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Warsaw_ 20062007

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Warsaw_ 20062007 Powered By Docstoc
					Medical University of Warsaw
2nd Faculty of Medicine - English Division
ul. Żwirki i Wigury 61 02-091 Warszawa Tel: + 48 (22) 5720 502 Fax:+48 (22) 5720 562 e-mail: english@am.edu.pl http:// www.am.edu.pl

1st YEAR CURRICULUM
6-year program

Warsaw, 2006/2007

ANATOMY
Department of Anatomy Centre of Biostructure Research Address: 5 Chałubińskiego St. 02-004 Warsaw phone./fax 6295283 http://embryo.ib.amwaw.edu.pl/anatomy Head: Prof. Bogdan Ciszek, M.D., Ph.D. Curricular affairs: Kamil Pietrasik, M.D., Ph.D., tel. 6295283 Number of teaching hours: The course covers 300 hours of instruction, divided as below: lectures - 60 hrs practical classes - 240 hrs Assessment of student performance: On completion of the course student are expected to take final examination which consist of two parts: practical (PIN test) and theoretical (MCQ test) The aim of the course: Is to teach students fundamental anatomical knowledge with strong emphasis on clinical aspects and radiological anatomy (eg. X-ray, CT, MRI) Topics of lectures: OSTEOLOGY Introduction to the Gross and Clinical Anatomy. Anatomy of the vertebral collumn Anatomy of the joints Development and general structure of the skull The spaces of the skull and their communication Foramina, canales and fossae cranii Temporal bone Radiological anatomy of the bones and joints MRI and CT anatomy of the bones and joints CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Classification of the central nervous system. Development of the central nervous system. Cerebro - spinal fluid and ventricular system of the brain. Cerebral hemisphere. Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, limbic lobes. Anatomy of gyri and sulci. Lateral and third ventricle, basal nuclei, diencephalon. Brain stem, cranial nerves, cerebellum. Sensory pathways and centers in the central nervous system. Motor pathways of the central nervous system. Anatomical base for MRI, CT and angiography of the brain and spinal cord. Vascularization of the central nervous system. Clinical microanatomy. HEAD AND NECK General topography of the neck. Cervical plexus. Triangles of the neck. Interfascial spaces. Arteries, veins, lymphatic system of the neck. Thyroid gland, parathyroid glands. Larynx - topography, structure, vascularization, innervation. 2

Facial nerve. Trigeminal nerve, parasymphathetic ganglia of the head. Autonomic system of head and neck. Vagus nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, symphathetic trunk. Nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses. Oral cavity, soft palate, pharynx. Visual system, optic pathway. Middle ear and vestibulo-cochlear system. Head and neck - X-ray, CT, MRI images. THORAX The thoracic wall and the thoracic cavity. Congenital and acquired defects of the thoracic wall. Vessels and nerves of the thoracic wall. Mammary gland (breast) and lymphatic drainage. Development of the trachea, bronchi and lungs. The lungs and the pleura. The respiratory cycle. Mediastinum. Topography and subdivisions. The heart. Vessels and nerves of the heart. Development of the heart. Cardiac malformations. Applied anatomy. X-ray, CT and MR imaging of the thoracic cage. ABDOMEN Abdomen, abdominal cavity, walls of the abdominal cavity, inguinal canal, inguinal hernia. Development of the peritoneal cavity and alimentary tract. Structure and topography of the liver, bile ducts and pancreas. Vascularization of the abdominal organs, vena portae. Lymphatic system of the abdominal cavity. Innervation of the abdominal cavity. Coeliac plexus. Radiological anatomy of the abdomen. GENITOURINARY SYSTEM Retroperitoneal space and its contents. Urinary system. Male reproductive system. Female reproductive system. Floor of the pelvis (diaphragms, interfascial spaces, fossea and canales) Perineum - applied anatomy. Perineum - applied anatomy. Urogenital system in X-ray, CT, MR and USG. BACK AND UPPER EXTREMITY The development of 5he locomotory apparatus. Topographical and practical anatomy of the back. Topography of the pectoral girdle. Topography of the arm and forearm The hand - practical and topographical anatomy. Syndromes of the nerve and vascular injury to the hand. X-ray, MRI of the upper extremity. LOWER EXTREMITY General topography of the pelvic girdle, thigh, leg and foot. Surgical spaces of the lower extremity. Vascularization and innervation of the lower extremity. X-ray, MRI, CT, arteriography of the lower extremity.

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Topics of practical classes: OSTEOLOGY Lab session 1 I. Introduction to anatomical terminology, anatomical nomenclature, anatomical position, anatomical orthogonal axis, anatomical planes, terms of relationship, terms of movement II. Introduction to osteology and arthrology. Classification of bones, classification of joints III. The axial skeleton, the vertebral column, ribs, thorax Lab session 2 I. Skeleton and joints of the shoulder girdle, the clavicle, the scapula, the sternoclavicular joint, the acromioclavicular joint II. Skeleton of the free upper limb. The humerus, the shoulder joint, the bones of forearm, the ulna, the radius, the elbow joint, the bones of hand, the carpal bones, the scaphoid, the lunate, the triquetral, the pisiform, the trapezium, the trapezoid, the capitate, the hamate, the wrist joint, the metacarpal bones, bones of the figers, proximal phalanx, middle phalanx, distal phalanx, the midcarpal joints, the carpometacarpal joints, the interphalangeal joints, proximal, distal Lab session 3 I. Skeleton and joints of the pelvic girdle, the ilium, the pubis, the ishium, the joints of the hip bones, the pelvis as a whole II. Skeleton of the free lower limb, the femur, the patella, the hip joint, the bones of the leg, the tibia, the fibula, the knee joint, the bones of the foot, the tarsal bones, the calcaneus, the talus, the navicular, the cuboid, the cuneiform, medial, intermediate, later, the ankle joint, the subtalar joint, the talocalcaneonavicular joint, the calcaneocuboid joint, the metatarsal bones, the talometarsal joints, bones of the toe, proximal phalanx, middle phalanx, distal phalanx, the metatarsophalangeal joints, the interphalangeal joints, proximal, distal Lab session 4 Bones of the skull, the occipital, the parietal, the frontal, the sphenoid, the methodical Lab session 5 Bones of the skull, the maxilla (the upper jaw bone), the palatine, the zeugmatic, the lachrymal, the nasal, the voter, the inferior nasal conch, the temporal bone, the mandible (the lower jaw bone, the hyoid bone Lab session 6 The skull The joints of the skull, (sutures & temporomandibular joint), the walls, cavities and fossae of the skull The communication of the spaces of the skull Lab session 7. I. Summary of osteology. II. CT, MR Imaging in osteology CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Lab session 1 General structure of the encephalon and spinal cord. Cerebral arterial circle. Spinal nerve. Lab session 2 Telencephalon. Detailed structure and classification of cerebral hemisphere. 4

