodge (1990): “Origins and species before and after Darwin”, in R.C. Olby, G.N. Cantor, J.R.R. Christie and M.J.S. Hodge (eds.), Companion to the History of Modern Science, pp.374-95 (terse, authoritative and ultimately rewarding analysis – useful for all four lectures). Further readings: Paley, William (1836): Paley‟s Natural Theology, With Illustrative Notes by Henry Lord Brougham and Sir Charles Bell. 2 vols. London: Knight, pp. 1.1-17, again (with new introduction) in A.S. Weber (ed., 2000): Nineteenth Century Science. A Selection of Original Texts. Peterborough (CDN): Broadview, pp. 17-25. Sc 508.09 Web. H. B. Glass, O. Temkin, and W. L. Straus (eds., 1959): Forerunners of Darwin, 1745-1859. Sc 575 Gla f. J. C. Greene (1959): The death of Adam: evolution and its impact on Western thought. 575.09 Gre. Adrian Desmond (1989): The politics of evolution: morphology, medicine, and reform in radical London. Sc 575 Des. James R. Moore (1989): History, humanity and evolution: essays for John C. Greene (especially chapters by James Secord and Simon Schaffer) Sc 575 Moo. Arthur O. Lovejoy (1960): The great chain of being: a study of the history of an idea [1936] Sc 113 Lov g. Ludmilla Jordanova (1984): Lamarck Sc 575 Lam. William Coleman (1964): Georges Cuvier, zoologist: a study in the history of evolution Sc 575 Cuv C. D. Outram (1984): Georges Cuvier: vocation, science and authority in post-revolutionary France Sc 575 Cuv. R. Porter (1977): The making of geology: earth science in Britain, 1660-1815 Sc 550.9 Por.
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L. G. Wilson (1972): Charles Lyell: the years to 1841: the revolution in geology. Sc 55092 Lye W. Charles Lyell (1830): The principles of geology.(various editions; abridged at Penguin). C. C. Gillispie (1959) Genesis and geology: a study in the relations of scientific thought, natural theology, and social opinion in Great Britain, 1790-1850 [1959] Sc 509 Gil Darwin: Voyaging (BM) This lecture first examines Darwin‟s early life and studies in Edinburgh and Cambridge. What was William Paley‟s „natural theology‟ and why might it have been important to the young botanist and beetle-collector? Darwin‟s (now-famous) voyage aboard the Beagle made him uniquely well-travelled; it also raised a vast number of questions for him about such questions as the relationship between species and environment, the likely agencies of geological change – and ultimately, possible agencies for transmutation of species. Essay question: 1. What did Darwin learn from the voyage of the Beagle? Core readings: Oldroyd, Darwinian impacts, chs. 5 and 6. Read at least one section from Darwin‟s “Journal of Researches”, e.g. on Patagonia or on Galápagos. You find these chapters in the volume Charles Darwin: On Evolution (ed. T. Glick and D. Kohn, 1996), pp. 1-45 Further readings: Adrian Desmond and James R. Moore (1991): Darwin. Sc 575 Dar Janet Browne (1995): Charles Darwin. Vol. 1. Voyaging Sc 575 Dar B :v.1 William Paley (1802): Natural theology: evidences of the existence and attributes of the Deity, collected from the appearances of nature (various editions and reprints) Darwin: Evolution (BM) How did Darwin assemble his theory of evolution by natural selection? Why should the writings of Malthus on human population have any relevance to the natural world? Why was Darwin so reluctant to publicise his theory? One answer to that question comes in Robert Chambers‟ Vestiges, an unorthodox transformist work that shocked the scientific and religious establishment in the middle of the nineteenth century. Essay questions: 1. Why did Darwin wait so long to publish his theory? 2. How did Darwin assemble his theory of evolution by natural selection? Core readings: D. R. Oldroyd, Darwinian impacts, chs. 7, 8 and 9. Look at Darwin‟s “1842 Sketch and 1844 Essay”, chap. 4 in the volume prepared by Glick and Kohn, read the editors‟ introduction (pp. 87-89) Further readings: T. R. Malthus (1798): Essay on population (various editions) Wallace, Alfred Russel (1859): On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society Zoology 3, pp. 53-62, again (with new introduction) in A.S. Weber (ed., 2000): Nineteenth Century Science. A Selection of Original Texts. Peterborough (CDN): Broadview, pp. 469-477. Sc 508.09 Web. James E. Secord (ed., 1994): Vestiges of the natural history of creation and other revolutionary writings [by] Robert Chambers. Sc 575 Cha. (useful brief extract (with new introduction) in A.S. Weber (ed., 2000): Nineteenth Century Science. A Selection of Original Texts. Peterborough (CDN): Broadview, pp. 145-160. Sc 508.09 Web. Milton Millhauser (1959): Just before Darwin: Robert Chambers and ‘Vestiges’. Sc 575 Cha M. C. Darwin, The origin of species (1859); Journal of researches (1845); The descent of man (1871); Autobiography (modern edn., 1959) (useful selection from these works in Glick & Kohn 1996 Charles Darwin: On Evolution, see above) M. Ruse (1979): The Darwinian revolution: science red in tooth and claw. Sc 575 Rus.

