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					Participatory review of impact indicators, Cam Xuyen district, Microfinance Plus Programme

218 Doi Can Hanoi - Vietnam Tel: 84-4-832 5319 Fax: 84-4-832 5073 E-mail: scuk@scuk.netnam.vn

NOVEMBER

2001

Introduction

In 1998, SC/UK and its counterparts - district WU and WUs in project communes - jointly developed and started using impact indicators to evaluate project impact. These indicators aim at assessing the impact of project activities on project beneficiaries and communities. From the data, strengths and weaknesses can be identified to improve project quality. At the same time, the collected information and analysis of the indicators help project staff to lobby related agencies at grass roots and higher levels about the effectiveness of the interventions. Impact indicators were collected in 1998, 1999 and 2000.

Analysis of indicators in 1998 and 1999 can be found in Annual Reports. In order to have a comprehensive consideration of the indicators, consultants Davies and their were Ger usefulness, invited Clarke, to Sept methodologies make a quick The of information and collection, analysis, presentation and their use, two external assessment technical advice on their use and further development (Rick 2001). consultant worked directly with SC/UK staff, district WU and commune WU in some project communes. Based on the recommendations of the review by the external consultants, SC/UK led a process of participatory analysis of project impact indicators and the finding are presented in this paper.
There are 2 main differences in process of analyzing 2000 indicators in comparison with analysis of indicators in 1998,

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1999:

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The analysis is not solely conducted by SC/UK but with participation of district and commune WUs. The analysis focus on identifying causes for changes in each indicator. SC/UK and WU staffs provide independent explanation to each issue.

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1. Explanation about impact indicators - collection methodology

1.1 Meanings of the indicators
Indicator 1. 1. Hungry households Poor households Meanings This indicator represents the percentage of hungry/poor households out of total households in the commune. Criteria for hungry and poor households are based on criteria issued by MOLISA for the delta and midland areas. + Before 2000, the criteria are as follows: Hungry household: suffers from food shortage for at least 3 months, household appliances are invaluable, children are poorly educated, house is dilapidated, income per capita is less than 13kg of rice/month (equal to VND45,000) Poor household: Income per capita is less than 20kg of rice/month (equal to VND70,000) Since 2000: Poor household: Income per capita is less than VND100,000/month Formula Hungry HHs x 100 Rate of hungry HH = ---------------------------------------Total HHs in the commune Poor HHs x 100 Rate of poor HH = ---------------------------------------Total HHs in the commune

+ 2. Households with hygienic wells

This indicator represents the percentage of households with hygienic wells out of total households in the commune. Hygienic wells include tap water, pump wells or digged wells. In the latter case, the wall must be built so that the outer water cannot penetrate into the well. The hygienic well must be located at least 10 meter from latrine, pigsty, sheds....

HHs with hygienic well x 100 Rate of HH with hygienic well = ----------------------------------------------Total HHs in the commune

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Indicator 3. Household with hygienic latrines 4. Infants with low weight under 2.5kg 5. Child malnutrition (under 2 years)

Meanings This indicator represents the percentage of households with hygienic latrines out of total households in the commune. Hygienic latrines include flush, twocompartment ones This indicator represents the percentage of infants with low weight under 2.5kgs out of total infants born within the year This indicator represents the percentage of malnourished children at the age group of under 2 years old out of total children in this age group in the commune. The malnutrition is defined by the weight against age. The children are weighed in certain months in a year to minimize possible errors caused by climate, season... This indicator represents the percentage of pregnant women who have at least 3 check-ups out of total women give birth in the year This indicator represents the percentage of women who have been fully vaccinated against tetanus out of total women who give birth in the year. Women who have 1st pregnancy must have 2 times of AT vaccinated. Women who are at 2nd pregnancy and have been vaccinated 2 times at the 1st pregnancy might have vaccinated only once Meanings

Formula HHs with hygienic latrine x 100 Rate of HH with hygienic latrine = ------------------------------------------Total HHs in the commune Number of infants with low weight under 2.5 kg x 100 Rate of infants with = -----------------------------------------------------------------------low weight under 2.5 kg Total infants born within the year Number of malnourished child (under 2 years) x 100 Rate of child malnutrition = -------------------------------------------------------------------(under 2 years) Total weighed children (under 2 years)

