Soil Compaction

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July 2008  Vol. 18  Issue 7

Published by the Texas AgriLife Extension Service, Bexar County, for the Bexar County Master Gardener Volunteers & Our Partners  David Rodriguez, County Extension Agent—Bexar County Horticulture and Master Gardener Coordinator 

Soil Compaction
By David Rodriguez
Big dogs and beautiful lawns are not compatible. If you want a beautiful backyard, don't think that you can turn a dog or even rambunctious children loose to romp and stomp. The pitter-patter of little feet signals devastation to lawn grasses. Not only do grasses suffer, but all plants, even the majestic redwoods of California, cannot endure the consequences of foot steps. Giant Sequoia trees over 2,000 years old began to decline for no known reason. Finally it was discovered that hundreds of people walking around and around at the base of the trees and looking up—fascinated by the size and height of the trees—were trampling these natural monuments to death. The problem? Soil compaction. Compaction destroys soil structure, thus increasing density, carbon dioxide concentrations, (plant roots need oxygen to live and grow) and heat build-up. Additionally, it creates surface runoff rather than allowing water to penetrate the roots. Compaction subsequently decreases the amount of large pore space available, as well as oxygen in the soil, water penetration, and nutrient influx. When compaction increases soil density root elongation is inhibited, this causes poor development of the root systems essential for summer survival. This damage is more severe in drier, heavier soils. Plant roots need oxygen to survive, and as the density of a compacted soil increases, carbon dioxide and other toxic gases do not readily move from the root system. The concentration of gases can build up to the point that it actually becomes toxic to the root. Compaction is very much a surface phenomenon affecting mainly the top 4 inches of soil. Compacted soils do not allow rapid water penetration, causing increased runoff. This means that more irrigation is necessary to adequately soak compacted areas and get water to the root-feeding zone during times of drought stress. Compacted soils are hotter in the summer and colder in the winter because of the conductivity of tight soil particles. Lower temperatures in the spring could result in less root growth, delayed green-up, and winter- kill. Big dogs and beautiful lawns are not compatible. If you want a beautiful backyard, don't think that you can turn a dog or even rambunctious children loose to romp and stomp. Porosity of compacted soil is less. Both the amount of pores and their size are decreased. Small pores in soil are usually filled with water, but water begins to replace air in a compacted soil. In the absence of air, plant root cannot actively absorb nutrients, causing plant decline. Pathogenic fungus organisms thrive in higher soil temperatures in the presence of a lack of oxygen. Thus, the probability of summer disease problems is increased in a compacted soil. Weeds that can persist in low oxygen soils can gain the competitive edge over desirable grasses and take over.

Managing turf to minimize the negative effects of compaction is important. Helpful management techniques to consider include aerification, traffic control, water management, soil modification, efforts to both improve drainage and irrigation design, and turf grass
(continued on page 4)


President Barbara Lutz 210-699-0663 Vice President Laura Rogers 210-375-0035 Treasurer Judy Hanna 210-658-0819 Secretary Jamie Daily 830-281-5251 Assistant Secretary Angel Torres 210-467-6575 Planning Director Sandy Justice 210-410-9099 Membership Coordinator Kathy Rice 210-496-2791 Publications Coordinator Jan Craven 210-698-1548 Publicity Coordinator Gladys Baker 210-614-4520 Volunteer Coordinator Mary Ann Johnson 210-497-5446 Development Director Donna Irwin 210-379-6520 Members at Large Lou Kellogg 647-4958 Ted Richie 675-0494 TX AgriLife Extension Svc. BCMG Coord: David Rodriguez Hort. Ofc. Asst.: Angel Torres Youth Coordinator: Jeremy Stavinoha 467-6575 Phone: 467-6575 (BCMG) Fax: 366-0535