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Darwin: Impacts (BM) What was the reception of the Darwin‟s evolutionary theory? What impacts did Darwin‟s theories on the evolution of species, and of man, have in the late Victorian era? How did the relationship between science and religion change? Could the „survival of the fittest‟ legitimate certain political ideologies? What was the scientific status of „social Darwinism‟? Has Darwin‟s „evolution by natural selection‟ survived as a theory? How convincing are the arguments of the twentieth century Creationists? Essay question: 1. Discuss the immediate reception of and reaction to the publication of Darwin‟s Origin of Species. 2. Are „applications‟ of Darwinism to politics, economics, and sociology really misapplications? Core readings: D. R. Oldroyd, Darwinian impacts, at least one of chapters 14-23. Further reading: Peter J. Bowler (1984): Evolution: the history of an idea Sc 575 Bow. Spencer, Herbert (1851): “Poor-Laws”, from Social Statics: or, the Conditions Essential to Human Happiness Specified, and the First of Them Developed. London: Chapman, pp. 311-329, again (with new introduction) in A.S. Weber (ed., 2000): Nineteenth Century Science. A Selection of Original Texts. Peterborough (CDN): Broadview, pp. 190-201. Sc 508.09 Web. Galton, Francis (1869): Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into Its Laws and Consequences. London: MacMillan, pp. 36-350, again (with new introduction) in A.S. Weber (ed., 2000): Nineteenth Century Science. A Selection of Original Texts. Peterborough (CDN): Broadview, pp. 345-355. Sc 508.09 Web. David Burbridge (2001): Francis Galton on twins, heredity and social class. British Journal of History of Science 34, pp. 323-340. Per Sc Bri. Huxley, Thomas Henry (1894): Evolution and Ethics. London: Macmillan, pp. 1-45, again (with new introduction) in A.S. Weber (ed., 2000): Nineteenth Century Science. A Selection of Original Texts. Peterborough (CDN): Broadview, pp. 428-444. Sc 508.09 Web. Darwin: Science and Religion (BM) In this lecture we look at three key issues: first, the various ways of understanding the relationship between science and religion (e.g., as conflict or harmony); second, the religious context of Darwin‟s theory of evolution – and in particular the so-called „argument from design‟ (as part of „natural theology‟); third, we investigate some of the religious reactions to Darwin‟s Origin of species and the Descent of man. Popular accounts suggest, wrongly, that there was a crude conflict between Darwinian science and religious dogmatism. A closer examination of historical events, however, suggests that: Darwin‟s critics often came from within science; Darwinist views could be creatively accommodated with many different religious perspectives; and it was „scientific naturalists‟ like Huxley („Darwin‟s bulldog‟) who emphasised stirred up conflict, emphasising their professional status and authority at the expense of the amateur „clerical botanists‟ or natural historians of the church. Listen to Richard Dawkins and you‟ll get the idea… Essay question: 1. Discuss the religious responses to Darwin‟s work. To what extent were those responses distinct from scientific responses? Core reading: Peter J. Bowler (revised edn., 1989): Evolution: The History of an Idea Berkeley: U. California Press, chapter 8: “Darwinism: Religious and moral problems”, pp. 218-245. Sc 575 Bow, several copies. Further readings: David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (eds., 1986): God and nature: historical essays on the encounter between Christianity and science. Berkeley: U. California Pr., especially chapters 14 (“Christianity and the Scientific Community in the Age of Darwin”), 15 (“The impact of Darwinian Evolution on Protestant Theology in the Nineteenth Century”) and 16 (“The Creationists”). Sc 215 Lin. John H. Brooke (1991): Science and religion: some historical perspectives. Cambridge: CUP, chapters 7 and 8: “Visions of the past” and “Evolutionary theory and religious belief” (tough going but rewarding) (esp. pp. 255-320) Sc 215 Bro. There is a radically brief summary in: John H. Brooke, “Science and religion”, in Olby et al, eds., Companion to the History of Modern Science, on pp.776-780.
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John H. Brooke et al. (1974): The Crisis of Evolution. Milton Keynes: Open University. (Science and belief: from Copernicus to Darwin, block 5) QML ground floor OU AMST283.12-14 D. R. Oldroyd (1980): Darwinian impacts: an introduction to the Darwinian Revolution. Milton Keynes: Open University, especially chapter 18 (Darwinism and theology). Sc 575 Dar O. J. R. Moore (1979): The Post-Darwinian Controversies. Cambridge: CUP. QML floor 4, 213 Moo p. John Durant (ed., 1985): Darwinism and Divinity. Essays on Evolution and Religious Belief. Oxford: Blackwell, especially chapters 1 and 2 (John Brooke on Darwin‟s science and religion). QML Heavy Demand Sc 215 Dur. Adrian Desmond (1994): Huxley. The Devil’s disciple. London: Joseph. Sc 574.092 Hux. Frank M. Turner, “The Victorian conflict between science and religion: a professional dimension”, Isis, 69(1978), 356-76. Per Sc Isis. Key primary sources: Charles Darwin, Descent of man (London, 1871) (extending the theory to man...) Tess Coslett (ed., 1984): Science and Religion in the 19th Century (1984) Cambridge: CUP, QML floor 4, 215 Cos, including selections from Darwin‟s Origin (1859) and Tyndall‟s Belfast address trumpeting the scientific naturalists (1874). The latter can also be found, with a helpful explanatory introduction, in A.S. Weber (ed., 2000): Nineteenth Century Science. A Selection of Original Texts. Peterborough (CDN): Broadview, pp. 357-385. Sc 508.09 Web. THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Phrenology (BM) „The only true science of the mind‟ for its supporters, „bumpology‟ for its detractors, phrenology enjoyed great popularity, especially in Edinburgh, in the first half of the nineteenth century. Phrenologists examined the shape of the skull in order to discover intellectual attitudes and character traits. We will explore the context, theories and uses of a discipline taken seriously at the time but now reclassified as „marginal science‟. As a way of approaching this material you might like to think of the many existing popular beliefs which connect external appearance with intellectual and moral traits. Essay questions: 1. How and why was nineteenth-century phrenology a „science on the margins‟? 2. How do you account for the widespread enthusiasm there was for phrenology in the first half of the nineteenth century? Core reading: George Combe (1847): The Constitution of Man Considered in Relation to External Objects, 8th ed. Edinburgh: MacLachlan, Conclusion, pp. 443-461, again (with new introduction) in A.S. Weber (ed., 2000): Nineteenth Century Science. A Selection of Original Texts. Peterborough (CDN): Broadview, pp. 161171. Sc 508.09 Web. This text is also available at http://pages.britishlibrary.net/phrenology/ Further reading: Cantor, Geoffrey, “The Edinburgh phrenology debate: 1803-1828” and “A critique of Shapin‟s social interpretation of the Edinburgh phrenology debate” Annals of Science 32: 195-212 and 245-256 (1975). Clarke, Edwin, & Jacyna, L. S., Nineteenth-Century Origins of Neuroscientific Concepts (1987). [One of the best accounts of Gall and phrenology ] Sc.618.2 Cla Cooter, Roger, The cultural meaning of popular science: phrenology and the organization of consent in nineteenth-century Britain. (1984) Cambridge: CUP. Sc 139 Coo. Corsi, Pietro (ed., 1991): The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience. New York: OUP. F 612.809 Cor (Foresterhill). de Giustino, David, “Reforming the commonwealth of thieves: British phrenologists and Australia”, Victorian Studies 15: 439-461 (1972). Per 800 Hagner, Michael, “The soul and the brain between anatomy and Naturphilosophie in the early 19th century” Medical History 36: 1-33 (1992). Mauskopf, S. H. (1996): “Marginal Science”, in R. C. Olby, G. N. Cantor, J. R. R. Christie, and M. J.S. Hodge (eds.), Companion to the History of Modern Science, London: Routledge, pp.869-885 Ref Sc 509 Olb (Reference Collection) Morrell, Jack, & Thackray, Arnold Gentlemen of Science: early years of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1981), pp.276-281, “Phrenology and the unwelcome sciences”. Sc.509 Bri
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Oppenheim, Janet (1985): “Phrenology and Mesmerism” in The Other World: Spiritualism and Psychical Research in England. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 207-17. QML floor 1, 133 Opp. Shapin, S. “Homo Phrenologicus: Anthropological Perspectives on an Historical Problem”, in B. S. Barnes and S. Shapin (eds., 1979): Natural Order: Historical Studies of Scientific Culture. Beverly Hills: Sage, pp.41-71. Sc 509 Nat. Shapin, S. (1975), “Phrenological Knowledge and the Social Structure of Early Nineteenth-Century Edinburgh”. Annals of Science 32, pp. 219-243. Per Sc Ann.Young, R. M. (1970; 1990): Mind, Brain, and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral localization and its biological context from Gall to Ferrier. Oxford: Clarendon. Sc 612821 You m. Shortland, Michael, “Courting the cerebellum: early organological and phrenological views of sexuality”, British Journal for the History of Science 20: 173-199 (1987). Per Sc Temkin, Owsei, “Gall and the phrenological movement”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 21: 275-321 (1947). Wyhe, John, Phrenology and the Origins of Victorian Scientific Naturalism (2004), Aldershot: Ashgate 139.09 Young, R. M. (1968): “The Functions of the Brain: Gall to Ferrier (1808-1886)”. Isis 59, 251-268. This is the condensed version of his book. Per Sc Isis. Young, R., “Franz Joseph Gall”, pp.250-256 in Gillispie, Charles C (ed), Dictionary of Scientific Biography 1976, Vol.V. Ref Sc.509.2 Dic Young, R. M., Mind, Brain, and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral localization and its biological context from Gall to Ferrier. (1970; 1990) Oxford: Clarendon. Sc 612821 You m. For the enthusiast, there are many phrenological works from the 1820s on in Special Libraries at the University of Aberdeen – see QML catalogue. For once, there‟s a decent website. But resist that temptation to cut and paste! * Wyhe, John van, „The history of phrenology on the web‟ (2004), http://pages.britishlibrary.net/phrenology/ The Emergence of Experimental Psychology (BM) Starting from the end of the nineteenth century, psychology became a discipline distinct from philosophical psychology on the one hand and physiology on the other. The early stages of this process saw a first definition of the specific object and methods of psychology. We will discuss the views on these matters of Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), who is traditionally seen as the „founding father‟ of experimental psychology. Essay questions: 1. What is for Wundt the proper object of psychology, and how was this different from a philosophical study of the mind? Discuss in historical context. 