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					Reductions
This spreadsheet was created by Charles Komanoff on 30-April-2007. It estimates CO2 emissions from the four major household activity sectors (see next worksheet, Baselines) and calculates the reductions from sixteen different conservation/efficiency measures (in this worksheet). Purpose is to back up my statement in Andy Revkin's 29-April NYT Week in Review story on carbon offsets, that non-poverty U.S. households could easily and cost-effectively eliminate 25% of their CO2 emissions within six months.
C. Komanoff / Carbon Tax Center / www.carbontax.org / kea@igc.org / 212 260 5237 Resulting Resulting Activity's Assumed Reduction Reduction Percent Reduction in this in entire of Sector in Activity Sector HH carbon

Ranking among Measures

How

Gasoline (Note: Only 30% of U.S. personal driving is for commuting -- a finding established in the Nationwide Personal Transportation Studies.) Commuting 30% 20% 6.0% 2.2% 4 1x/week car-pooling or transit (inc Recreational Vehicles 2% 50% 1.0% 0.4% 15 Reduce usage by one-half (big "co All Other Driving 68% 25% 17.0% 6.3% 1 Less travel (redefine pleasure, shi Reduction #1 (due to reduced usage) 24.0% (% at left is calc'd by summing the %'s Remaining Usage 76.0% (% at left is an intermediate figure, use Reduction in gallons per mile 5% Choose more-efficient family vehic such as super-fast highway speed Reduction #2 (due to reduced gal/mile) 3.8% 1.4% 6 (% at left is calc'd by multiplying % red Reduction of this sector's carbon 27.8% (% at left is calc'd by summing the %'s This sector's original share of HH carbon 37.0% Reduction in total HH carbon from this sector 10.3%

Electricity (Note: Percentages in first data column are Komanoff estimates drawn in part from DOE, Buildings Energy Data Book , http://buildingsdatabook. Lighting 26.1% 66.7% 17.4% 4.5% 2 Replace incandescents + halogen Air-conditioning 23.9% 20.0% 4.8% 1.2% 7 Raise thermostat 3 deg F; install/i Refrigeration 17.4% 22.0% 3.8% 1.0% 8 1/2 of HH's replace old fridge (% s Clothes drying 8.7% 16.7% 1.4% 0.4% 14 1/2 of HH's use clothesline for one Electronics (incl. re-charging) 8.7% 40% 3.5% 0.9% 9 Put all computers, chargers, mode Television 6.5% 50% 3.3% 0.9% 10 Reduce usage by one-half (big "co Other 8.7% 20% 1.7% 0.5% 12 Power strips, mindful usage, etc. Reduction of this sector's carbon 35.9% This sector's original share of HH carbon 26.1% Reduction in total HH carbon from this sector 9.4% Heating (space + water) Reduction #1: Quick insulation upgrade Remaining Usage Reduce thermostat 3 deg F Reduction #2 (due to reduced thermostat) Reduction of this sector's carbon This sector's original share of HH carbon Reduction in total HH carbon from this sector

15%

15.0% 85.0% 8% 6.8% 21.8% 26.3%

4.0%

3

Caulking, weather-stripping, leak-s

1.8%

5

(% at left is an intermediate figure, use (Komanoff estimate from Ending The O (% at left is calc'd by multiplying % red (% at left is calc'd by summing the %'s

5.7%

Heating (water) (Note: Percentages in first data column are Komanoff rough estimates) Bathing 50% 15% 7.5% Washing clothes + dishes 40% 10% 4.0% Other water heating 10% 5% 0.5%

0.8% 0.4% 0.1%

11 13 16

Change out conventional for wate More mindful use More mindful use

Reduction of this sector's carbon This sector's original share of HH carbon Reduction in total HH carbon from this sector Total reductions (from all measures, or from all but top 5)

12.0% 10.5% 1.3% 26.7% 7.9%

(% at left is calc'd by summing the %'s

sonal Transportation Studies.)