July 2008
Hello Bexar County Master Gardeners, our partners, and all the readers of the Extension Horticultural Educational newsletter THE SCION. The spring session of the Children’s Vegetable Garden at the San Antonio Botanical Garden concluded 17 fun-filled weeks on Saturday, May 31. Sixty children from the ages of 8 to 13 committed many Saturdays from 9 a.m. to noon in order to participate in this challenging program. These youngsters are a part of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service 4-H youth component participating in the Junior Master Gardener Program and are recognized as The San Antonio Gardeners. The children took part in organized vegetable planting, harvesting, and the general maintenance of their garden plots. The program also provided many hands-on activities to help participants gain an understanding of soil components, water conservation, nutrition, how plants grow, insects, birds, and other information related to the vegetable gardening experience. The Children’s Vegetable Garden program would not be successful without the special partnership between Texas AgriLife Extension Service and the San Antonio Botanical Garden/San Antonio Botanical Society, and the City of San Antonio Parks and Recreation Department and, most importantly, the dedication and support of great volunteers from the community, especially Bexar County Master Gardeners. Overall, twenty Master Gardeners and interns supported the Children’s Vegetable Program this past spring. The next Children’s Vegetable Garden session will be this fall, beginning with orientation on Saturday, August 23, and ending on Saturday, December 13, with final harvesting, cleanup, and a vegetable contest. For more information about the Children’s Vegetable Garden Program and adult mentor volunteer opportunities (working every Saturday ISN’T a requirement), contact me at 210-467-6575. If you know a child who might be a productive and enthusiastic participant in the Children’s Vegetable Garden Program, please fill out the application insert in this newsletter by July 18. Any donations to this productive program would also be appreciated. As always, thank you for your hard work, loyalty, and dedication to the Extension Horticulture Programs of the Texas AgriLife Extension Service and Texas A&M System. Without the great support of all our volunteers, partners and friends, these programs would not be possible. Remember, you can see all the previous archived newsletters on the Extension web site at: Believe me the pictures look sharper. Maybe we are ready to send the newsletter out electronically? It would sure save a lot of time and money on postage. Doesn’t everyone use a computer? Remember, Learn and Have Fun!!!

David Rodriguez
                             County Extension Agent—Horticulture                               and Bexar County Master Gardener Coordinator The information contained in this newsletter is for educational purposes only. References to products and trade names are for identification only and do not imply endorsement or criticism of similar products by Bexar County Master Gardeners or Texas AgriLife Extension Service.


President’s C o r n e r
Hello fellow Master Gardeners. Thanks for the support and confidence you showed by electing me your President. Welcome to the new Board Members; we will have another great year. Thanks especially to Manual and last year’s Board for a job well done. Fortunately, some of the Board will return for another year of service. Their experience is welcomed and will be a great help in making this year a special one. Welcome to our summer Bexar County Youth Gardens Coordinator, Jeremy Stavinoha. Jeremy is a May graduate of Texas A&M and will enter the Peace Corps in September. He has a real challenge this summer as Doris’ replacement and is doing a good job. Madge Cady has been a great help in getting him acclimated. When youth activities occur, please volunteer and help him out. I encourage each of you to take advantage of our many opportunities as Master Gardeners to learn more with our educational opportunities and to serve the community with your volunteerism. We need everyone to participate to make BCMG even stronger. Please support the Birdies for Charity. All donations come back to support our programs. Since we are the only Master Gardener organization in the state that doesn’t have membership dues, think of a donation as support for BCMG. You also could win a new car or other prizes with your entry. I’m looking forward to serving you as President this year. If you have suggestions for programs or how to improve the organization, please contact me. Thanks for all that you do.

Did You Know…
• 1 in 5 adults struggle with hunger and food insecurity • 1 in 4 children go to bed hungry each night • 25,000 individuals receive emergency food from the San Antonio Food Bank Network every week … right here in South Texas Bexar County Master Gardeners have a wonderful opportunity to help stop the cycle of hunger by working with the San Antonio Food Bank in their newest initiative: The Community Garden. We have been asked to help transform 5 empty acres into a garden producing fruits and vegetables. Complete with a greenhouse for propagation and an education pavilion, this area will serve not only to feed those in need, but also to provide nutrition education and job training. As you can see, volunteer opportunities abound. Such as: • Construction of the beds and irrigation systems
(on-going this summer)

• Planting/overseeing planting of first crops (late summer, early fall) • Educational presentations
(as needed)

Barbara Lutz

• Harvesting/supervise harvesting
(late fall)

• Propagating plants for further plantings
(upon completion of the greenhouse)


The garden has wonderful, rich back soil—wouldn’t it be fun to get your hands in it—and all for a very good cause! For information about this project, or to volunteer, contact Johanna Tesch, Food Bank Volunteer Coordinator at 431-8345 or Kevin Boggs 431-8311 or