2. Discuss, in historical context, the meaning of „introspection‟ in Wundt‟s programme and the issues surrounding his use and conduct of experiments in psychology. Core reading: Kurt Danziger (1990): “Wilhlem Wundt and the emergence of experimental psychology”, in Olby et al (eds.), Companion to the history of modern science, 396-409. Ref Sc 509 Olb (Reference collection) Further reading: Ash, Mitchell G, “Psychology”, pp.251-274 in Theodore M Porter & Dorothy Ross (eds) The Modern Social Sciences (2003). Sc.509 Blumenthal, Arthur L, “Wilhelm Wundt and early American psychology: a clash of cultures”, pp.25-42 in Robert W Rieber & Kurt Salzinger (eds), Psychology: theoretical-historical perspectives (1980). 1509 Blumenthal, A. L. (1985): „Wilhelm Wundt: psychology as the propadeutic science‟, in C. E. Buxton (ed.), Points of view in the modern history of psychology. 150.9 Bux. Boring, E. G. (1957): History of Experimental Psychology, Ch. 16. 1509 Bor * Danziger, Kurt (1990): Constructing the subject: historical origins of psychological research. Cambridge: CUP, ch. 1-4, pp. 1-67. QML 150.9 Dan. Danziger, Kurt, “Wundt and the two traditions in psychology”, pp.73-87 in Robert W Rieber (ed), Wilhelm Wundt and the Making of a Scientific Psychology 1980. 15092 Wun * Fancher, Raymond E. (1996): Pioneers of Psychology, Ch. 5. 150.9 Fan Gergen, Kenneth, A Gulerce, A Lock & G Misra, “Psychological science in cultural context” American Psychologist 51: 496-503 (1996). Per 150 (electronic version only) Klein, D. B. (1970): A history of scientific psychology: its origins and philosophical backgrounds. 1509 Kle h.
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Leahey, T. H. (1987): A History of Psychology, Ch. 7. 1509 Lea. Littman, Richard A. (1979): „Social and Intellectual Origins of Experimental Psychology‟, in Eliot Hearst (ed.): The First Century of Experimental Psychology. Ch.2, pp. 39-86. 150.9 Hea. Rieber, R. W. (ed., 1980): Wilhelm Wundt and the making of a scientific psychology. 15092 Wun R. Schultz, D. (1981): A history of modern psychology 150.9 Sch. Smith, Roger, The Fontana History of the Human Sciences 1997, pp.492-529, “The academic disciplines of psychology”, and pp.636-643, “Natural science and objectivity”. 300.9 Smi Woodward, W. R., „Wundt‟s program for the new psychology: vicissitudes of experiment, theory and system‟ in W. R. Woodward and M. G. Ash (eds., 1982), The problematic science: psychology in nineteenthcentury thought. 150.9 Woo. Wozniak, Robert H, “Introduction to Gustav Theodor Fechner, Elemente der Psychophysik (1860)”, in Robert H Wozniak Classics in Psychology 1855-1914: historical essays (1999). http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Fechner/wozniak.htm If you want to read the main primary source, look for: Wundt¸ Outline of Psychology (1897) WWW edition: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Wundt/Outlines/ The Psychology of the Unconscious Mind: Sigmund Freud (BM) Sigmund Freud – and the discipline he founded, psychoanalysis – had a dramatic impact not only on psychology, but on 20th-century culture at large, comparable perhaps only with the role of Darwinism in the previous century. Freud set out to analyse what for psychologists like Wundt was „just a myth:‟ the unconscious. His analysis was not only aimed at the cure of mental illnesses, but also at a new interpretation of the human mind. Essay question: 1. How does the development of the technique and discipline of psychoanalysis reflect Freud‟s personal history and, in particular, his historical context? Core reading: Thomas Hardy Leahy (1987): A history of psychology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, ch. 8: The Psychology of the Unconscious Mind, pp. 206-. QML 150.9 Lea, OR: Robert C. Bolles (1993): A story of psychology. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole, ch. 11: Psychoanalysis, pp. 237268. QML 150.9 Bol. Primary text: S. Freud On Dreams, published in vol. 5 of Freud‟s Standard edition [QML: 150.1952 Fre s]. Ideally, you should read the whole work, but if you are pressed for time, read the first 5 sections (pp. 633-658). This is the text for the tutorial. Further reading: Sigmund Freud (1900): The Interpretation of Dreams. There are many editions; a recent one is Penguin 1976. WWW edition: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Freud/Dreams/ Freud, Introductory Lectures, Penguin H. F. Ellenberger (1970): The Discovery of the Unconscious, Ch. 7. 150195 Ell. J. Laplanche & J.-B. Pontalis (1973): The Language of Psychoanalysis. (Comprehensive dictionary of terms and concepts). 150.1952 Lap Philip Rieff (1959): Freud: The Mind of the Moralist. 1501952 Fre R Frank Sulloway (1979): Freud. Biologist of the Mind. 1501952 Fre S idem (1983): Ideology and the Control of Scientific Knowledge: The Case of Freud and his Psychoanalytic Legend, in Michele Ranchetti (ed.): Psicoanalisi e Storia delle Scienze. Firenze: Olschki, pp. 23-37. QML Sc 509 Ran. idem (1983): Freud and Biology: The Hidden Legacy. Ibid., pp. 207-235. Paul Roazen (1975): Freud and his followers. 1501952 Fre Ro Laurence Spurling (ed., 1989), Sigmund Freud. Critical Assessments, London & New York: Routledge, 4 vols.