1x/week car-pooling or transit (includes bike/walk) Reduce usage by one-half (big "co-benefits" -- exercise instead, give nature a break) Less travel (redefine pleasure, shift activities and destinations), transit/carpool where available
(% at left is calc'd by summing the %'s in three prior rows) (% at left is an intermediate figure, used to calcualte impact of reducing gallons/mile, next)

Choose more-efficient family vehicle when possible; reduce high-carbon driving behaviors such as super-fast highway speeds, frequent acceleration, use of A/C
(% at left is calc'd by multiplying % reduxn above by remaining usage, to avoid double-counting) (% at left is calc'd by summing the %'s from Reductions #1 and #2)

ergy Data Book , http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/docs/1.2.3.pdf)

Replace incandescents + halogens w/ CFL's; turn off unused lights Raise thermostat 3 deg F; install/increase use of fans; employ window shades 1/2 of HH's replace old fridge (% shown reflects 50% participation); more mindful use 1/2 of HH's use clothesline for one-third of loads (% shown reflects 50% participation) Put all computers, chargers, modems etc. on power-strips and turn off when unused Reduce usage by one-half (big "co-benefits" from curbing TV habit) Power strips, mindful usage, etc.

Caulking, weather-stripping, leak-sealing, storm windows
(% at left is an intermediate figure, used to calcualte impact of reducing thermostat) (Komanoff estimate from Ending The Oil Age , http://www.rightofway.org/research/oilage.html) (% at left is calc'd by multiplying % reduxn above by remaining usage, to avoid double-counting) (% at left is calc'd by summing the %'s from Reductions #1 and #2)

Change out conventional for water-shaving shower-heads; more mindful use More mindful use More mindful use

(% at left is calc'd by summing the %'s for three reductions)

Baselines
This worksheet estimates CO2 emissions for a typical U.S. household, for the four main components of household energy use: gasoline, electricity, space heating, water heating. Gasoline Gasoline Supplied to United States, 2006, barrels per day Gallons per barrel Days per year Number of U.S. Households, 2005
http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hh-fam/cps2005/tabAVG1.csv

9,159,264 42 365 113,343,000 1,239 1,240 19.63 12.2 37% of total

U.S. Energy Information Administration, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/merquery/mer_data.asp?table=T03.04

Gallons per household per year Gallons, rounded CO2 per gallon (pounds) Average annual household CO2 from gasoline, tons Electricity U.S. Residential Electricity Sales, gigawatt-hours, 2005
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/elect.html (Table 7.6)

(easily derivable from standard references on lb carbon per million btu of gasoline and number of btu per barrel

1,359,227 11,992 12,000 1.43 8.6 26% of total

Electricity Consumption per household per year, kWh Kilowatt-hours, rounded CO2 per kilowatt-hour (pounds), U.S. average (reflecting all fuels) Average annual household CO2 from electricity, tons Space Heating Typical energy use for space heating, btu per degree days per sq ft
Komanoff rough estimate

(derived in Carbon Tax Center spreadsheet downloadable here: http://www.carbontax.org/issues/energy-demand-how-sensitive-to-price/; see Electricity work

15 4,500 2,000 135 117.3 19.97 161.5 75% 25% 128.3 8.7

Average degree days for U.S. space heating
Komanoff rough estimate, pivoting off NYC which equals 4,750.

Average square feet, U.S. residences
Komanoff rough estimate

Energy for space heating, typical U.S. residence, million btu/yr CO2 per million btu, natural gas, pounds C from fuel oil (million metric tons per quadrillion Btu) CO2 per million btu, fuel oil, pounds
Both items above are from DOE report just cited.

DOE, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/87-92rpt/appa.html

Natural gas share of home heating market Fuel oil share of home heating market
Shares are Komanoff rough estimates; ignore electric heat

CO2 per million btu, residential heating average, pounds Average annual household CO2 from space heating, tons Water Heating Typical HH Water Heating fuel use as a percent of Space Heating Average annual household CO2 from water heating, tons Total for Gasoline, Electricity, Space Heating, Water Heating

26% of total

40% 3.5 32.9 11% of total 100%

US DOE, "Buildings Energy Data Book" (Sept. 2006), http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/docs/1.2.3.pdf

sensitive-to-price/; see Electricity worksheet)


				
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