6. Pregnant women who have at least 3 check-ups 7. Pregnant women who have been fully vaccinated against tetanus

Number of pregnant women having at least 3 check-ups x 100 Rate of pregnant women = --------------------------------------------------------------------------who have at least 3 check-ups Total women who give birth within the year Number of fully vaccinated pregnant women x 100 Rate of pregnant women who have = -------------------------------------------------------------been fully vaccinated against tetanus Total women who give birth within the year

Indicator

Formula

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8. Mothers who have a third child

9. Children who go to school at the appropriate ages (6 years) 10. Children out-ofschool

This indicator represents percentage of women giving birth to the 3rd child out of total women giving birth in the year. Women who give birth to a twin at her second birth giving are not considered as women who have a 3rd child This indicator represents percentage of children who go to 1st form at the appropriate age: 6 years old out of total children aged 6 in the commune This indicator represents the percentage of out of school children (non-schooling) out of all children aged from 6 to 14 in the commune. Out of school children include all children aged from 6 to 14 who have never enrolled or dropout

Number of mothers who have 3rd child x 100 Rate of mother who have a 3rd child = -------------------------------------------------------Total women giving birth in the year

Number of children aged 6 going to school in the year x 100 Rate of children who go = -------------------------------------------------------------------------to school at appropriate age Total children aged 6 in the commune

Number of out of school children x 100 Rate of out of school children = -----------------------------------------------Total children aged 6-14 in the commune

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1.2 Constraints of the indicators
Indicators 1. Rate of poor households 2. Rate of households with hygienic wells. 3. Rate of households with hygienic latrines 4. Infants with low weight under 2.5kg 5. Child malnutrition (under 2 years) 6. Pregnant women who have at least 3 check-ups 7. Pregnant women who have been fully vaccinated against tetanus Constraints This rate is changed when the criteria by MOLISA are changed. For example, in 2000 the criteria is changed in the trend of increase the minimum income per capita, therefore percentage of poor households accordingly increased Criteria for hygienic well and latrine are quite loose and not concrete. Moreover, the information varies by the assessment of data collectors These 2 indicators consume more time than other indicators Children who are born at home might not be weighed. Although some health workers said that they can estimate the child weight after a few days when they come to change the naval band for the child (1 or 2 days after birth), this estimation is absolutely unreliable Accuracy of this indicator depends on the quality of child weighting: accuracy of the scale, skills of people who weigh children clothes... More importantly it depend on whether all children aged under 2 are weighed Many pregnant women who have check-ups and vaccination in one commune but live in other communes where they give birth (e.g. teachers...). In these cases, the book on birth giving cases in the commune will not record the check-ups and vaccination

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1.3 Time, collectors and information resources # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Indicators Hungry/poor households Households with hygienic wells Household with hygienic latrines Infants with low weight under 2.5kg Frequency, time of information collection Every year at the end of the year Every year at the end of the year Every year at the end of the year Every year at the end of the year How to collect information Based on survey on hunger/poverty using the MOLISA criteria Based on household survey Based on household survey Based on book on birth giving A4 recorded and kept track by the commune health center Based on weighing of all children aged under 2 Based on book on birth gibing A4 and book on pre-natal checkups A3 recorded and kept track by the commune health center Based on book on birth gibing A4 and book on pre-natal checkups A3 recorded and kept track by the commune health center Who collects information Commune committee for poverty alleviation Commune/village WU Commune/village WU Commune Health Center Commune Health Center Commune WU Commune Health Center Commune Health Center

Child malnutrition (under Every year in June 2 years) Pregnant women who have at least 3 check-ups Pregnant women who have been fully vaccinated against tetanus Mothers who have a third child Children who go to school at the appropriate ages (6 years) Children out-of- school Every year at the end of the year Every year at the end of the year

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Every year at the end of the year

Based on book on birth gibing A4 recorded and kept track by the commune health center and cross-check with data collected by Commune committee for family planning

Commune Health Center Comm7ne committee for family planning Primary school

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Every year at the beginning Based on data collected by the school and calculated in of the schooling year accordance with format General statistic on children at schooling age and results of primary education universalisation issued by MOET Every year at the beginning (ditto) of the schooling year

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Primary school

* Note: Commune WU is the focal point for collecting information for all 10 indicators.

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1.4 Comparisons used for analyzing indicators  Until now SC/UK staffs are analyzing indicators after all information are collected from communes. In the coming time, this work will be hand over to district/commune counterpart with training and assistance by SC/UK.  Analysis is conducted based on following comparisons: Between project and non-project communes. The changes in indicators in project communes and non-project communes help to see if impacts of the project are considerable or not. Among project communes. This comparison helps to analyze more deeply and in details causes for changes in indicators - impacts of indicators and factors affecting the changes. In time periods. Comparison between the current and previous year is used in above comparisons.