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The Study of Human Intelligence: Alfred Binet (BM) In the first part of the 20th century, psychologists also concentrated on cognitive functions and attempted to measure intelligence. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) was the first to devise an „intelligence test‟ and to elaborate scales to measure intelligence of children with learning difficulties. We will discuss Binet‟s original test and its subsequent applications and modifications. Essay question: 1. Making full reference to historical context, discuss the differences between Binet‟s original tests, especially for children, and the subsequent „measures of intelligence‟, including IQ tests. Core reading: One of: Fancher, R. E., “The invention of intelligence tests”, The Intelligence Men: Makers of the IQ Controversy (1985). 153.92 Fan Or: Gould, Stephen J. (1997): The Mismeasure of Man [orig. 1981; try to get hold of the revised edition which contains relevant updates on the “Bell Curve” debate] pp. 176-188 (as the page numbers vary between the edition: this is the first part of the chapter on “The Hereditarian Theory of IQ, An American Invention: Alfred Binet and the original purposes of the Binet scale). 153.93 Gou. Or: Hothersall, D. (1984): History of Psychology, Ch. 11. 150.9 Hot Or: Smith, Roger, The Fontana History of the Human Sciences (1997), pp.575-599. 300.9 Smi Further reading: Brown, JoAnne, The Definition of a Profession: the authority of metaphor in the history of intelligence testing 1890-1930 (1992). 153.93 Joa Carroll, John B,“Reflections on Stephen J Gould‟s The Mismeasure of Man (1981)” Intelligence 21: 121-134 (1995). Per 150 *Fancher, Raymond E., Pioneers of Psychology, (1996), chapters on Binet, Galton and Spearman. 150.9 Fan Galton, Francis, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (1883, 1907). 155.7 Gould, Stephen J. The Mismeasure of Man (1997), postface “Critique of the Bell Curve”, pp. 367-390 [only in the editions after 1996]. 153.93 Gou. Herrnstein, Richard J. & Charles Murray (1994): The bell curve: intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: Free P. 153.9 Her. [highly controversial work which stirred up a heated debate about intelligence and “race”.] Mackenzie, Donald A, Statistics in Britain 1865-1930: the social construction of scientific knowledge (1982), esp. pp.51-93. 3010182 Sutherland, Gillian, Ability, Merit and Measurement: mental testing and English education 1880-1914 (1984), esp. pp.111-122. 371.26 Wolf, T. H. Alfred Binet, Chicago, Chicago UP, 1973. 1509 Bin W. Zenderland, Leila, Measuring Minds: Henry Herbert Goddard and the origins of American intelligence testing (1998), esp. pp.92-104 and 348-364. 153.930973 You can read Alfred Binet‟s “New Methods for the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals” (1905) on the WWW: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Binet/binet1.htm THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE History of Medicine I: Women and Medicine in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries History of Medicine II: Venereal Disease: from the Contagious Disease Acts of the 1860s to the Public Health (Venereal Diseases) Regulations 1916 These lectures provide a brief taster of the history of medicine, which can be followed up in honours (CU3009). The first lecture will discuss women and medicine in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, surveying briefly the rise of the „man-midwife‟ in the eighteenth century, and the marginalisation of women in medicine in the early nineteenth century, the professionalisation of nursing in the nineteenth century, and the struggle by women for entry into the medical profession. The deployment of scientific ideas about the innate capabilities of women, arising from evolutionary thinking and psychology, which were deployed by those who resisted the entry of women into the medical profession, will receive special attention.
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The second lecture considers the process by which the state established a system for the control of venereal disease, beginning with the public health legislation of the 1860s, which provided for the compulsory detention and treatment of women believed to be prostitutes, found at or near military bases. Opposed by the late nineteenth-century women‟s movement, these Acts were eventually repealed, but in the early twentieth century women‟s groups were among those campaigning for a new approach to VD control, leading to the establishment of the first free-to-all medical service in 1916. The VD service supplied the new chemotherapeutic agent salvarsan, discovered in 1908, which was able to kill the micro-organism responsible for syphilis within the body. Salvarsan was the „magic bullet‟. Essay questions 1. Compare the processes of the reform of nursing and the entry of women into the medical profession during the nineteenth century. 2. Account for the successful establishment of the VD service in 1916. Readings: Women and Medicine Brunton D., Medicine transformed: health, disease and society in Europe 1800-1930 (2004) Abel-Smith, Brian. A history of the nursing profession (1960) Blake, Catriona The charge of the parasols: women’s entry to the medical profession (1990) Bonner, Thomas Neville To the ends of the earth: women’s search for education in medicine (1992) Dingwall, R., Rafferty, A. M., and Webster, C. An introduction to the social history of nursing (1988) Dyhouse, C. No distinction of sex?: women in British universities, 1870-1939 (1995) Dyhouse, C. „Driving ambitions: women in pursuit of a medical education, 1890-1939‟ Women’s History Review, 1998, vol. 7, pp. 321-4 Geyer-Kordesch, J., Chapter 38, in W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter (eds.), Companion encyclopaedia of the history of medicine vol. II (1993), pp. 888–914. Maggs, C., Chapter 54, „A general History of Nursing‟, in W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter (eds.), Companion encyclopedia of the history of medicine vol. II (1993), pp. 1309–28. Summers, A. Angels and citizens : British women as military nurses, 1854-1914 (1988) VD Hall, L. A., “ „The Great Scourge‟: syphilis as a medical problem and moral metaphor, 1880-1916” (1998). http://homepages.primex.co.uk/~lesleyah/grtscrge.htm Hall, L. A., “Venereal diseases and society in Britain, from the Contagious Diseases Acts to the National Health Service”, in Roger Davidson and Lesley Hall (eds), Sex, Sin and Suffering: venereal disease and European society since 1870 (London, 2001). Sc.616.951 and eBook (Routledge) Evans, D., „Tackling the “hideous scourge”: the creation of the Venereal Disease Treatment Centres in early twentieth-century Britain‟, Social History of Medicine, 5 (1992). Davidson, Roger, “ „A Scourge to be firmly gripped‟: The campaign for VD controls in interwar Scotland”, Social History of Medicine, 6 (1993). Davidson, Roger, & Lesley A Hall (eds), Sex, Sin and Suffering: venereal disease and European society since 1870 (2001). Sc.616.951 and eBook (Routledge) Pickstone, J., “Production, community and consumption: the political economy of twentieth-century medicine”, and A.M. Brandt & M. Gardner, „The Golden Age of medicine?”, in Roger Cooter and J. V. Pickstone (eds), Medicine in the Twentieth Century (2000). Ref. Sc.362.1 (Harwood) Big Science and the Bomb (BM) These lectures will consider what was involved in bringing to fruition such a colossal enterprise as making a weapon based on cutting-edge science. What duties and responsibilities do scientists have in the use of scientific knowledge? Should they be willing to develop new and terrible weapons even if their country is at war? We will look at the ways in which scientists themselves responded to the implication of nuclear weapons. We will also look at the arguments for and against the use of the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