Lab session 3 Lateral and third ventricle, basal nuclei, diencephalon. Lab session 4 Brain stem, cranial nerves, cerebellum. Fourth ventricle. Lab session 5 Sectional anatomy. Computed Tomography. Lab session 6 Sectional anatomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Lab session 7 Structural base of the sensory and motor pathways. Lab session 8 Structural base of the sensory and motor pathways. HEAD AND NECK Lab session 1 Skin, structure, skin appendages. Neck limitations and regions. Triangles of the neck. Fascies of the neck. Interfascial spaces of the neck. Platysma muscle. Cervical plexus. Veins of the neck. Lab session 2 Muscles of the neck: sternocleidomastoid, suprahyoid, infrahyoid, scalenus muscles. Thyroid gland. Parathyroid gland. Carotid vagina. Common carotid artery. Lab session 3 Larynx and trachea - topography, structure, vascularization, innervation. Branches of the first part of external carotid artery: superior thyroid, lingual and facial arteries. Cervical part of the vagus nerve. Accessory nerve. Cervical ganglia of symphathetic trunk. Lab session 4 Expressional muscles of the face. Facial artery - main part. Facial nerve - signs of central and peripheral palsy. Parotid gland. Lab session 5 Infratemporal fossa - limitations and contents. Maxillary artery. Masseter muscles. Nasal cavity - paranasal sinuses and their openings. Trigeminal nerve. Lab session 6 Oral cavity - walls. Teeth and gums. Teeth occlusion. Tongue - shape, structure, function, vascularization and innervation. Sublingual nerve - signs of palsy. Lab session 7 Cerebral dura mater - view after removing cranial vault, sinuses of dura mater. Outlet of cranial nerves in the cranial fossae. Palate - classification, structure, vascularization and innervation. Isthmus of the fauces. Palatine tonsils. Glossopharyngeal nerve. Pharynx localization, topography, structure, vascularization and innervation. Division of pharyngeal cavity. Parapharyngeal space.

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Lab session 8 Organ of vision - eyeball muscles, their innervation and signs of paralysis. Lacrimal organ. structure of eyeball. Visualization of the orbit contents after removal of its superior wall. Lab session 9 Vestibulo-cochlear organ - external and middle ear (limitations of tympanic cavity and contents). Internal ear - membranous and osseous labyrinth. THORAX Lab session 1 Landmarks of the thorax. Musculature of the thorax and fascia of the thoracic wall. Neurovascular bundle of the thoracic wall, arteries of the thoracic wall, veins of the thoracic wall, nerves of the thoracic wall. Structure, vessels and nerves of mammary gland (breast) and lymphatic drainage. Lab session 2 Structure of the axilla. Structure of the brachial plexus. The subclavian and brachial vessels. Lab session 3 The thoracic cavity. Divisions of the mediastinum. Structure of the diaphragm, arteries supply of the diaphragm, venous drainage of the diaphragm, lymphatic drainage of the diaphragm, innervation of the diaphragm. The trachea, bronchi and lungs. The lungs and the pleura. Lab session 4 Structure of the heart. Vessels and nerves of the heart. The main vessels of the heart (caval veins, aorta, pulmonary arteries). Lab session 5 The esophagus. Parts and branches of the aorta. The main branches of the arch of aorta. Thoracic part of the vagal nerve. The sympathetic trunk. The thoracic duct and main lymphatic vessels. ABDOMEN Lab session 1 Regions of the abdomen, muscles of the abdominal wall, vascularization of the abdominal wall, inguinal canal. Lab session 2 Peritoneal cavity, general topography of the abdominal organs, classification of the alimentary tract, lumbar plexus. Lab session 3 Celiac trunk- topography & branches, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, superior mesenteric artery. Lab session 4 Large intestine, liver, gall bladder, inferior mesenteric artery. Lab session 5 Pancreas, spleen, portal vein, autonomic plexuses of the abdomen.

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GENITOURINARY SYSTEM Lab session 1 Retroperitoneal space, organs of retroperitoneal space, muscles of posterior abdominal wall, nerves of lumbar plexus, kidneys, suprarenal glands, urethra, abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, internal iliac artery, sacral and lumbar part of sympathetic trunk. Lab session 2 Anatomy of the pelvis - bones, ligaments, planes and conjugates (repetition); female internal genital organs; broad ligament of uterus, ligaments of ovary and uterus; ovary gland; uterine tube; uterus; vagina; female urethra. Lab session 3 Male genital organs; prostate; testis; ductus deferens; ampulla of the ductus deferens; seminal vesicles; spermatic cord; penis; male urethra; scrotum; superior and inferior hypogastric plexus. Lab session 4 Floor of pelvis; perineum; diaphragm of pelvis and urogenital diaphragm; interfascial spaces of pelvis; obturator canal; pudendal canal; internal pudendal artery; pudendal nerve. BACK AND UPPER EXTREMITY Lab session 1 The back - muscles, innervation, fascia, topography, vertebral collumn. The upper extremity the muscle of the pectoral girdle, nerves of the brachial plexus, fascia of the arm, superficial veins and nerves, muscles of the arm, axillary vessels, axillary and musculocutaneus nerves topography. Syndromes of the nerve and vascular injury to the arm. Lab session 2 Erector spinae muscle, thoracolumbar fascia. Greater and lesser occipital nerves, occipital muscles - function and innervation. Suboccipital triangle. Upper extremity: the muscles of forearm - lateral, anterior and posterior groups - function, innervation, injury symptoms. Cubital fossa. Vessels of forearm: radial and ulnar artery. Ulnar and carpal arterial network. Median and radial nerve. Lab session 3 Vertebral canal - anatomical basis for spinal punction. Upper extremity - retinaculum of flexors and extensors of the hand, carpal canal. Cutaneus nerves of the hand. Venous network of the hand. Muscles of the hand - function, innervation and injury syndromes. The distal portions of the radial and ulnar arteries in the hand. Superficial and deep palmar arches. Flexors and extensors tendon sheaths and their function. Distal portions of the median and ulnar nerves to the hand muscles. Injury symptoms of the nerves of the upper extremity on different levels. Points of palpation of vessels and nerves in upper extremity for consideration of injections and anesthesia. LOWER EXTREMITY Lab session 1 Regions of lower extremity, pelvic girdle, muscles of thigh, hip joint, femoral and obturatory canals, femoral artery and vein, femoral nerve, sacral plexus. Lab session 2 Knee joint, popliteal fossa, popliteal artery and vein, tibial nerve, common peroneal nerve, muscle of the leg, anterior and posterior tibial artery, compartments of leg. 7

