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									REPORT OF THE END TO END REVIEW OF CAREERS EDUCATION AND GUIDANCE

Department for Education and Skills July 2005

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CONTENTS

PAGE SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION What is an End to End Review? Why review careers education and guidance at this time? CHAPTER 2 CHALLENGES AHEAD Economic and social changes DfES strategies and relationships Children’s Trusts The New Relationship with Schools Success for All CHAPTER 3 THE SCOPE OF THE REVIEW What is careers education and guidance? Who is responsible for delivery? CHAPTER 4 A NEW VISION What are we trying to achieve? How will we achieve the vision? CHAPTER 5 THE EXISTING SERVICE Overall Assessment Young people’s perceptions Careers Education in Schools Careers Education and Guidance in Colleges and Work Based Learning Providers The Connexions Service CHAPTER 6 KEY DELIVERY ISSUES Access to impartial careers advice Workforce development Employer engagement Coherence and Collaboration 20 22 22 23 25 26 4 6 6 6 8 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 11 13 13 13 16 16 17 17 19

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Choice and Contestability Equal Opportunities Quality Standards Performance Measures and Targets Value for Money Reducing Bureaucracy ICT and e-government CONCLUSION ANNEXES Annex 1 List of organisations consulted Annex 2 Location, within and outside learning, of young people aged 11-18 at the end of 2002 Annex 3 History and central services Annex 4 The young person’s journey: learning provider options, key decision points and decision influencers Annex 5 Accountability and funding lines for the current CEG delivery system Annex 6 Organisations involved in delivering careers education and guidance Annex 7 Bibliography

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END TO END REVIEW OF CAREERS EDUCATION AND GUIDANCE SUMMARY Background The End to End Review of Careers Education and Guidance (CEG) covered publicly funded CEG for young people between 11 and 19, focusing on delivery by schools, colleges, workbased learning providers and the Connexions Service. The Department for Education and Skills‟ (DfES‟s) decision to review CEG was based on a number of recent reports that have both identified the importance of good CEG, and raised questions about the adequacy of the current provision. This included the National Audit Office (NAO) Report on Connexions, published in March 2004: „There is a risk that not all young people who would benefit from advice are receiving it. This gap is due to Connexions operating with fewer resources than was originally anticipated, together with a lack of clarity regarding the respective roles of schools and the Connexions Service in providing careers advice to young people.‟ The review included an assessment of the current service, and an examination of key delivery issues such as impartiality, workforce development and employer engagement . A New Vision The review concludes that we need a common vision in the education, training and guidance worlds about „young people acquiring the career development skills, work habits, knowledge and understanding to make mature informed decisions about employment and associated learning progression‟. This will contribute to one of the key outcomes of Every child matters – achieving economic well-being. This vision should be central to progression with all young people having acquired by around the age of 19 the career development skills they need for higher education, work and adult life in the 21st century. These career development skills are described in the National Framework for Careers Education and Guidance, published by the DfES in March 2003:    understand themselves and the influences on them; investigate opportunities in learning and work; make and adjust plans to manage change and transitions.

These skills should be developed and practised through taking key decisions for progression at 14, 16 and 18. Young people will also need access to good quality support that helps them to understand their aptitudes and preferences, reflect on their experience of work and learning decisions, and if appropriate, challenges their ideas about work and learning (including traditional and stereotypical ideas).

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Conclusions The review concludes that:    Connexions has made good progress with targeted services for young people in the “not in employment, education or training” group, or at risk of becoming part of it; Connexions Direct is valued by young people as a source of easily accessible, up to date and accurate information and advice, including on careers and learning opportunities; but, the significant flaws in the current arrangements mean that they are not sustainable in today‟s education and economic environment or in the face of the challenges of the next few years; the greatest potential for improving CEG delivery lies in driving up the quality and relevance of careers education in schools; Connexions Partnerships do not have resources to deliver both targeted support and CEG; there is confusion over the respective roles and responsibilities of schools and Connexions Partnerships; and schools (especially those with sixth forms) do not always provide impartial guidance to 14to16-year olds on the full range of local learning opportunities.