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Essay questions:
1. What challenges did the creation of the atom bomb pose to the capacity of a variety of specialists to work together towards a common purpose?

2. Discuss the duties and responsibilities of scientists with regard to their discoveries and the technologies they develop from it. Use the development and deployment of the first nuclear bombs as a case study. The Manhattan Project Badash, Lawrence et al (eds), Reminiscences of Los Alamos 1943-1945 (1980). Sc.623.45119 Rem (Reidel) Galison, Peter, Image and Logic: a material culture of microphysics, pp.239-311, esp. pp.303-311 (1997), “War and the culture of physics”. Sc.539.77 Gal (Chicago UP) Groueff, Stephane, Manhattan Project: the untold story of the making of the atomic bomb (1967). 327.1747 (Little, Brown) * Hughes, Jeff, The Manhattan Project: big science and the atom bomb (2002). 355.8 Hug (Icon) Rhodes, Peter, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986). Sc.623.45119 (Simon & Schuster) Core reading on ethics and nuclear weapons Alperovitz, Gar, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth (1995), „Afterword‟. 940.5425 Alp (Fontana) Fischer, David, Morality and the Bomb (1985) Chapter 7 „Deterrence and Use: The Just War Theory Reapplied‟. 172.4 Fis (Croom Helm) Fogelman, Edwin, Hiroshima: the Decision to use the A-Bomb (1964). 327.1747 Fog (Scribner) Glover, Jonathan, Causing Death and Saving Lives, Chapter 19 „War‟ (1977). 179.7 Glo Floor 4 and HD/QML and Taylor Heavy Demand and Medical School Library (Penguin) Singer, Peter (ed), A Companion to Ethics, Chapter 34, „War and Peace‟ (1991). 170 Sin (Blackwell) Big Science, Collaborative Frameworks, and Intellectual Property (MB) NOTE TIMETABLE CHANGE: May 1 (Thursday), 10-11, Taylor A26 This lecture considers: postwar transfer of the Manhattan Project model from military to civilian science, the development of large scale facility-based research projects, the emergence of collective authorship, and the problems of allocating intellectual property in massive interdisciplinary teams. Essay question: 1. Compare scientific authorship in large-scale collaborations in physics and biomedicine. Readings: Kevles, Daniel, The Physicists (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1987), selections Galison, Peter and Bruce Hevly (eds), Big Science (Stanford: Stanford UP, 1992), selections Biagioli, Mario, “Rights or Rewards: Changing Frameworks of Scientific Authorship”, in Mario Biagioli and Peter Galison (eds), Scientific Authorship (Routledge, 1993), pp. 253-279 Biotechnology, Biopharma, and Changing University-Industry Relations (MB) NOTE TIMETABLE CHANGE: May 1, 11-12, Taylor A26 In this second lecture we consider: the emergence of biotechnology as a discipline and an industry, the rising importance of private sector research and funding, the Bay-Dole Act, patenting, and the privatization of knowledge. Essay question: 1. Discuss at least two critical areas in the relationship between the modern university and the pharmaceutical industry. Readings: Eisenberg, Rebecca and Richard Nelson, “Public vs. Proprietary Science: A Fruitful Tension?”, in Daedalus (Spring 2002): 89-101
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Angell, Marcia and Arnold Relman, “Patents, Profits & American Medicine: Conflicts of Interests in the Testing & Marketing of New Drugs”, Daedalus (Spring 2002): 102-111 Mowery, David et al, Ivory Tower and Industrial Innovation: University-Industry Technology Transfer Before and After the Bayh-Dole Act (Stanford UP, 2004), selections. Conclusion/ Revision / Exam workshop (BM) This final meeting will be an opportunity to review the trajectory of the course, and to consider effective exam techniques. 14    Tutorials in Detail Six tutorials provide the opportunity to discuss the lecture material, to look at the essay questions, to develop study skills, and to answer any other queries that may arise. Remember that tutorial performance is assessed: your performance here counts for 10% of your final mark. At the first tutorial, each student will be assigned a presentation, which they must prepare. This usually involves developing a discussion or argument in response to a set question. In most cases some guidance is given as to the key source or sources, but credit will often be given for using a range of sources. Tutors will also give credit to students who show that they are thinking historically, and who are asking, as well as answering, historical questions. Students are expected to prepare either a handout or overhead slides or both, to illustrate their talk. Each presentation will be followed by questions from other students and discussion. Fifty per cent of the mark for tutorial performance will be awarded for the presentation. Presentations must last 10-12 minutes. The tutor will assess the presentation according to the following criteria: Critical understanding of relevant literature; handout and/or overheads; timing, audibility, delivery; handling of questions Fifty per cent of the mark for tutorial performance will be awarded for performance at tutorials other than the one at which students give their set presentation. Besides asking questions and taking part in discussion following the presentation or presentations, students will be expected to prepare for each tutorial by means of some set reading – either some primary or secondary source material, and to participate in further discussion based on it. Criteria of assessment here are: tangible evidence of preparation; willingness to contribute; ability to offer, express, and back up opinions. We ask you during the first part of the course to visit the on-line tutorial on information skills for historians and philosophers of science at: http://www.humbul.ac.uk/vts/ or http://www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/hps