Lab session 3 Muscles of foot. Vascularization and innervation of the foot. Mechanical features of the foot.

Basic textbooks: 1. Grey’s Anatomy 2. Clinical Anatomy, Richard S. Snell 3. Clinical Neuroanatomy for Medical Students, Richard S. Snell Complementary textbooks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Anatomy, A.W. Rogers Synopsis of Gross Aantomy, Christensen Sobbota Atlas of Anatomy Atlas of Anatomy, Yokoshi/Rohen Atlas of Anatomy, McMeen Terminologia Anatomica, Thieme 1998 Latin-English Anatomical Dictionary, Aleksandrowicz, PZWL 1997

INTERNAL REGULATIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY 1. In order to complete a semester, a year and to pass Final Anatomy Examination student should participate actively in lectures and practical classes and obtain at least satisfactory grade after each practical classes and credits. CAUTION: During the course of anatomy, the student is supposed to have the knowledge acquired from all previous practical classes. 2. The course of anatomy is divided into eight following parts: - bones, joints and ligaments, - central nervous system, - neck, head and sensual organs, thorax, - abdomen, - perineum and urogenital organs, - upper limb and beck, - lower limb. Immediately after the last practical classes of each part credit will be administered (first term). Retake of the failed credit (second term) follows during next two practical classes and it is organized by a teaching assistant. Third attempt of the credit (commissionary retake) is organized at the end of the second semester (second half of May) after the completing of the entire anatomy course. The commissionary retake of the failed credit is administered by two examiners without participation of teaching assistant. 3. After each semester follows the practical intermediate (semestral PIN-test) which is not obligatory but highly recommended as a preparation to the final practical exam. Only student who wants receive early term (zero term) of Final Anatomy Exam have to complete each semestral PIN-test with the score of 100 points or more (max. possible 120 points). 4. Absence of not more than two practical classes (caused by objective reasons) must be completed with extra group. Absence exceeding two practical classes excludes receiving a credit and student has a chance of completing this credit on the commissionary retake only (second half of May). 5. If an absence during credit was caused by objective reasons (i.e. health problems with medical evidence) student can move a term of credit to next practical class after scheduled one. 8

6. The Final Anatomy Examination is scheduled in summer examination period and consists of two parts: practical (PIN-test) and theoretical (Multiply Choice Questions test). In order to pass the exam, the student should pass two parts with at least satisfactory grades. The level to pass practical exam is 36/ 40 basic points, included in total of 76/120pts. The details of evaluation of the PIN-test are presented on www.anatomy.ib.amwaw.edu.pl. The level to pass MCQ is 76/120. Examination grades according to points: 152 - 160 sat, 161 – 170 more than sat. 171-180 good, 181 - 190 more than good, 191-200 very good. 7. Retake of the Fianl Anatomy Examination is administered in September. Students who passed only the practical part of the Final Anatomy Examination during first term have to retake the failed theoretical component only. 8. Students who completed all 8 credits with the grade 4 and more and received more then 100 points from both semestral PIN-tests can be examined in special early term of exam by the head of department. 9. Practical anatomy involves students in the examination and dissection of human subjects. This privileged opportunity relies on the generosity of local people who recognise the value to medicine that the practical study of human anatomy can provide and generously make their bodies available for that purpose to medical and science students. It is important that, at all times, you respect that generosity and behave accordingly. 10. Much of the course work is carried out in the Dissection Room. To enter it students will need to provide themselves with clean white lab coats (surgical type), white protective hat and photo ID budge. Changing of the clothes should be done outside the Dissection Rooms only. 11. Unauthorized persons may not enter the Dissection Rooms. 12. Students MUST care about hygiene. In particular:  have clean hands with short unpolished nails; no jewellery is allowed,  before the examination of the specimen, student should wash their hands and cover them with vaseline or cream; protective gloves can be also used,  in the case of minor injuries rinse the wound in tap water and manage it properly. 14. While examining the specimens, sufficient care should be applied to prevent the damage or loss of the specimen. 15. Leaders of the student’s groups are responsible for damage or loss of the specimen. 16. Smoking in the area of the Department of Anatomy, as in whole building of Collegium Anatomicum, is prohibited. 17. Eating and drinking in Dissection Rooms is not allowed. 18. The students can, and are encouraged, to bring the anatomical tweezers, lancets, books and atlases to the Dissection Rooms. 19. To gain from the practical classes as much as possible, the students should have sufficient theoretical knowledge about the current topic. 20. At the end of practical classes students should fix the specimens according to the teaching assistant suggestions. 21. Taking of any photo or movie in dissection room is forbridenn