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Way Forward The report makes recommendations which, if implemented, would constitute sustained efforts to make a reality of the vision. These efforts will need to be taken forward in the context of the 14-19 Education and Skills White paper, and the Green Paper “Youth Matters”. They will also need to fit in with the New Relationship with Schools, Success for All, the development of children‟s trusts, the Skills Strategy and the New Deal for Skills. Comments on the review recommendations should be made as part of the Green Paper “Youth Matters” consultation. Consultation details are contained in the Youth Matters publication, available electronically at www.dfes.gov.uk/publications/youth.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 This report sets out the conclusions and recommendations of the End to End Review of Careers Education and Guidance (CEG) carried out between March and June 2004. It explains what we are trying to achieve, looks at the challenges ahead, examines the strengths and weaknesses of the different elements of the current arrangements, discusses some key delivery issues, and makes recommendations for improvement. 1.2 Our work programme included a review of the key literature about careers education and guidance appearing since the 1990s, including reports from Ofsted and more recent research and surveys. Around 170 people from the careers community, education and employers‟ organisations attended workshops. These also included young people and parents. We undertook a number of visits to schools and colleges as part of our extensive fieldwork research. We met many partner organisations individually and received contributions and views from others, via written submissions and emails to our review team‟s mailbox. The information gathering was completed with an event attended by key stakeholders to discuss emerging issues from the review. Annex 1 lists all those who took part in the review. 1.3 Since the review was completed there have been further developments in areas such as 14-19 reform and children‟s trusts and, where appropriate, up to date information about these developments is included in the report. What is an End to End Review? 1.4 End to End Reviews examine the delivery chain involved in meeting specific Public Service Agreement (PSA) targets or other high-level objectives. The „Landscape Review of DfES and its Delivery Agents‟ led to the DfES Review Programme for 2003-04. This review of careers education and guidance is the third such review carried out by the DfES. 1.5 Reviews focus on the effectiveness of the delivery chain from Ministerial policy decisions to the provision of services to the intended beneficiaries. End to End Reviews do not evaluate the underlying policy although they can identify aspects of policy that inhibit or promote effective delivery. Reviews reflect the four key themes in the government‟s public sector reform programme – national standards; devolution and delegation; customer choice and flexibility. They also address how effectively the Government‟s principles are being taken forward on equal opportunities, promotion of e-government and reduction in bureaucracy. Why review careers education and guidance at this time? 1.6 The DfES‟s decision to review CEG at this time was based on a number of recent reports and strategies that both identified the importance of good CEG and raised questions about the adequacy of the current provision. These included:    the 14-19 Working Group‟s interim report on longer-term 14-19 reform which flagged the importance of advice and support in facilitating the changes they envisage; important changes taking place in the DfES‟s delivery structure with children‟s trusts, the New Relationship with Schools and Success for All; the 14-19 pathfinder evaluation report, which concluded that Connexions was playing an effective role in many pathfinders, but given its broad remit and finite resources there was

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potential tension between the requirements to both support young people most in need and provide universal support. Schools also varied considerably in their capacity to fulfil increased demands for advice and guidance;  the NAO report on the Connexions Service which questioned the effectiveness of the delivery of careers education and guidance to all young people. „There is still a risk that not all young people who would benefit from advice are receiving it. This gap is due to Connexions operating with fewer resources than was originally anticipated, together with a lack of clarity regarding the respective role of schools and the Connexions Service in providing careers advice to young people.‟; the End to End Review of the delivery of Modern Apprenticeships which identified the problems reported by providers and young people in obtaining good quality, impartial advice on work based options.

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CHAPTER 2 CHALLENGES AHEAD Economic and social changes 2.1 The context for the review included continuing rapid changes in society and the economy. Over the past generation, the transition from school to work for many people has been transformed. Most people now undertake extensive vocational, higher or professional learning programmes after leaving school. This means that their transition to employment takes place in their late teens or early twenties and they will use information, advice and guidance services beyond the scope of this review in their final stages of joining the labour market. These trends will continue with an ever-increasing share of young people investing more heavily in their skills and knowledge at the start of their working lives, and continuing to invest throughout their adult lives. 2.2 The structure of society is changing, as are many basic attitudes towards work. Many young people come from homes where parents have long histories of disrupted employment, and from communities that have seen the loss of traditional industries and occupations. Today‟s young people have grown up in a society that is more sceptical about information and advice generally, especially that coming from government or the business community. 2.3 Many young people now combine significant amounts of paid work with their studies at school, giving them an early powerful insight to working life. This reduces their need for basic information about the world of work since, in many cases, their direct experience is more personal and up to date than that of “adult experts”. 2.4 Once in work the conventional notion of an orderly progress up an organisational, professional or occupational hierarchy has disappeared in many parts of the economy. Many people now experience varied and diverse working patterns right through their working lives, which for the current generation of young people may extend well into the 2060s. They need a strong base of employability and decision-making skills underpinned by a good understanding of the job market and associated learning routes if they are to prosper in this new environment. This underlines the need for strong CEG provision in the teenage years. DfES strategies and relationships 2.5 The education system itself is changing with profound implications for the capacity of young people to take critical complex decisions at an early age about progression, employment and associated learning. In particular, we would point to the:  emergence of more diverse opportunities and progression routes between the ages of 14 and 19;    changes to qualification and assessment structures following the publication (in February 2005) of the White Paper on 14-19 reform; changes in financial support for young people, for example the launch of Education Maintenance Allowances; report of a cross Government review “Supporting Young People to Achieve – Towards a New Deal for Skills” which proposes a radical long-term vision for a single, coherent system of financial support for 16-19 year olds. This will provide a stable stream of support which does not vary by activity and so will not distort choices between different learning routes; 8