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2. Indicators in 1998, 1999 and 2000, Cam Xuyen district The indicators are classified by groups: Group of economic indicators (indicators 1, 2 and 3); group if health and nutrition indicators (indicators 4, 5, 6, 7 and8); group of education indicators (indicators 9 and 10) Indicators 1. Hungry households Project communes Non-project communes Poor households Project communes Non-project communes 2. Households with hygienic wells Project communes Non-project communes 3. Household with hygienic latrines Project communes Non-project communes 4. Infants with low weight under 2.5kg Project communes Non-project communes 5. Child malnutrition (under 2 years) Project communes Non-project communes 6. Pregnant women who have at least 3 check-ups Project communes Non-project communes Total HHs/ people 1998 Total HHs/ people 20,355 15,043 20,355 15,043 20,355 15,043 20,355 15,043 1,466 991 3,756 2,270 1999 Total HHs/ people 2000 Increase(+)/ Decrease(-) 99/98 00/99 00/98 -1.8% -1.0% -3.1% -2.2% 8.5% 4.7% 9.6% 2.9% -2.8% -2.2% -3.6% -3.8% -4.0% -1.4% 0.7% 0.6% 5.2% 7.4% 5.1% 10.1% -0.6% 1.6% -1.2% -2.9% -5.8% -2.4% -2.4% -1.6% 13.7% 12.1% 14.7% 13.0% -3.4% -0.6% -4.8% -6.7%

19,956 14,804 19,956 14,804 19,956 14,804 19,956 14,804 1,694 1,202 4,231 2,532

13.3% 7.5% 18.0% 14.5% 66.3% 77.0% 57.3% 62.3% 11.0% 8.8% 35.2% 37.5%

11.5% 6.5% 14.9% 12.3% 74.8% 81.7% 66.9% 65.2% 8.2% 6.6% 31.6% 33.7%

20,647 15,326 20,647 15,326 20,647 15,326 20,647 15,326 1,393 849 3,028 2,091

7.5% 5.1% 15.6% 12.9% 80.0% 89.1% 72.0% 75.3% 7.6% 8.2% 30.4% 30.8%

1,887 1,203

92.9% 92.6%

1,640 1,034

95.0% 91.7%

1,581 890

99.8% 90.4%

2.1% -0.9%

4.8% -1.3%

6.9% -2.2%

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7. Pregnant women who have been fully vaccinated against tetanus Project communes 1,887 Project Non-communes 1,203 8. Mothers who have a third child Project communes 1,887 Non-project communes 1,203 9. Children who go to school at the appropriate ages (6 years) Project communes 3,557 Non-project communes 1,972 10. Children out-of- school Project communes 19,224 Non-project communes 14,651

92.6% 95.6% 34.3% 29.7%

1,640 1,034 1,640 1,034

96.0% 96.5% 30.1% 26.1%

1,581 890 1,581 890

94.4% 96.7% 28.0% 23.8%

3.4% 0.9% -4.2% -3.6%

-1.6% 0.2% -2.1% -2.3%

1.8% 1.1% -6.3% -5.9%

97.2% 96.1% 2.5% 0.7%

3,604 1,884 19,577 14,367

98.6% 99.3% 1.8% 0.5%

3,140 2,004 21,702 16,549

99.5% 99.3% 0.3% 0.1%

1.4% 3.2% -0.7% -0.2%

0.9% 0.0% -1.5% -0.4%

2.3% 3.2% -2.2% -0.6%

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3. Analysis of the indicators

3.1 Brief findings from collected information:

 

Table in part 2 shows that: In comparison with 1998, most of indicators in 2000 change positively in project and non-project communes. Some indicators change more clearly in project communes than in non-project ones: reduction in hungry/poor households, reduction in rate of infant with low weight under 2.5kgs, increase in rate of women having at least 3 times of check-ups; reduction in rate of out of school children. These changes attribute partly to project activities including credit/savings, FFL communication, nutrition education for pregnant women and mother of young children as well as crèches/kindergarten activities.