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HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY
Department of Histology and Embryology, Centre of Biostructure Research Address: 5 Chałubińskiego Str. (Anatomicum) 02-004 Warsaw phone/fax 629-52-82; e-mail: mkrzywicka@ib.amwaw.edu.pl Internet page: http:/www.ib.amwaw.edu.pl Head: Prof., Jacek Malejczyk Ph.D. Curricular affairs: Prof. Jacek Malejczyk Ph.D. - phone 629-52-82, 622-00-29 Number of teaching hours: The course covers 120 hours of instruction, divided as below: lectures: 30 hrs seminars: 30 hours practical classes: 60 hours Assessment of student performance: On completion of the course students are expected to take practical and written final examination. Practical final examination will include all histological preparations demonstrated during practical classes. Written, final examination will include the knowledge of cytology, general histology, embryology and microscopic anatomy. The aim of the course: Students will get acquainted with the structure of cells, their organization into tissues and microscopic structure of organs. Moreover, function of particular cellular structures visible under light and electron microscope and the relationship between function and structure of cells and tissues will be presented. These pieces of information form a foundation for cytophysiology, physiology, biochemistry and histopathology. During embryology lectures students will be acquainted with early stages of human embryo and fetus development. The objectives of Histology and Embryology teaching will be achieved if the students: - get familiar with the structure and function of cells and tissues on the level corresponding to the scope of internationally recognized textbooks, - get acquainted with early stages of human development structure and function of fetal membranes, - are able to recognize, under the microscope, the structures of cells and tissues as well as organs of the human body.
Topics of lectures:

WINTER SEMESTER : 1. The cell, its structure & functions. Cytoplasm. 2. Nucleus & cell division. 3. Epithelial tissue. 4. Connective tissue proper. 5. Cartilage & bone. 6. Nerve tissue. 7. Muscle cells, the types and their function. 8. Blood and bone marrow. 9. Female reproductive system. 10. Male reproductive system. 11. Embryology - the preembryonic period (part 1). 12. Embryology - the preembryonic period (part 2). 10

13. Embryology - the embryonic period. 14. Embryology - the fetal period. 15. Embryology - fetal membranes and placenta. SPRING SEMESTER 1. Morphology of the lymphatic (immune) system. 2. Endocrine system. 3. Gastrointestinal system 1. 4. Gastrointestinal system 2 . 5. Gastrointestinal system 3. 6. Respiratory system. 7. Urinary system. 8. Skin & its appendages, mammary gland. 9. Nervous system 1. 10. Nervous system 2. 11.Cardio-circulatory system 1. 12.Function of the lymphatic system. 13.Sensory organs: ear. 14.Sensory organs: eye. 15.Summary & repetitorium.
Topics of seminars:

WINTER SEMESTER 1. Microscope, histological technique. 2. Compartments of cells and their function. 3. Cell cycle and its regulation. 4. Structure and function of epithelial tissue. 5. Structure and function of connective tissue proper and adipose tissue. 6. Structure of cartilage and bone. 7. Development of various types of bone tissue; rebuilding of bones. 8. Structure, organization and function of peripheral nervous system. 9. Structure, organization and function of muscular tissue. 10.Formation of particular types of blood cells. 11.Structure of vessels with particular emphasis on function of endothelial cells. 12.Structure of female reproductive system and its hormonal regulation. 13.Summary of relationship between structure and function of tissues: epithelial, connective muscular and nervous. 14. Discussion on the answers given by students during the first term of intermediate examination. 15. Discussion on the answers given by students during the second term of intermediate examination. SPRING SEMESTER 1. Structure of male reproductive system and hormone regulation. 2. Structure of the immune system, types of lymphocytes, lymphokines. 3. Hormones produced by the hypophysis, regulation by the hypothalamus. 4. Discussion on the answers given by students during the first term of embryology intermediate examination. 5. Structures of the oral cavity. 6. Glands in stomach and intestines, structure and function. 7. Relationship between structure and function of the liver. 8. Upper and distal respiratory tract. 9. Relationship between nephrons and blood vessels. 10. Structure and function of skin, development of the mammary gland. 11. Structure of the eye, function of the retina. 11

12. Structure of sensory organs with particular reference to ear. 13. Discussion on the answers given by students during the first term of intermediate examination. 14. Discussion on the answers given by students during the second term of intermediate examination. 15. General pre-examination seminar.

Topics of practical classes:
WINTER SEMESTER 1. Various cell types. Slides: fibroblasts (no. 97), isolated cells from the smooth muscles (no. 19), nerve cells impregnated with silver nitrate (no. 112), Text: proper use of the light microscope (text 21). 2. Electron microscope and the cell structure. Electronograms: mitochondria (EM 42, 51), endoplasmic reticulum (EM 2), the Golgi complex & microtubules (EM 12), endosomes & lysosomes (EM 54), microtubules (EM 33), peroxysomes (EM 8), proteasomes (EM 98), lipid rafts (text 9), the model of axon microtubules (fig. 1), formation of tubulin protofilaments (fig. 5), model of tubulin heterodimer (fig. 10), ceveolae (EM & comment 143), Amino Acids (text 27), Biollogically active compounds (derived from fatty acids and phospholipids)(text 13). 3. Cell division. Slides: mitosis in sections of limb obtained from 16.5-day-old mouse fetus (no. 4), mitosis in in vitro cultured cells (no. 1), Electronograms: nucleus and nucleolus (EM 52), nucleosomes and nucleofilaments (EM 231), sex chromatin (fig. 30), hypothetical mechanism of chromosome movement during anaphase (fig. 3, 4), motor proteins - dynein and kinesin (fig.11), microtubules attached to the kinetochore and schematic drawing of a chromosome (fig. & EM 29), human metaphase chromosomes vizualized by various methods (fig. 132), some inborn deformations cansed by abnormal namber or structure of chromosomes (text & fig. 89). 4. Epithelial tissue, glands. slides: simple squamous epithelium - cornea (no. 3a), simple cuboidal epithelium - thyroid gland (no. 8), simple columnar epithelium - jejunum (no. 51a), stratified squamous epithelium - cornea (no. 3a), psuedostratified columnar epithelium - trachea (no. 60), stratified cuboidal epithelium (transitional) - urinary bladder (no. 67), electronogram: desmosomes (fig. no. 17). 5. Connectie tissue proper and adipose tissue. slides: loose connective tissue - mesentery, mast cells, elastic fibers (no. 9), dense connective tissue - tendon (no. 7), white adipose tissue - hypodermis (no. 85), brown adipose tissue (no. 110), macrophages from the peritoneal cavity (no. 38), reticular fibers - spleen (no. 113), text: leptin, the hormone of satiety, secreted by adipocytes (text 22). Attention ! First training examination will be held during “Bone formation” class. 6. Cartilage and bone. slides: hyaline cartilage (no. 10), elastic cartilage - epiglottis (no. 12), capsule of synovial joints (no. 15), compact bone - ground section (no. 14), compact bone, decalcified (no. 16), synovial membrane of joint capsule (no. 59), schema: the aggregate of proteoglycans (fig. 49), cartilage proteoglycans (fig. 97), schematic representations of cartilage and bone proteoglycans (fig. 55), molecular biology of achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and tanatophoric dysplasia (text, figure & photo. 23), reconstruction of defects in articular surface cartilage with transplantation of isolated chondrocytes (text & photo. 48) Attention ! Second training examination will be held during “Muscle” class. 7. Bone formation. 12