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growing interest in individualised learning programmes especially in schools; expansion and diversification of higher education, including Foundation Degrees and changes in funding structures; reform of apprenticeships, including some starting at age 14.

2.6 These add to the complexity of decisions about learning progression especially at 14, 16 and 18; and strengthen the case for more robust CEG arrangements. At the same time, the organisational context is changing with children‟s trusts, the New Relationship with Schools and Success for All. The Efficiency Review of the DfES has important implications for its role and those of its key delivery partners. These reflect the government‟s Public Sector Reform strategy with its emphasis on choice, national standards, flexibility and local discretion. Children’s Trusts 2.7 The outcomes of the review will need to be set in the context of the “Youth Offer” described in the DfES 5 year strategy and “Every child matters: next steps” . 2.8 The DfES 5 year strategy outlines an offer to young people that will provide easy access to the personal advice and support they need to fulfil and raise their aspirations, including high quality and personalised careers education, advice and guidance. 2.9 Every child matters:next steps proposed that Connexions budgets should be aligned with children‟s trusts, and that the Department should explore the feasibility of devolving funds to local authorities, with the intention of their commissioning a basket of services for teenagers from Connexions Partnerships. 2.10 Each children‟s trust will be a set of arrangements for a local area to continually improve services for children and young people. Children‟s trusts involve people working together at all levels to improve outcomes for children. This includes front-line staff working in multi-disciplinary teams to provide integrated services; integrated processes such as common assessment being used to support front-line delivery; change at a strategic level through an integrated planning and commissioning strategy; and the development of inter-agency governance arrangements. The New Relationship with Schools 2.11 The purpose of the New Relationship with Schools is to streamline the way in which central and local government interacts with schools in order to reduce bureaucracy, sharpen accountability and enable a higher quality dialogue around school improvement issues. At the heart of the New Relationship is the proposition that every secondary school will have access to a school improvement partner (SIP) who will act as a conduit between central government, local authorities and schools, through a single conversation between the SIP and the school. The SIP will provide challenge and support around the school‟s targets, their self evaluation and how they are planning to build on existing strengths and tackle areas of weakness. The single conversation will be supported by more focused data on school and pupil performance, as well as the new school profile which will enable schools to report to parents on a broad range of quantitative and qualitative information in an easily comparable format. 2.12 We will need to ensure that in putting the review‟s recommendations into effect that we work with the grain of the New Relationship, using the levers of the single conversation and 9

school profile, rather than requiring schools to produce additional plans which are not integrated within their overall approach to school improvement. Success for All 2.13 Success for All is the joint LSC-DfES strategy for improving the quality and performance of post-16 learning launched at the end of 2002. It has four key themes of relevance, teaching and learning, workforce development and effective accountability systems. Since the launch of Success for All, significant changes have been made to the planning and funding arrangements for colleges and work-based learning providers.