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

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Science and the Enlightenment (Week 2) Read at least one of: David Daiches, The Scottish Enlightenment (1986) 9(41)7 Dai (very short) Any one chapter from D. Daiches, P. Jones, and J. Jones (eds.), The Scottish Enlightenment, 1730-90: ‘A hotbed of genius’ (1986) 9(41)7 Dai Russell and Goodman, The Rise of Scientific Europe (1991), chapter 11 („Science in the Scottish Enlightenment‟) Any one chapter from Hankins, Science and the Enlightenment (1985). Be ready to discuss: 1. The defining features of the Scottish Enlightenment – how, for example, was it different to the Enlightenment in France? 2. The role of any ONE of David Hume, Joseph Black, or James Hutton in the Scottish Enlightenment. 3. Any one „science‟ in the Scientific Enlightenment Inventing Steam / Agricultural and Industrial ‘Improvement’ (Week 4) Ben Marsden, Watt’s Perfect Engine: Steam and the Age of Invention (as much as you like) Or: McKendrik, N., „The role of science in the industrial revolution: a study of Josiah Wedgewood as a scientist and industrial chemist‟, in M. Teich and R. Young, Changing Perspectives in the History of Science (1973), chapter 17
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Or: Bowler, Peter J. and Iwan Morus, „Science and Technology‟ (chapter 17) in their Making Modern Science: A Historical Survey. Be ready to discuss: 1. The role of science in the industrial revolution as exemplified by the career of Josiah Wedgwood. 2. The extent to which Watt, and his engine, were products of Enlightenment scientific culture. 3. How, in general, have scholars related „science‟ and „technology‟ in history? If we have time, we will also start to talk about essay writing skills; as a preparation, read one or more of the manuals from the Study and Enterprise Skills section at QML (see readings at first lecture) and work through the on-line tutorial at http://www.humbul.ac.uk/vts/ or http://www.vts.rdn.ac.uk/tutorial/hps (see above). Be prepared to comment on what you found valuable in the manual and tutorial. Evolution: Contexts / Theories / Impacts (Week 6) Read: Charles Darwin (1985): Origin of species (Penguin classics edn. [1859]), introduction and chs.3-4. You can find an edition online at: http://www.literature.org/authors/darwin-charles/the-origin-of-the-species/ OR: in the collection edited by Glick and Kohn (see recommended texts at beginning of guide) at pp. 164-206. OR: Any one chapter from David Oldroyd, Darwinian impacts Additional reading: Ernst Mayr (1993): One long argument. London: Penguin. Sc 575 Dar (6 copies in QML) Be ready to discuss: 1. The key components of Darwin‟s „one long argument‟ for evolution by natural selection; 2. The potential weaknesses in Darwin‟s argument: did it, for example, qualify as „good science‟ by the standards of the day? 3. One or more „impacts‟ of evolutionary theory in other areas (e.g., politics, literature, art) 4. The religious context or – and engagement with – Darwin‟s work: for example, does „conflict‟ adequately characterise the reaction to the publication of the Origin? History of Psychology (week 8) Be ready to discuss at least ONE of the following topics: 1. (Phrenology) Discuss the conceptions of human capabilities, character and behaviour proposed by the phrenologists. What, for Gall and Combe, were the key phrenological „faculties‟ 2. (Experimental psychology) Why was it important to make psychology an experimental science? 3. (Freud) How did Freud come to believe that dreams were so important – and why did he believe they needed to be interpreted in order to tell us anything? 4. (Binet) What does a historical examination of Binet‟s tests tell us about „measuring intelligence‟? History of Medicine (week 10) Be ready to discuss at least the following topics: 1. May the changes in the role of women in medicine from the early eighteenth to the later nineteenth century be described as process of marginalisation followed by a process of reintegration. 2. Discus the roles of women‟s movements in the failure of the 1860s Contagious Diseases Acts, and in the creation of a VD Service in 1916. Reading for students giving presentations: the bibliography in the lecture programmes for Weeks 11-12. Core reading for all students All students should read and prepare to discuss the primary source documents that will be provided on the WebCT site. Making and using the A-bomb (week 12) Core Reading for students making presentations: Hughes, Jeff, The Manhattan Project: big science and the atom bomb (2002). 355.8 Hug (Icon)