slides: intramembranous ossification (no. 17), endochondral ossification - early stage (no. 18a), endochondral ossification - late stage (no. 18), text: vascular system of bone and bone marrow cavity (fig. 63), ostoeporosis (text 38), the role of cell to cell interactions in osteoclast formation (text & fig. 56), changes occurring in bones in osteoporosis (fig. 86), osteogenic groove and perichondreal ring (text & photo. 28). Written first training examination. 8. Nervous tissue. Peripherial nervous system. slides: isolated nerve fiber (no. 25), peripheral nerve (no. 27), peripheral nerve - impregnated with OsO4 (no. 26), dorsal root ganglion (no. 76), nerve cells in the spinal cord – tigroid (no. 75), electronograms: axon (EM 79), Nissl bodies (EM 18), Tau protein (EM 37), molecular structure of Tau & MAP proteins (fig. 77), diagram of an axon and its cover - that is, the myelin and Schwann cell - as seen with the light microscope (fig. 64), diagram of an axon and its covering sheaths in longitudinal section to show the relationship between the axon, myelin, and the cytoplasm of the Schwann cell and the node of Ranvier (fig. 65), diagram to aid in conceptualizing of the relationship of myelin and cytoplasm of a Schwann cell (fig. 66). Attention ! Third training examination will be held during “Circulary system.” class. 9. Muscle. slides: smooth muscular tissue - the wall of jejunum (no. 13), cross-striated muscle tongue (no. 20), cardiac muscle (no. 23), cross-striation in the muscle (no. 22), electronograms: intercalated disc (EM 16 & 39), the satellite cells (EM 7), sarcoplasmic reticulum (EM 40), sarcomere (EM 75), dystrophin & urophin (fig. 84) Written second training examination. 10. Blood and bone marrow. slides: blood film (no. 104), smear of bone marrow cells (no. 35a), the section of red bone marrow (no. 35), electronograms: lymphocytes fixed as a suspension and in the smear (EM 59), scheme of platelet function (fig. 12), blood morphology analysis by flow cytometry (text & fig. 67) 11. Circulary system. slides: heart (no. 33), aorta stained with resorcin (elastic membranes and fibers) (no. 31), aorta stained with HE (no. 30), muscular artery and vein (no. 29), capillaries - mesentery (no. 28), electronograms: Troponins – acute myocardialinfarction diagnosis (text & schema 35), Weibel -Palade body (EM 58), endocrine cells of the heart (EM no. 60), natriuretic hormone of atrium (atriopeptine, ANF) (text 57). Written third training examination. 12. Female reproductive system. slides: ovary (no. 72), corpus luteum (no. 94), oviduct (no. 73), uterus (no. 74), the fragments of uterus wall obtained from biopsy (no. 105 - proliferative phase, no. 105a - secretory phase). 13. Demonstration of histological preparations 14. Intermediate examination, practical and written. 15. Intermediate examination, practical and written - second term. SPRING SEMESTER 1. Male reproductive system. slides: testis (no. 69), epididymis (no. 70), ductus deferens (no. 71), prostate (no. 92), prostate fixed in glutaraldehyde (no. 92a), human spermatozoa (smear) (no. 69a). text: structure of the prostate (text & schema 96) 2. Immune system. slides: spleen (no. 34), lymph node (no. 36), thymus (no. 37), palatine tonsil (no. 46), electronograms: thymus-dependent and thymus- independent zones of lymph node (fig. 103), of spleen (fig. 104), and of appendix (fig. 105), high endothelial cell venule (EM 106), post-capilary venule (EM 107), E-selectin in the high-endothelium vein (EM 122), M cells in the palatine tonsils and in the Peyer’s patches (text and fig. 115, 116 & 117). 13