Master Gardener of the Month: June
Jamie Daily, our Master Gardener for the month of June, is an outgoing person who enjoys talking to people. This is an interest and skill which has been of great benefit to the Master Gardener Program, since Jamie works our Hotline every Monday afternoon, and she regularly gives presentations as part of the Speaker’s Bureau. The two topics Jamie most likes to talk about are Rainwater Harvesting and Wildscaping with native Texas plants. Jamie has recently completed the Master Gardener Specialist Program in Rainwater Harvesting. To do so, she traveled to Menard, Texas to take classes from Billy Kniffen, who developed the program. According to Jamie, one inch of rain running off a 2,000 square foot roof will produce 1,000 gallons of water. This is water which does not come under any water-use restrictions and is the salt-free, soft water that plants love. In the present drought conditions, this sounds like a program that should be of interest to many gardeners in our area. Love of native Texas plants comes naturally to Jamie, who is herself a native Texan going back four or five generations. However, despite her wholehearted endorsement of our native Texas treasures, Jamie has a word of caution for neophytes. According to Jamie, Texas plants are a lot like Texas natives: they do not like change. So, when they are taken from the comfort of their little pots in a controlled nursery environment and transferred into a bed with other plants, they pout. The first summer after their initial planting they may look puny, causing their once enthusiastic owners to question whether these little natives are really going to survive. Jamie advises patience. Pouting doesn’t usually last past the second season. By the third year they should be growing rapidly and thriving in poor soil, with lots of heat and very little water. In addition to her interest in gardening and in talking to people, Jamie also loves animals. She has had success in showing her own Italian Greyhounds and a French bulldog, which she showed for a friend and became the #3 dog in the nation. Jamie’s own menagerie includes three male Italian greyhounds, a border collie, two mixed-breed dogs that were dropped off by her rural home, four aquariums of fish, birds, turtles, a newly acquired Manx cat, which she hopes to eventually show. Jamie is a lady with a wealth of experience in many areas. She taught English and various topics in Social Studies for 38 years. Besides her expertise in gardening and in training dogs, she is also a Master Naturalist. She also confesses that she loves to shop and has even done Christmas shopping for friends. So, whether you want advice on plant selection, rainwater collection, or just about a good place to buy an unusual item; don’t hesitate to ask Jamie Daily, our Master Gardener for the month of June. Ann Caldwell, JMG class 1 4

Soil Compaction
(continued from page 1)

Core aerification is extremely beneficial in increasing air exchange, water infiltration rates, water retention, nutrient penetration and thatch decomposition. It also decreases surface runoff, therefore increasing water- use efficiency while reducing total irrigation requirements. Warm-season grasses such as St. Augustine and Bermuda can be beneficially aerified from the time they green-up until the time they go dormant in the fall. Once a month aerification on heavily trafficked Bermudagrass would not be detrimental. Total number of aerifications per year needs to be linked to fertility levels and amount of traffic. Two to five aerifications per year should be considered average for heavily-trafficked turf. Minimizing traffic whenever possible is important. Minimizing traffic when soil is wet is critical because compaction damage is greater on a wet soil than on a dry soil. Timing irrigation to allow adequate time for drainage prior to traffic can be a critical factor in reducing compaction damage. For more information about dog and animal compaction control, see: plantanswers/turf/dog_lawn_problems .html Or simply, have a small lawn or no lawn at all. As Always, Remember, Learn and Have Fun!

Robert Stewart
Robert Stewart, Class 42, passed away on May 3, 2008 due to a brief illness. He was buried in Colorado Springs at the Air Force Academy cemetery on May 12. He volunteered at the Madison Elementary School Green House during the year of 2006 and the Air Force Village Retirement residence centers in San Antonio.