Indicator of hungry and poor households are most important to assess project impacts to the alleviation of poverty. In facts, this indicator remarkably decreased (see part 3.2) There is variance in changes of indicators in project communes. Analyzing causes will show impacts of the project on these changes (see part 3.3)



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3.2 Most and least changed indicators in project communes in 2000 against 1998
Indicators 1. Rate of hungry households Rate of poor households Rate in 1998 13.3% 18.0% Rate in 2000 7.5% 15.6% Difference Explanation Reduced by These are most important indicators that reflect the objectives of this credit/savings programme, 5.8% that is poverty alleviation. SC/UK expected positive changes. In fact, these indicators changed remarkably in project communes. Reduced by It can be said that SC-UK/DFID contributes remarkably to the reduction of hungry and poor households in project commune. The programme is implemented in most poor communes and 2.4% targets poorest households that can hardly access formal credit sources. Project will make great changes to such beneficiaries. Moreover, the programme mechanism is appropriate to the poor, it makes them more dynamic in using the loan effectively. Thus income of poor households has been increased and life quality is improved. Data from various review meetings, evaluations as well as opinions by borrowers and local leaders confirm this fact. In 2000, criteria for hunger/poverty in Ha Tinh province and in the nationwide are changed. The norm has increased. - Previous criteria: + Hungry households: income per capita: 13 kg of rice/month (equal to VND45,000) + Poor household in rural areas: income per capital less than 20kgs of rice/month (equal to VND70,000). - Current criteria (applied since 2000): Hungry/poor households in low land: income per capita: less than 100kgs of rice/month. If there had not been no change in criteria, the hungry/poor households rate in Cam Xuyen commune would have decreased more Increased In recent years, rate of pregnant women who have fully vaccinated against tetanus in Cam Xuyen by 1.8% district is quite high (over 90%). People are aware of benefits and necessity of anti-tetanus vaccination. In Cam Xuyen district in particular and in Ha Tinh province in general, people are eager for education. Parents pay much attention to children’s education. That why most of children are attending school. The rate of children who go to school at the appropriate age is very high: nearly 100%. For these reasons there are not much changes in the rate of pregnant women who have been fully vaccinated against tetanus and the rate of children who go to school at the appropriate ages (6 Increased years). However, a slight change is very significant as the increase in children attending school take by 2.3% place in poor households.

Most changed

Least changed

7. Pregnant women who have been fully vaccinated against tetanus 9. Children who go to school at the appropriate ages (6 years)

92.6

94.4

97.2%

99.5%

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3.3 Most and least changes in indicators in project communes - explanation for changes.
Indicators 1. Hungry households Changes (2000/1998 ) Most changed Difference Decreased by 15% Commune By SC/UK Cam Loc - Cam Loc is one of the poorest communes in Cam Xuyen district. Before the project start, many households are lack of investment capital. Cam Loc started project in 1999 and expands at a quite rapid rate, thus impacts are very visible - Cam Ha is not the poorest commune in the district. The hunger and poverty rate is at average level. When the poverty is quite low, it is very difficult to have a remarkable change. - This is an affect of changes in hunger and poverty criteria - Cam My is also a new commune that started the project in 1999. It also one of the poorest commune in the district. The commune locates at the adjacent of Ke Go reservoir with big forestland. In recent years, due to the close of forest for the sake of the reservoir, commune people lost their income resources from the forest. They need capital for production. That is why the project brought about remarkable changes Explanation By WU Cam Loc is a poor commune with too many labors who are in capital shortage and at the same time lack of production knowledge and skills. SC/UK provide loans to the right people who use the loan for appropriate purposes. Moreover, borrowers are well trained - Due to increase in norm for poor households, the poverty rate reduced at slow rate. - In 2000, the harvest in Cam Ha was failed. - In 2000 about 16 households suffered from unexpected difficulties such as accident, illness... After the close of forest, there was labor redundancy. When SC/UK and WU started this project in the commune, households had access to investment capital for agricultural production, husbandry and petty trading. Women borrowers are trained on production techniques. Moreover, savings and installment scheme help households become more dynamic in business making and more economic in expanding. People no more waste money in weddings or festivals. Life quality is improved and project contributed to poverty alleviation