3. Endocrine glands. slides: hypophysis (no. 40), thyroid gland (no. 8), parathyroid gland (no. 90), suprarenal gland (no. 39), pineal gland (no. 49), chromaffin reaction in the suprarenal gland (no. 5), text: primary hyperparathyroidis (text & fig. 85), photograph of a patient with a thyroglossal cyst (photo. 87), specimen x (no. 32) - please, answer the following questions: Can you recognise in this specimen: 1) epithelium (if the answer is yes what type is it?), 2) glands (if the answer is yes, what type are they?), 3) fibroblasts, 4) adipocytes (fat cells), 5)fibers: a)collagen, b)elastic, 6) stratified muscle cells, 7) smooth muscle cells, 8) blood vessels, arterioles, venules, 9) capillaries, 10) nerves. 4. EXAMINATION OF EMBRYOLOGY - intermediate examiation (written test). The lore for examination of Embryology will be that containing General Embryology (chapters 1 to 8 in Sadler`s "Medical Embryology" plus informations from lectures by prof. Stanisław Moskalewski and chapters 24, 25, 26, 27 in “Histology with elements of molecular biology”). 5. Gastro-intestinal system, part 1. slides: filiform papillae - tongue (no. 41), circumvallatae papillae - tongue (no. 42), parotid gland (no. 44), sublingual gland (no. 45), tooth germ (no. 103), dentine, ground section (no. 100), specimen x (no. 74) - please, answer the questions for specimen x, as in exercise no. 3. 6. Gastro-intestinal system, part 2. slides: oesophagus (no. 47), stomach (no. 48), duodenum (no. 50), small intestine - jejunum (no. 51), large intestine - colon (no. 52), electronograms: microvilli of jejunal resorptive cell (EM 83), parietal cells (text & fig. 91), specimen x (no. 43) - please, answer the questions for specimen x, as in exercise no. 3. 7. Gastro-intestinal system, part 3. slides: ileum - Peyer's patches (no. 55), appendix (no. 53), liver (no. 54), foetal liver (no. 54a), pancreas (no. 58). electronograms: space of Disse (EM 72), bile canaliculi (EM 20, 73), Kupffer and Ito cells (EM 61), objective detection of alcohol problems (text & fig. 19), anomalies in structure of large intestine, Hisrchsprung’s disease (text & fig. 142). specimen x (no. 57) - please answer the questions for specimen x, as in exercise no. 3. 8. Respiratory system. slides: trachea (no. 60), lung (no. 61), foetal lung (no. 61a), electronograms: pulmonary alveoli (EM 6), surfactant covering alveolar epithelium (EM 74), interstitial cell (EM 123), immobile cilia syndrome, kartagener’s syndrome (text 92), Eotaxin – chemokine selective for eosinophils (text 137). specimen x (no. 6) - please, answer the questions for specimen x, as in exercise no. 3. 9. Urinary system. slides: kidney (no. 63), urinary bladder (no. 67), ureter (no. 66), electronograms: Elements of filtration slits in kidney glomerulus (text & photo. 93). secimen x (no.96), please answer the questions for specimen x, as were put on exercise no. 3. 10. Skin and its appendages, mammary gland. slides: nonhairy skin (no. 83), hairy skin (no. 85), active (lactating) mammary gland (no. 86), inactive mammary gland (no. 87), electronograms: keratinization (fig. 14), hemidesmosomes in epidermis, the border epidermis - dermis (EM 131), the structure of human epidermis (fig. 15), specimen x (no. 107) - please answer the questions for specimen x, as in exercise no. 3. 11. Nervous system. slides: brain (no. 77), cerebellum (no. 79), spinal cord (no. 75), lacrimal gland (no. 80), eye ball (no. 81), retina (no. 82), cornea (no. 3), 12. Demonstration of histological preparations before intermediate examination. 13. Microscopic anatomy. Intermediate examination, practical and written. 14. Demonstration of histological preparations before final examination. 15. Demonstration of histological preparations before final examination. 14

Practical, final examination will include all histological preparations demonstrated at practical classes. Written, final examination will include the knowledge of cytology, general histology, embryology and microscopic anatomy. Slides (practical) examination – up to 10 points. Theory examination – up to 90 points. It is necessary to obtain 45 - 55 points to pass final examination with a satisfactory result (3), 56 - 65 = better than satisfactory (3+), 66 - 75 = good (4), 76 - 85 = better than good (4+), 86 - 95 = very good (5), 96 - 100 = excellent (5+) TEXTBOOKS 1. L. C. Junqueira, J. Carueiro, R. O. Kelley “Basic Histology”, Appleton & Langue, Stamford, last edit. 2. S. Moskalewski, W. Sawicki “Histology with elements of molecular biology”, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, last edit. 3. T.W. Sadler “Medical embryology”, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, last edit. ADDITIONAL 1. B. Alberts, D. Bray, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Roberts, K. J. D. Warson “Molecular Biology of the cell”, Garland Publishing, New York, last edit. 2. Sobotta/Hammersen “Histology – Color Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy”, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore-Munich, last edit. 3. Gartner L. P., Hiatt J. L. “Color Atlas of Histology”, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Philadelphia, last edit.

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MEDICAL CHEMISTRY
Chair and Department of Medical Chemistry Address: 02-007 Warsaw, 3 Oczki St., phone/fax: (48-22) 6280679 Head: Professor Jerzy Kossakowski, Ph.D. Curricular affairs: Anna Wojciechowska , M.Sc. Number of teaching hours: The course covers 60 hours of instruction, divided as below: lectures: 20 hrs laboratory classes: 40 hrs The course is offered to students throughout the summer semester (11 weeks). Assessment of student performance:
Students are given passing grades on the ground of regular attendance, activity and participation in lectures and laboratory classes. Students are supposed to pass the final test (multiple choice test – 50 questions) with at least satisfactory grades. Passing grades are given at the end of summer semester.

The aim of the course: The program is to give the students the foundation of the knowledge necessary for further study of Physiology, Biochemistry, Pharmacology and Clinical Analysis. Upon the competition of the course students will be taught the determination of the constituents of body fluids (cations, anions and buffers), structure and properties of natural ingredients of human body involved in biochemical processes, such as: lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids and proteins; and qualitative and quantitative analysis of a. m. compounds. Topics of the lectures: 1. Acids, bases. Inorganic qualitative analysis. Complex compounds (2 h). 2. Acid-base titration curves. Solubility, solubility-product constant. Inorganic constituents of body fluids. Detection of pathological and physiological constituents of body fluids (2 h). 3. Buffer solutions, physiological buffer systems. Water-electrolytes balance, osmotic pressure. Colloids (2 h). 4, 5, 6. Organic compounds – functional groups and chemical properties. Stereoisomerism (6 h). 7. Lipids (2 h). 8. Carbohydrates (monosaccharides and polysaccharides) (2 h). 9. Amino acids. Peptides and proteins (2 h). 10. Heterocyclic systems occurring in biologically active compounds. Nucleic acids (2 h).