July Gardening Chores
BIRDS AND WILDLIFE • Keep birdbaths full and clean. Clean water is in short supply and is essential to the birds and butterflies. • Butterflies are attracted to overripe fruit, blooms, and mud. Make a muddy spot in your landscape for them to enjoy or place overripe fruit in a container. • Hummingbirds will reward you with their antics if you keep plenty of sugar water in feeders for them. Clean and change the water in the feeders weekly. COLOR • Keep rose bushes cleaned out to help prevent fungus and insect problems. • Spray the bottom side of foliage on rose bushes with water to keep them fresh and help control spider mites. • Fertilize roses with a complete rose food to help encourage blooming. • Fertilize caladiums with slow-release lawn fertilizer at the rate of 1/3-1/2 lb. per 100 square feet of bed. Water it in. • Deadhead spent flowers on annuals and perennials to encourage more blooms. • Plant zinnias which are among the easiest annuals to grow from seed. • For summer color and fall beauty, plant Texas' tough annuals and heat-loving tropicals in beds and containers. To brighten a landscape in the heat of the summer, plant lantana, bougainvillea, mandevilla vine, allamanda, hibiscus, salvia, periwinkle, marigold, zinnia, portulaca, purslane, copper plant, and Bush Morning Glory. • Give special attention to water requirement of leafy garden plants such as coleus, caladiums and elephant ears during hot, sunny periods. Mulch heavily. • Maintain heavy (two to four inches) mulch throughout your landscape and gardens to reduce water needs and reduce weeding. Water plants when needed and not according to the calendar or day of the week. Water (soak) thoroughly rather than applying frequent light sprinklings. FRUITS AND NUTS • Water fruit trees with one inch of water over the drip line per week until the fruit are harvested. • Take out the old canes in the blackberries to make way for the new ones next spring. ORNAMENTALS • Iron deficiency (chlorosis) can show up in many landscape and garden plants at this time of year. Look for yellowed leaves with characteristic darker green veins. Frequent applications of iron sulfate (Copperas) as a foliar spray or applications to mulching materials may he needed to correct this deficiency. Greensand can also be used and is effective. SHADE TREES AND SHRUBS • It’s reasonably safe to prune oak trees in July and August. Be sure to paint all the wounds you make. • When pruning, only take out the dead, damaged or diseased limbs. It’s best to prune in January or February. TURF GRASS • Set your lawnmower height at the highest level while it’s hot. 3 ½ - 4 inches for St. Augustine. • Only if you can see your footprints in the grass should you water the lawn. Water deeply but not often. • If you see dead areas in the St. Augustine, check for grubs and chinch bugs. To check for grubs, dig a hole a foot square and about 5-6 inches deep. If you find more than 3 grubs in the soil, apply an approved insecticide. Chinch bugs like the hottest part of the yard; like beside driveways and sidewalks. Cut the top and bottom out of a coffee can. Push it down into the soil about an inch and then fill it with water. If little bugs float up, they’re usually chinch bugs. Apply an approved insecticide. • If you failed to make a second application of fertilizer to your lawn in June and moisture is available, do so now. Use a formula of a slow-release fertilizer such as 19-5-9 or 15-5-10. Water thoroughly after application. VEGETABLES • Start over in the vegetable garden. Diffuse sunlight on young seedlings and transplants and protect them from pest damage until well established by using a cloth covering such as GrowWeb, Plant Shield or Plant Guard, or an old sheer curtain. • Install a drip or trickle irrigation system in your vegetable and flower gardens to make watering more efficient and less time-consuming. • Remove spent tomatoes, beans, and other veggies. They serve as disease and insect hosts now. • Prepare for fall gardening. Add about 2-3 inches of compost and 1-2 cups 19-5-9 slow release fertilizer to the veggie beds and till in as deeply as possible.
Tom Harris, class 13

Recycle your Styrofoam at
Amazon Forms, LLC 19068 Marbach Ln. (651-3322) M-F 8:00-5:00 pm


Garden Book Review
The Gardener on Vacation

We’re again participating in the Birdies for Charity Program, a fundraising program associated with the Texas Open Golf Tournament held at La Cantera each year. Over the last 3 years the Bexar County Master Gardeners were awarded over $6,500 for our efforts. Included in this amount was 100% of what we raised by pledges from individuals, business supporters, plus various cash bonus programs held during the event. Considering the small amount of time invested by the Master Gardeners who solicited and made the pledges, that is a great return for our efforts. Thanks to all who participated. Donors are eligible to win the grand prize, a 2009 Buick, by correctly guessing the total number of birdies made during the tournament. This year the charity that raises the most money each week and meets the weekly minimum of 5 pledges will win a weekly bonus of $500. If the BCMG is one of the top 54 fund raisers, as we have been in the past, we will be represented by an amateur team playing in the Oak Farms Dairy Charity Pro-Am. This would allow us to compete for a share of the $50,000 in the Bonus Bucks program. Your pledge will help fund our many children’s and community activities. A minimum pledge of $20.00 or one cent per Birdie can give you a chance to win the car or other great prizes. This year’s pledge forms are included in this issue of The Scion. You can use the form or you can make your donation online at . If you have questions about Birdies for Charity, please contact Barbara Lutz at 699-0663 or
Barbara Lutz, class 40