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CHAPTER 3 SCOPE OF THE REVIEW 3.1 The review covered publicly funded CEG, for young people between 11 and 19, particularly:  in schools, especially in Key Stage(KS)3 leading to decisions about progression and learning routes in KS4; and in KS4 about post-16 progression;  in schools, colleges and work-based learning providers about post-16 learning and progression to work, professional training or higher education;  by Connexions Partnerships and their sub-contractors. 3.2 The review did not cover services for young people in independent schools nor those under 19 in higher education. Nor did it cover careers education and guidance services primarily available to adults such as:  careers services in higher education institutions;  LSC funded Information, Advice and Guidance networks and learndirect information and advice service;  advice services associated with professional institutions;  Jobcentre Plus. 3.3 The CEG policies covered by this review are intended to meet the needs of nearly 5 million (from 2002/3 data) young people between 11 and 19 in England. Annex 2 shows the locations, at the end of 2002, of the client group for CEG services. What is careers education and guidance? 3.4 In all our discussions, we were struck by the absence of a common understanding of what the term ”careers education and guidance” means across the education, business and careers communities. The National Framework for Careers Education and Guidance, published by the DfES in March 2003, gives these definitions: ‘ Careers Education helps young people develop the knowledge and skills they need to make successful choices, manage transitions in learning and move into work. Careers Guidance enables young people to use the knowledge and skills they develop to make decisions about learning and work that are right for them’. Who is responsible for delivery? 3.5 The arrangements for the delivery of careers education and guidance have changed considerably since the early 1990s. Annex 3 describes the history of CEG and the central services provided by the DfES. 3.6 Current arrangements are that all publicly funded secondary schools, including special schools and pupil referral units, are required to provide a programme of careers education to pupils in years 9 to 11 (Education Act 1997). Within this, each secondary school must have an accessible careers library that contains up-to-date information on careers and post 16 progression opportunities (Education Act 1997). From September 2004, this requirement also covers young people in years 7 and 8. 3.7 There is no requirement for post-16 learning providers (including school sixth forms) to 11

provide careers education, although many do through, for example, linked tutoring programmes alongside the young person‟s main course of study. 3.8 The Secretary of State also has a statutory duty to provide all young people with access to impartial careers advice (Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act 1993). Since 2001, this duty has been exercised through Connexions Partnerships.

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CHAPTER 4 A NEW VISION What are we trying to achieve? 4.1 We were also struck by the lack of a common vision of what we are trying to achieve from CEG related activities. There is no shortage of excellent documents about CEG, but none has become widely accepted as a benchmark for the quality and relevance of work by careers specialists and educationalists alike. This leads us to conclude that we need a common vision in the education, training and guidance worlds about what we are trying to achieve in a world where young people are facing increasingly complex decisions about work and learning, which will continue as they progress into adulthood. 4.2 Our view is that the essence of what we are trying to achieve is best expressed as a vision that “young people by the age of 19 should have acquired the career development skills, work habits, knowledge and understanding to make mature informed decisions about employment and associated learning progression”. This would contribute to one of the key outcomes of Every child matters – economic well-being. 4.3 This vision should be central to educational progression and subsequent career development in the complex, rapidly changing world of the 21st century. The career development skills (as described in the National Framework for Careers Education and Guidance) will be developed and practised through taking key progression decisions at 14, 16 and 18. Young people should be able to:    understand themselves and the influences on them; investigate opportunities in learning and work; make and adjust plans to manage change and transition.

4.4 Young people who have acquired these skills will be better equipped to benefit from further learning and adult guidance and support services as they progress into adulthood. They are likely to change employers, jobs and even career direction during their working lives, which makes it even more important that they develop at an early age the skills they will need to manage their own careers effectively. 4.5 Young people will also need access to good quality, impartial advice and support that helps them to understand their aptitudes and preferences, reflect on their experience of work and learning decisions, and if appropriate challenges their ideas about work and learning (including traditional and stereotypical ideas). How will we achieve this vision? 4.6 The list of activities contributing to the acquisition of career development skills and the achievement of our proposed vision includes:    curriculum coverage of occupational choices, learning opportunities and progression routes, and key employability skills and attitudes, usually but not exclusively in Personal, Health and Social Education (PHSE); formal and informal pastoral support in schools, colleges and work-based learning from tutors, form teachers, student support staff and workplace assessors; participation in “open evenings”, visits, “tasters” ”careers conventions” and similar events, 13

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often linked to key progression points at 14, 16 and 18; self directed information seeking, including the use of careers publications, Connexions Direct and other websites from learning providers, employers, professional organisations and Sector Skills Councils; mediated information provision in schools, colleges, work-based providers, employers‟ HRD departments and Connexions centres - including information about the performance of providers; work related learning, paid employment and formal work experience; impartial careers advice and guidance from qualified professionals; mentoring and volunteering; activities funded through aimhigher; initiatives led by employers and professions for example: Young Enterprise, “WISE” (Women into Science Education), The Royal Academy of Engineering Education Scheme, You Can Do IT Too.