Topics of the laboratory classes: 1. Safety rules. Laboratory techniques. Handling chemical – solids and liquids. Heating. Separation and purification of chemical compounds (crystallization, filtration, extraction, distillation). 2. Qualitative analysis of cations and anions – inorganic constituents of body fluids. Detection of Hg22+, Pb2+, Ag+, Fe3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Cl-, SO42-, CO32-, NO3-. Identification of two salts. 3. Acid-base balance, buffer solutions. Preparation of buffer, determination of its capacity. 4. Using of titrimetry in the quantitative analysis of body fluids. Alcalimetric determination of the acidity of gastric juice, complexometric determination of calcium in serum, argentometric determination of chloride in urine. 16

5. Colloids – estimation of isoelectric point of casein, protective properties of hydrophilic colloids, precipitation and reversible coagulation of proteins, amphoteric properties of proteins, coagulation of colloidal solutions. 6. Organic qualitative analysis. Identification of unsaturated compounds, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and amines. 7. Lipids. Solubility. Saponification, detection of glycerol and fatty acids. Detection of cholesterol, bile acids. Determination of iodine number. 8. Carbohydrates. Specific reactions of monosaccharides and disaccharides. Quantitative determination of glucose. 9. Amino acids. Specific reactions. Identification of two amino acids. Application of paper chromatography technique for identification of amino acids. Completion of non-accepted laboratory classes. The written test. The textbooks: 1. General Chemistry with Qualitative Analysis – Whitten, Davis, Peck, VI Ed., Saunders College Publishing, 2000 2. Chemistry. The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change – Silberberg, Logan, Kurland, Friedman,Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1996 3. Introduction to Organic Chemistry – Brown, W.H. Saunders College Publishing, 2000 4. Harper’s Biochemistry, Murray, Granner, Rodwell, XXIV Ed. Prentice-Hall Int. 1996 5. Introduction to Medical Chemistry, E. Balicka, S. Suski, J. Turło, A. Zadrożna and T. Zawadowski, Dept. of Medical Chemistry, Medical Academy in Warsaw, Warsaw 1996.

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MAN & ENVIRONMENT
Institute of Social Medicine Department of Epidemiology Address: 3 Oczki St., 02-007 Warsaw, phone: 6290243, fax: 6215256 Head: Maria Mularczyk-Bal, M.D., PhD. Curricular affairs: Cecylia Łabanowska, Ph.D. tel. 6219005 Number of teaching hours: The course covers 40 hours, divided as below: lectures: 4 hrs seminars: 36 hrs Assessment of students performance: Students obtain passing grades on the grounds of regular attendance and individual performance in the tests taking regularly during the course.. The aim of the course: The course offers foundations of general knowledge on man and society and social aspects of medicine. Topics of lectures: 1. The definitions of health and management of health care. Various structural models of health care systems. Social control in medicine. 2. The effectiveness of medicine. Critical perspectives. Medical and social iatrogenic conditions. Topics of seminars: 1. Culture and Health. Closed systems of thought. Theories of disease causation. 2. Illness, disease and sickness. Sociological and epidemiological approach. Individual and social conception of health need. Becoming a patient. 3. Doctors’ and patients’ perceptions of health and illness. Social and psychological factors affecting the presentation of symptoms by patient. 4. Communication between doctor and patient. Outcomes of consultation. Factors related to patient’s compliance. 5. Types of doctor-patient relationship. The rights of the patient. 6. Patient in hospital setting. Psychosocial effects of hospitalization. “Good and bad patients”. Causes of depersonalization. 7. Hospitals, doctors and patient care. Goals and institutional organization. Changing patterns of hospital use. Relationship among hospital staff. Duality of the authority. 8. Terminally ill patient in medical institutions. Stages of dying. Patterns of death. 9. The role of the family and stage of life in health and health care. Old people. 10. Stigmatizing Illnesses. A theory of social stigmata. 11. Influence of social status on illness and illness behaviour. Social inequalities in health. 12. Health and health care of ethnic minority groups. Basic textbooks: G. Scambler, Sociology as Applied to Medicine, 4th edition, W. B. Saunders, 1997 Complementary textbooks: Copies of articles are given to students during the course

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MEDICAL INFORMATICS
Department of Medical Informatics and Telemedicine Address: SP CSK Hospital, Building E, 2nd floor 1A Banacha Str., 02-097 Warsaw phone/fax: 658-29-97, e-mail: infosek@amwaw.edu.pl Head: Prof. Robert Rudowski, PhD phone: 658-29-97 Curricular affairs: Joanna Michalik, MD Number of teaching hours: The course covers 22 hours of instruction, divided as below: lectures – 4 hrs practical classes – 18 hrs Assessment of student performance: Short test at the end of each practical class. The test concerning lecture material at the end of last practical class. The aim of course: The aim of the course is to give an overview of medical informatics/telemedicine (e-health) and to get the students acquainted with the most important software and resources used in medical education and medical practice. Topics of lectures: 1. Introduction. Computers and computer networks. Internet and its services. elemedicine. Medical data bases. Decision support systems, expert systems, protocols. 2. Hospital information systems. Electronic patient record (EPR), classification and coding systems. Image management and communication systems. Monitoring systems. Multimedia in medical education. Topics of classes: 1. Simulation program Gas Man - anesthesia simulator. 2. Protocols (clinical algorithms). 3. Electronic patient record. 4. Imaging systems. 5. Classification and coding systems. 6. Medical resources on Internet. Bibliographic databases - Medline. Basic textbooks: 1. Handbook of Medical Informatics, Van Bemmel JH (ed.), Springer 1997. 2. Medical Informatics, Shortiliffe EH, Perrault LE (eds.), Addison Wesley 2000 3. Informatyka medyczna, Rudowski R (red.), PWN, Warszawa 2003

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POLISH LANGUAGE
University Department: Foreign Language Centre Address: 2 Trojdena St., 02-091 Warsaw, phone: 5720-865 Head: Joanna Ciecierska MA Curricular affair: Świetlana Sikorska MA, Maria Janowska MA Number of teaching hours: The course covers 80 hours of classes: 60 hours in autumn semester and 20 hours in spring semester. Assessment of student performance: To obtain a credit after each semester the student has to attend classes regularly and pass all the assigned written tests successfully. Polish speaking students who want to be released from regular language classes will have to sit the evaluation test paper at the beginning of the academic year. They will be obliged to keep improving their writing, reading, listening and speaking skills on their own. They will have to sit the final credit test paper at the end of the Ist year and the final written and oral exam in medical Polish at the end of the IInd year. The language materials for the exam are available at the Medical University Publishing Office in Pawińskiego 3. The aim of the course: The aim of the first year Polish language course is to introduce basic language structures which will enable the students to communicate in everyday situations. Topics of classes: 1. Polish phonetics and spelling rules. Polish alphabet. 2. Formal introductions and greetings. The verb:to be. Polish verb system - conjugations. 3. Informal introductions and greetings. 4. Getting registered at the student's hostel - basic conversations. Numbers in Polish. 5. Describing people. Adjectives. Grammatical gender in Polish. Present Tense. 6. Countries and nationalities. Instrumental case. 7. Describing members of the family. Instrumental case to express professions. Direct object - Accusative case. 8. Likes and dislikes. Situations and sentence paterns. Accusative case vs. Genitive case. 9. Identifying professions. Instrumental case cont. Future Tense. 10. First telephone conversation. Cardinal vs. ordinal numbers. Telling the time. 11. Locating places. Locative expressions. 12. Asking the way. 13.Locating means of transportation. 14. Shopping. Accusative case: nouns + adjectives. 15. Eating out: at a restaurant, café, pub. Instrumental case after preposition "z". Instrumental case: nouns + adjectives. 16. Describing places: a) a room in a student's hostel b) a private apartment c) a hospital Locative expressions. Possessive Genitive. 20