An Island Garden. By Celia Thaxter
126 pages.. Illustrations by Childe Hassam. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1988. Facsimile ed. 1894. [Not in the public library, alas, but available online.] Afternoon temperatures are in the high and dry 90s now; how cool it would be to take a vacation. But with gas prices near $4 a gallon in early June, many of us are staying at home in Texas. So pour a tall glass of iced tea or icy beer, find a lounge chair, open a book, and escape. Unfortunately, most garden books aren't made for summer reading--you want either fast-moving mysteries and heady romances or a head start on the school reading list. Even the most delightful garden book will describe tasks-weeding, watering or not watering, fertilizing, composting, pest control, seed collection, garden design. So I decided to go to Appledore in the Isles of Shoals, New Hampshire. In 1894 there were no blockbuster movies, i-Pods, or e-mail--just a small quiet garden "only a stone's throw from the sea" (p. 24). Mrs. Thaxter lived there in the late nineteenth century, and her friend the American Impressionist painter Childe Hassam was a frequent visitor. (24 of his delicately water-colored pictures illustrate the book.) Hassam painted the picture on its frontispiece, of a white-haired woman standing by a narrow garden path twisting through a bed of deep pink Impressionism toward the not-too-distant sea. My eye is caught by the triangular sail of a ship on the horizon, but the woman in the painting is looking down at flowers. If the woman is Mrs. Thaxter, she's probably noticing evidence of slugs. A typical Victorian--sentimentalist poet, realist garden columnist--Thaxter was earnest and enthusiastic about nature, though hard as nails when it came to growing flowers. "Nothing that human ingenuity can suggest do I leave untried to save my beloved flowers!" (p. 8), including fine wire mesh, fishing nets, wide boards, lime, salt, sulfur, kerosene, cayenne pepper, and toads to vanquish pests. My bleeding-liberal heart would prefer relocating the slugs to a faraway brush pile. Thaxter, however, writes this part of her story almost like a modern monster thriller with a political subtext: "Celia Thaxter and the Quest for the Slug-free Garden!" Here is a teaser: is not only liberty of which eternal vigilance is the price; the saying applies quite as truly to the culture of flowers, for the name of their enemies is legion, and they must be fought early and late, day and night, without cessation... worst of all the loathsome slug, a slimy, shapeless creature that devours every fair and exquisite thing in the garden. .... He is beyond description repulsive, a mass of sooty, shapeless slime, and he devours everything. He seems to thrive on all the poisons known; salt and lime are the only things that have power upon him (pp. 6-7). Find a copy and let Celia Thaxter and Childe Hassam beguile you into escape!
Patricia Brown, class 45


Memorial Tree Planting
Master Gardener president Manuel Santos and Jeremy Stavinoha, part-time youth coordinator for the Bexar County Gardeners, planted a 30-gallon memorial anaqua tree in front of Dellview Elementary School in the NorthEast ISD. "Jeremy had just come on board and we put him to work almost immediately planting an 8-foot tree in front of the school," said Santos. "He jumped right in to the project." The tree, which was donated by CPS Energy, was planted in memory of Jaqueline Solis, 9, a Dellview student who passed away due to a tragic accident last December. The school held a dedication and memorial celebration, which was attended by Solis’ parents and other family members, including her brother, who still attends Dellview. Other attendees included about 65 students from Dellview’s second-grade class and several school administrators, including the principal and vice-principal. A pink bow was placed on the tree and a poem was read during the dedication, which was planned by Dellview teachers and staff “We wanted the dedication to be a celebration of Jaqueline’s life." said Cynthia Silguero-Gaytan, a Manuel Santos and Jeremy Stavinoha plant a school counselor at Dellview for 6 memorial tree in front of Dellview Elementary years. "The tree is symbolic of School to honor a student who passed away this Jaqueline living on in our past Christmas Day. memories." Silguero-Gaytan said that during the ceremony the Solis family was also was also presented with an 8x10 framed photo of Jaqueline donated by the studio that took Dellview student pictures last year, as well as a check for $500 collected by the school. A plaque honoring Jaqueline will be kept inside the school, she added. School administrators expressed their gratitude to the Bexar County Master Gardener program, Texas AgriLife Extension Service and CPS Energy and the for their efforts toward helping them honor Jaqueline Solis. Paul Schattenberg, Agrilife Extension Service