Least changed

Increased by 0.8%

Cam Ha

Poor households

Most changed

Decreased by 11.8%

Cam My

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Least changed

Increased by 3.7%

Cam Son

2. Househol ds with hygienic wells

Most changed

Increased by 30.5%

Cam Nam

Least changed

Increased by 5%

Cam Minh

Increase of poor households in Cam Son are due to: - Hungry households reduced considerably: 5.2%. These households transited from hungry to poor households and have not escaped from poverty. - This is an affect of changes in hunger and poverty criteria (increase in norm of poor households) - The commune is good at communication activities. - Other activities and movements (education, healthcare...) are quite good and at the same quality - Among project communes, Cam Minh is commune that has not well organized FFL communication - As the commune is very poor, most of income from credit/savings activities is spent on meals, education, medical treatment, etc. Latrines are not priority now - Cam Linh is a mountainous commune that locates along the coast. It is nearly an oasis as it is surrounded by the sea and mountains. Education level in the commune is lower than in other communes. Backward customs and environmental sanitation are problems of the commune. Moreover, Cam Linh is one of the poorest communes so people are not able to afford sanitation facilities. When the project introduced FFL, Cam Linh is one of the best commune in implementation environmental sanitation. Credit/savings activities also help people to afford building hygienic latrines

- Due to changes in criteria of hungry and poor households: increase the norm of poor and hungry households

- WU actively communicates messages on environmental sanitation - one topic of FFL

- Cam Minh has used FFL for communication to households. This booklet is very useful for people. Especially mothers of young children. People have changed their behavior regarding environmental sanitation. However, the results is not considerable

3. Househol d with hygienic latrines

Most changed

Increased by 23%

Cam Linh

There are 2 main causes: - Poor households are provided with loans to develop their household economic status. Therefore they are able to afford building or repairing sanitation facilities, and especially building hygienic latrines - Women are communicated on FFL including messages in environmental sanitation. Thanks to improved knowledge, their behavior also changed

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Least changed

Increased by 7%

Cam Lac

Is one of very poor commune, most of income are spent on education and house building or repairing - In comparison with other project communes, Cam Ha is better at communication FFL messages (of which many messages about safe motherhood) - Among project communes, Cam Minh has not well organized FFL communication

4. Infants with low weight under 2.5kg

Most changed

Decreased by: 30.7%

Cam Ha

FFL communication helps change the awareness and behavior relating to environmental sanitation. However, not many households build hygienic latrines as they firstly spend their income on children education and building houses - WU is very active in FFL communication to all community people, especially women. WU also mobilizes and encourages women to have check-ups - Cam Minh is a mountainous commune and is far from district center. About one third of population is Christian. In the past 4 years, FFL communication helps women a lot in child raising. However, many Christian women still give birth for 3rd or 4th time, which cause low weight at birth - WU emphasis on FFL communication and nutrition education for pregnant women and women with young children. - Children are provided with meals at the preschool. Children in preschool are weighed quarterly and regally have health checked. The teacher inform parents when a child is malnourish so that the parents, teachers and health workers can cooperate to timely improve the child nutrition status - About 20 women worked in South, got married and gave birth there. In 2000 they came back home. These women have less access to information on child healthcare, therefore many of their children are malnourished - In the past, a lot of pregnant women did not have 3 check-ups. Since FFL was communicated, women’s awareness has been improved. They voluntarily have pre-natal check-ups without any mobilization. - FFL communication are organized regularly

Least changed

Increased by 9.1%

Cam Minh

5. Child malnutrition (under 2 years)

Most changed

Decreased by 31.3%

Cam Ha

- FFL communication and nutrition education in Cam Ha is good. - Cam Ha has one preschool supported by SC/UK in 1999. Since then, the children are better cared for. Growth monitoring and nutrition are key activities of the preschool. The child malnutrition rate reduced remarkably after the preschool came into operation

Least changed

Increased by 4.9%

Cam Lac

6. Pregnant women who have at least 3 checkups

Most changed

Increased by 16.8%

Cam Binh

Is one of best commune at FFL communication

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Least changed

Decreased by 4%

Cam Nam

- In 2000, some women gave birth to 3rd child. They were embarrassed to have check-ups as they violated the family planning policy. That is why they only have check-ups at the 8th or 9th month of pregnancy Cam Ha WU is very actively in FFL communication and mobilization of pregnant women to have checkups and anti-tetanus vaccinated

7. Pregnant women who have been fully vaccinate d against tetanus 8. Mothers who have a third child

Most changed Least changed Most changed

- In comparison with other project communes, Cam Ha is better at communication FFL messages (of which many messages about safe motherhood) There is not significant difference in the communes Decreased by 19.0% Cam Thach - In 1998 rate of mother with 3rd child in Cam Thach was quite high. FFL communication brought about visible impacts In the rural areas of Vietnam, son-preference remains prevailing. That is why many couple with 2 daughters want to have a son even they are well communicated on the benefits of having a few children