17. Everyday activities. Days of the week. Names of the months. Verbs: conjugations: I, II, III, IV. Verbs followed by Instrumental: opiekować się, zajmować się, interesować się. Basic textbook: Maria Janowska, Świetlana Sikorska: " Ja też chcę mówić po polsku". Wyd. Akademii Medycznej w Warszawie. Complementary textbooks: Handouts prepared by the teachers

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LATIN
University Department: Foreign Language Centre Address: 2 Trojdena St., 02-091 Warsaw, phone: 5720-865 Head: Joanna Ciecierska, MA Curricular affairs: Jadwiga Niklewicz, MA Number of teaching hours: The course covers 60 hours of instruction (30 hours in each semester) Assessment of student performance: To obtain a credit students have to attend classes regularly and pass a written test. The course ends with a credit. The aim of the course: The program is to teach students basic grammar knowledge, such as nouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions necessary to write medical diagnoses, in addition to special medical terminology. Topics of classes: 1. A brief history of Latin and an introduction to the language 2. Nouns and adjectives of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd decl. 3. Nouns of the 4th and 5th decl. 4. Prepositions 5. Adverbs 6. Comparison of adjectives 7. Selected pronouns 8. Numerals. Methods and organization of instructions: Translating medical vocabulary from Latin to English and form English to Latin Basic textbook: Latin course for students of medicine, 1998, by J. Niklewicz Complementary textbooks: Handouts prepared by the teacher Latin-English, English-Latin dictionaries

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SPORT TRAINING
Address: 2 Trojdena St., 02-109 Warsaw tel. 822 64 09 ext. 103 Head: Tadeusz Glinkowski, M.Sc. Curricular affairs: Jerzy Rudzik M.Sc.
Number of hours: The course covers 60 hours of instruction.

In this program take part students from years I to VI. For students of first year these exercises are obligatory. Number of exercises-2 hours per week for man and woman in groups of 18-20 persons each. Assessment of students performance: is based on regular attendance and results. The aim of the course: - education for the futurs / accowing to keep form and resistance of organism until old age/ - selfeducation and selfinstruction / to place a student in a role cocreator of self progress/ - intellectualization / theoretical build of process of physical education and sport / - humanization / adjusting body to the social norms / - individualization / respecting different needs and possibilities of students Program of education: - learning and improving technical elements of team games like soccer, volleyball, basketball - learning and improving of swimming Students of English Division take part in trainings of Medical Academy sport section - Zwaan Signes – Polish Medical Academy Champion in Woman basketball - Setsaas Peter – all university champion in mans soccer in Warsaw - Styczeń Daniel, Grzegorek Dominik – in soccer team. Methods and organization of work Education methods are adjusted to the type exercises and personal indications like: age, physical development, level of skills, coordination and performance. With regard to the structure of movement task there are methods: - teaching exercises as a whole - teaching exercises as a part - combination of this two methods. These methods are taken to teaching team games like soccer, volleyball, basketball, the popular among students and most willingly practiced by them. The students of English Division get accustomed to the active part in physical education lessons and since the youngest years are followers of dynamic occupations of big intensity in a whole lesson unit.

Organization of work: In case of team sport games – the lesson course consist of warm up, learning TE as a part, learning TE as a whole, schools play, stretching and relaxing exercises. 23

Form of control and valuation the grades of learning: - Coopers test / continual run – 12 minutes / - the chosen element of team sports games, for example two steps in basketball, serve in volleyball, juggling with ball in soccer / only for man /. Receiving a grade consist of– frequency /base/ - 15 presences per semester, results of tests which are the main information for the students.

LIBRARY TRAINING
The Main Library Address: ul. W.Oczki 1, 02-007 Warszawa Tel/Fax: 628-22-37 Head: Mirosława Kurpeta, MSc 2 hours of instruction The library training for the students of the first year. The aim of this training is to make students familiar with the work of the library and the rules of using its collections by means of various catalogues. This training covers also the ways of accessing and using the Internet in the Multimedia Reading Room.

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SUMMER MEDICAL TRAINING PROGRAMME
Upon completion of each year of their study students are required to take their summer holiday vocational training which is mandatory and is included in the Polish medical curriculum.
First year students undergo a one-month nursing training being attached to the nursing personnel as nursing assistants (auxiliaries at teaching hospitals of medical academies ) universities either in Poland or selected foreign countries.

At a teaching hospital in Poland the head of the ward/department or an appointed instructor in charge provides a detailed programme as well as scheduled duties and maintains both supervision and assessment of student’s performance. The instructor in charge of first year students should be a fully qualified nurse who will supervise all nursing duties performed by students also those carried out with regard to patients in severe condition requiring intensive care. Students are expected to have three to nine seven-hour duties on all shifts including up to three night shifts. The main goals of the training are: 1. To acquaint students with a significant role of the nurse in the nursing and treatment of the patient, 2. To enable students to: - acquire skills in performing ward routines e.g., taking temps and BP, making beds and changing bedclothes, maintaining patients’ personal hygiene, offering bedpans and urinals, feeding patients, preparing drugs ordered for administration, - learn the techniques of giving subcutaneous and intramuscular injections and instituting intravenous infusions. Throughout the course of the training students are expected to make records of their activities and procedures performed. They are also assessed by the instructor in charge and are finally granted their passing mark by the head of the department. Certificates written in English or translated should be submitted to the Dean’s Office of the Medical University of Warsaw by October 5th of the subsequent academic year.

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