germinate. Wiry roots called “hold fasts” attach firmly to a host but do not leech nutrients. Rather, ball moss absorbs minerals and moisture from the air, through scales (trichomes) on their leaves. Tillandsia recurvata prefers low light and high humidity, a habitat typically found within tree canopies. Thus, masses of ball moss often congregate on dead interior branches of live oaks and get blamed for their demise. Actually, the limbs decline for the same reason ball moss thrives: lack of sunlight. Though despised by many, this common “air plant” actually bears some ecological importance in nature. Spiders as well as many insects hide in ball moss. In the Hill Country last April, birders on an excursion with Field Guides, Inc., at Dolan Fall Preserve—located halfway between Del Rio and Sonora—spotted a yellow-throated vireo and a yellowthroated warbler, both nesting in ball moss clusters. What’s even better: they observed a tropical parula—a songbird that’s listed as threatened in Texas—on a nest built of the same material. Now there’s a good reason to love ball moss!
Sheryl Smith-Rodgers, Texas Parks and Wildlife, February 2008. Reprinted with permission of the author.

What do YOU want to hear?

Misunderstood Moss
While ball moss does live in oak trees, it doesn’t kill them.
Poor, misunderstood ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata). More often than not, this spiky plant gets unfairly blamed for smothering live oaks and other trees across the state’s southern half. It’s not even a true moss, which reproduce by releasing spores. Classified as a bromeliad, ball moss bears bluish flowers on long stems. Windblown seeds float in the air, stick to tree bark, fences, or utility wires, and then

Now is the time of the year when we are planning the general meetings and education meetings for the next year. We are also planning some special seminars. Do you have a topic or a speaker you would like to suggest? If so please contact Sandy Justice, Program Director at or 210200-8861 with your ideas We can’t plan programs of interest if we don’t know what you would like to learn.



Bexar County Master Gardeners, Inc.    3355 Cherry Ridge Drive, Suite 208  San Antonio, TX  78230‐4818   




HOMEOWNER’S HOTLINE (200) Angel Torres 467-6575 TERRARIUM/ECOSYSTEM (100) Lani Ord 493-6375 PLANT CLINIC ON WATERSAVER LANE SA BOTANICAL (200) Pat Brown 653-4999 SCHULTZE HOUSE GIFT SHOP (200) Barbara Lozier 789-1434 SCHULTZE HOUSE COTTAGE GARDEN (200) “Smitty” 698-9767, Pat Harris 226-6150 SPEAKER’S BUREAU (200) Carol Law 681-3029, CHILDREN’S SPEAKER BUREAU (100) Barbara Davis and Carol White MADISON SCHOOL CLASSROOM GARDEN (100)   Paul Gates   CHILDREN’S GARDEN @ BOTANICAL GARDEN (100)   David Rodriguez 467-6575 WATER CONSERVATION(300) Sandy Justice 200-8861, cell 410-9099; Laura Rogers 375-0035, cell 317-5117 MANY HANDS MAKE LIGHT WORK (400) Holly Julian 764-1767 HEMISFAIR HORTICULTURE GROUP (300) Maria Salvatierra 830-460-8213 TELEPHONE TREE (400) Margarita Thompson 653-5310 or

On the schedule…
July 17, 2008 General Meeting
Speaker: Timothy Hartman
2007-08 BCMG scholarship recipient

Social 6:00-6:30 Members may bring snacks

6 pm

Conf Room

Growing and Propagating Tropical Fruit (1 ceu)

August 21, Educational Seminar
Speaker: Dr. Mark Black


Learn About Plant Diseases (2 CEUs)

Conference room; RSVP to Angel Torres 467-6575

Looking ahead…
September 18, 2008 General Meeting 6 pm Speaker: Bruce Fraser of Dixon Farms Topic: Onions

Texas AgriLife Extension Service programs serve people of all ages regardless of socioeconomic level, race, color, sex, religion, disability, or national origin by “Improving the lives of people, businesses, and communities across Texas and beyond through highquality, relevant education.” In Partnership and support of The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating.

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