Increased by 18.7%

Cam Ha

Least changed

Increased by 9.4%

Cam Nam

- In 2 villages in Cam Thach most of people are Christian. Before 1998, many women had 3rd child. In 1999 and 2000, the WU focus on FFL communication and family planning activities in these 2 villages WU also met vicars and asked for his help in communication - In 2000 some couples in Cam Nam have the 3rd child as the husband want a son (they had 2 daughters). This is a custom in Vietnam. WU has been actively communicate FFL (including messages on having a few children for the heath of mother and children) but it takes time to eliminate these customs. - Some women have 3rd child due to failure in using contraceptive method: they use contraceptive methods not regularly

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9. Children who go to school at the appropriate ages (6 years)

Most changed

10. Children out of school

Least changed Most changed

Is one of the poor commune in the district. Due to economic difficulties, poor families are not able to pay attention to the children education. The credit/savings project improves the life quality and encourages borrowers to pay more attention to their children education. Moreover the project established Education Fund from interest on revolving loans. In review meetings, local authorities always mentioned the positive impacts of the project in increase child enrolment rate. “ Though not much in quantity, the scholarship is a courage for children to overcome difficulties in studying. Some drop out children have returned to school” (Comment of Mr. Le Van Luan - Chairperson of Cam Lac PC). There is not significant difference in the communes Decreased by 2.3% Cam Thinh -Cam Thinh is a poor mountainous commune with large natural land. In the past, a lot of students dropped out and many households were not able to send their children to school at the appropriate age. The project covers all the commune and contributes to overcome this problem. When applying for the loan, borrowers committed to send their children to school. Some drop out children return to school

Increased by 11.6%

Cam Lac

The project contributes greatly to encouraging and creating conditions for the children to go to school, for example: - Thanks to credit loan, households increase income and they are able to afford children education. - Project Education Fund which is established from interest on revolving loan encourages children in studying. - Borrowers committed to let their children to go to school when they joined the project.

SC/UK project provided loans and created employment for women, especially poor women. With stabilized economy, households can let their children continue or resume the study. All dropout children return to school. There is no drop out child in the commune

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Least changed

No change

Cam Binh, Cam Nam

- Cam Binh was recognized as commune with primary education universalisation in 1971. This is a pilot commune of MOET. Cam Nam commune has a good transition in education. The Cam Nam primary school reached national standard.

- Cam Binh was recognized as primary education universalized commune in 1971. No child in the commune drops out. Despite economic difficulties, families pay attention to children education and let them finish at least senior secondary school. Cam Binh is famous for its education tradition. - Cam Nam primary school reached national standard in 1999/2000. In 2000 WU and other institutions in the commune implement education socialization. SC/UK credit/savings programme encourages children to go to school

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Conclusions: This analysis of impact indicators in 2000 shows positive changes in most indicators, indicating a reduction in poverty across the district, in project and non-project communes. However, change is greater in project communes. This is demonstrated through comparison between project and non-project commune indicators, as well as through analyzing the causes for changes. It is necessary to attract participation of stakeholders, especially at commune level in analysis of the indicators as the issues are looked at from different perspectives; thus, the analysis is more in depth and detailed. This method also provides counterpart with opportunities to analyze their own work and to build their own capacity. This is also a chance for all stakeholders to learn and share experiences amongst one another. Explanations about changes in indicators by SC/UK and WU in general are often similar. In addition, some explanations by commune WUs are very interesting as only they are the people who best understand the causes and nature of their problems. These explanations are very useful for the improvement of project activities. The degree of importance and cost in terms of time and effort for collecting the indicators are ranked in the following table

-

-

-

High Importance Low

1, 5, 9, 10

4 7, 6, 8 2, 3 High

Low Cost in terms of time and effort
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After short time of using the indicators in assessing project impact (since 1998), the indicators proves their usefulness and necessity. They should be used as important tool to analyze, monitor, and evaluate project impact. In the past times, SC/UK and WUs at district and commune levels have not paid adequate attention to the analysis and use of the collected data using these indicators. This will be improved in the coming time. It is necessary that in the coming time district and commune WU staffs to be trained to how to collect, analyze and use the indicators. Some revision to the impact monitoring system may also be necessary in view of the time required to collect and analyse the data.

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