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Presentation questions: THE BOMB: 1. What do we mean by „big science‟? In what sense is „big science‟ different to the science that came before it? 2. Did the scale, and government involvement, of science required to build a nuclear weapon change the nature of science itself? 3. Who was responsible for the making of the atomic bomb? Who was responsible for using it? SCIENCE, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND BUSINESS 1. Should scientific knowledge be public – or private – property? 2. How do commercial considerations affect notions of „scientific authorship‟? 3. Have the ambitions of the Enlightenment – to rationalize, and „improve‟, man‟s state – been achieved? 4. In an age of cynicism about science, do we have a personal duty to become „experts‟ in the appliance of science? 15 Student Feedback and Comment

The Department is very interested in student feedback. Details on how the Department gathers information and responds to suggestions can be found at Responding to Student Feedback. In addition, examples of how the Department has involved students in significant decision-making are at Student Questionnaire Results. 16 Cultural History beyond your Degree

The Department has numerous opportunities for Postgraduate Study in Cultural History. Students who are interested in a taught postgraduate course are encouraged to speak to their course co-ordinator. It is worth noting that there are also numerous (though often highly competitive) funding opportunities available with details available via the College and the School. 17 Mock Examination Paper

N. B. The following SAMPLE EXAM PAPER will give you a general idea about the structure of the exam paper and the style of the exam questions. The content of the real exam will closely reflect the topics as taught this year. The structure and content of this year‟s exam will be discussed further at the last lecture of the course. University of Aberdeen Session 2000-2001 History and Philosophy of Science: HS2502 History and Philosophy of Science II Friday 1 June 2001, 9 – 10.30am

Answer ONE question from Section A and ONE question from Section B. Do not use the same material twice. Section A 1. At the beginning of the Enlightenment, what was the relation between natural philosophy and theological thought, for instance in the view of Isaac Newton? 2. As part of the Chemical Revolution, Lavoisier promoted a new terminology based on his concept of oxygen. Was it not possible to think of oxygen simply as inverted phlogiston? Discuss the role of at least two different contexts from which contributions to the formulation of the „law of conservation of energy‟ were derived. Explain the „conflict model‟ of the relationship between science and religion. How have historical accounts of science in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries disputed this model?
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3.

4.

5.

Darwin‟s idea of selection included a specific form of adaptation. Why was the latter at odds with the tenets of contemporary natural theology?

Section B 6. Compare Darwin‟s opinions on human behaviour to the dogmas of Social Darwinism. 7. Compare and contrast the methodological approaches to the human psyche of experimental psychology and psychoanalysis in their historical context. Could there be a „gene for criminality‟? If there were, and if we could screen for it, what, if anything, should we do about it? Is prenatal genetic screening for inherited disabilities a form of discrimination against disabled people? Creation Science and Intelligent Design are two responses to the theory of evolution from the perspective of theism. Compare them.

8.

9. 10.

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