Lesson Plan: Citizenship, Afghanistan man. Study Unit: Title: Preconceptions Topic/SoW: Date: Background to lesson: The class will have been asked to find an object or picture of a person who they have a preconceived idea about. Aims: To challenge people’s first instincts, to make the students look further and harder before making a judgment on what they see. Objectives / Intended Learning Outcomes: History and/or Citizenship: 1/Through the study of pictures to extended the students skills of enquiry. 2/ to justify orally and in written work personal views. 3/ to contribute to a class discussion and debate on the idea of preconceptions. 4/ to encourage students to use their own ideas to consider other people’s experiences. Cross-curricular: Some drama or role play might be used to express their understanding of preconceived ideas and their effect on people. Literacy: Subject specific language will be used in the discussion and in the writing exercises which follow up the discussion. Personal transferable skills: By highlighting the notion of people having an expectation of something or someone on their first encounter, it show challenge the students expectations of first encounters in the future. Key Question[s]: Why do we have preconceived ideas? Year Group / Class: Teaching Time: Resources: Picture of Afghanistan man, picture of Stephen Hawkins. The Teaching Activity: A mixture of class discussion, students written work and perhaps some role play. Episode 1: Settle class to hear the story of the Rabbit and the Tortoise. Focus: The class will know the story, so the focus is on why when we hear the story for the first time we expect the rabbit to win. What do we know that makes us think the rabbit will win. This should introduce the idea of preconception at a level the whole class should pick up on. Episode 2: Introduce the picture of the Afghani man. Focus: Class discussion on who he is, what he is doing and what makes us think he is who we say he is and that he is doing what we think he is doing. Refering back to our expectations of the Rabbit. After 5-8 minutes move to Episode 3. Episode 3: What is he listening to on the Radio? Focus: Firstly ask the class what they think he is listening to and why. What leads them to that conclusion? What would you think if we could hear him listening to the football results or lottery draw or weather? What would that tell us about him? How would this effect our view of the man/picture? 5-10 min to write an account of what he is listening to and why. Episode 4: Stephen Hawkins. Hand out pictures. Focus: Similar approach to these picture as “afghani man” picture. Discuss; What sort of man is this? What do you think he might do if anything for a living? What quality of live does he have? What sort of feelings does this picture generate? And any other issues which arise from the picture. By this stage they should have picked up on the idea that a picture does not give you the whole picture. Episode 5: Preconception of other groups. Focus: Initially in pairs (5 min) then as a class, they will generate a list of groups we/they have preconception about. To then try to develop what these preconceptions are, why they might have them and how they might try to dispel these preconceptions. Episode 6: Project or extended writing on a group which you have a preconceived idea about. Focus: To draw the ideas together from the class discussion. To set the students work which will challenge their own ideas and encourage them to research a group of people to dispel the preconceptions held about them. Learning Outcomes- Actual/Potential: By asking the class to do work on a group they perceive to have preconceptions or prejudices towards, they will see the other sides of the arguments, to challenge why they or society has these misconceptions about them and to reflect on the processes which might go towards changing peoples preconceived attitudes towards that group. Thus pushing the students thinking beyond their original preconceived ideas. Reflection and Review of Lesson + Action Points to be taken: What sort of prejudices appear within the class? Does the whole class think like this? Are these prejudices coming from misinformation or misunderstanding or fear? How far have the students changed their views in the light of this lesson? Lesson plan rationale on Afghanistan man picture. The aim of the lesson is to discuss preconceptions. We all have preconceptions and when we look at objects whether it is food, a pictures, books or people. We use these to establish what we think of the object. The aim of this lesson is to challenge preconceptions and to develop the student’s enquiry skills. So when approaching an image or person they will be more able and willing to challenge their immediate thoughts, instincts and preconceptions. The starting point for the lesson is the story of the Rabbit and the Tortoise. The whole class will know the story and will know what happens in the end. The point of starting with this story is that the on the first hearing of the story you expect that the rabbit will win. We think this because the rabbit is much faster than a tortoise. This is a preconceived idea, so when we hear the story we bring our own knowledge and expectations to find out what is going to happen. But this is not always the case. The picture shows a man listening to a radio in what appears to be a quite road. I would imagine that most people in the class would latch onto the idea that this man was a Muslim and may be because of the events of September 11th he is from Afghanistan. From this point I would ask the class to look harder into the picture to find evidence to justify this opinion. I would be looking for details such as his clothes, his appearance i.e. his beard, his race and the countryside in the background of the picture. This should be quite a quick exercise and it should start the lesson at a quick pace and establish an interest. The next stage will take a bit longer and will engage the student’s imagination. By suggesting ideas that the man is listening to football results or the weather or music it should challenge their initial preconceptions. From this point to keep a variety of teaching techniques I would ask the class to write a dialogue or summary of what they think is on the radio and what the man might be doing while he listens to the radio. From the original picture I would follow up with a couple of pictures of Stephen Hawkins. Some within the class might know who he is but I imagine many would not. I would ask the class who he was what sort of life he has, what he might do for a living and what sort of feelings do they have towards the picture. While the first picture challenged there preconceptions when you start to ask what is on the radio, this second picture of Stephen Hawkins will challenge their idea of what a disabled person is able to do and what they might expect from a disabled person. To build on these ideas I would ask the students to think for five minutes of a person or group of people who we/they have preconceptions about and to think about what these preconceptions are, why people have them and what is done ( or what they might do ) to try to change these preconception. Because the next stage of the lesson will require the students to write about these groups and preconceptions in more detail I would bring the class together to discuss some of the groups of people and the preconceptions that go with them as a whole. This should give the whole class an idea of what we are dealing with, what sort of preconception we have and give the class to discuss and think about the ideas while talking. This might help some students to explain and verbalize their own ideas, thus establishing their own understanding of the ideas and issues. This in itself might help other students learn from their classmates understanding. The class discussion will also allow me to guide the class in the direction of work that I expect from them and root out any misconceptions about the groups which will be discussed. The next stage after the discussion would be to confirm the ideas and to build on them in a written form. While the discussion verbalizes and allows the class to air their views this next stage is to put these words onto paper. This reaffirms the ideas and should show their understanding of the ideas, as well as giving them a record of the discussion. I would expect many of the students would pick on ideas they themselves have about groups of people and write about them. This would be good because they will have to challenge their own preconception and hopefully the process or the task of finding a solution to stop these preconceptions will have an effect on their own thought process. This might encourage a change in the students own behavior or attitude towards new or different people. To finish of this particular lesson, I would return to the whole class and ask them what they have done and why do they think they had been asked to do this work, both in the context of citizenship and the wider world. This should reaffirm the ideas of the lesson and to help them see the lesson as something more than an academic piece of work. Other ideas for this lesson. This lesson might also be brought alive with a bit of role play. By asking the class to get into groups, to write and perform a play about preconceptions and how they lead to discrimination. This could also be turned into a story telling exercise where the class write a story describing a persons preconceptions and what happened because of them. Instead of the research for an extended piece of writing, the research might go towards developing a campaign to dispel preconceived ideas of a particular group in society. This might be a poster campaign, or developing an information pack or pamphlet. Where do we go next? This lesson can lead in a number of different directions. It could lead into a piece of work on either Muslims, disabled people or even Travelers and Gypsies. It could fit neatly into a study of dispute, where you start with these ideas and you then apply them to disputes in Northern Ireland, or the Palestinian dispute. That is the groups on both sides of these disputes have preconceived ideas of the other.