4.7 This list is not exhaustive. Nor do we believe that each young person needs to undertake every activity listed. Each young person will have different needs, reflecting the progression choices they face, their educational achievements and longer-term career aspirations. For some this will be relatively straightforward, others will need more support. The implication of this is that the CEG model advocated by some people we met, in which needs could be met by a single career guidance interview in year 11, is both outdated and unable to meet the realities of the modern learning and employment markets. 4.8 We see CEG as being about providing a flexible learning framework, within which young people can use their emerging career development skills to take informed decisions, while having the confidence that support will be available to help if they want to change direction. This means traditional performance measures such as participation and drop out rates from college, university and apprenticeships can be useful indicators but cannot fully reflect the impact of CEG. We need to develop and introduce a clear methodology for measuring success (see our proposals under Performance Measures and Targets on page 30). 4.9 Publicly funded CEG activities contributing to this objective are only part of the picture and thus it is extremely difficult to isolate their impact from other influences on young people‟s decisions about work, educational progression and learning. These other influences include parents, older siblings, peers and the media. We know the relative importance of these varies between different parts of the country, different social groups and ethnic communities, and at different stages of each young person‟s career development. The accuracy of more informal sources of advice varies greatly, as does the awareness of people giving this informal advice about the potential significant impact it might have on the choices made by young people. Annex 4 shows, by age of young person, the learning provider options, key decision points and decision influencers. 4.10 Financial barriers and anomalies in the current system of financial support can also influence learning choices. For some young people, access to information about financial support is the critical factor in helping them decide whether or not to stay on in learning. 4.11 The cross-government review “Supporting Young People to Achieve – Towards a New Deal for Skills” is trying to address the anomalies in the current systems of financial support. For example:

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if a young person from a low income continues into further education they may be eligible for support of up to £30 a week through an Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA). Their family will continue to receive child benefit, child related tax credits, and other child related benefits; if the same young person opts for unwaged training they will be eligible for the Minimum Training Allowance of £40 a week or more. However, their families are no longer eligible for the child related benefits which can have a significant impact on household income and distort the choices made.

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4.12 The cross-government review will remove this distinction, extending the same package of financial support available to young people in full-time further education to young people in unwaged training. The Child Benefit Act 2005 amended Child Benefit legislation accordingly, and other child related benefits, like Child Tax Credits, will be amended in line with this. The Act will come into effect from April 2006 and DfES is now working with the Learning and Skills Council to extend EMA to unwaged trainees at the same time. The families of young people who are in work-based training with an employer and who receive a wage will continue to be ineligible for family support. 4.13 We recognise that making a reality of our vision entails a major shift of perspective for many working in both careers education and careers guidance roles, and the organisations in which they work. At its heart the shift is from regarding CEG as a peripheral and disjointed set of activities in support of immediate decisions about education, to a world in which the acquisition and practice of career development skills is valued and embedded into all organisations offering learning for 11 to 19 year olds. 4.14 The value of high quality, mainstreamed, careers education and guidance was recognised in the report from the Working Group on 14-19 and more recently in the 14-19 White Paper. To meet the three objectives outlined in the White Paper it is recognised that better basic information about options, better information from employers about career routes, a betterintegrated curriculum, and the benefits of early intervention are all crucial to ensure successful progression from one stage to another. It was also recognised that parents would need support so that they are equipped to give guidance to their children. The 14-19 Education and Skills White Paper, published on 23 February 2005, details a 10 year reform programme building on the Working Group‟s proposals. 4.15 The approach advocated by this review is not to begin a new initiative to improve 'careers teaching'. It is to draw attention more strongly to the fact that preparing young people to take decisions about their present and future lives is at the very heart of education. And consequently, to advocate an approach which embeds within the whole school an approach which develops in young people the skills and knowledge to make good decisions for them with a wide awareness of what might be possible and an understanding of their own capacity for agency in the world. This whole school approach is represented in the DfES‟s New Relationship with Schools.

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CHAPTER 5 THE EXISTING SERVICE Overall Assessment 5.1 In this chapter we give our overall assessment of the current service, followed by young people‟s perceptions of it. Then we look at the strengths and weaknesses of the component parts of the existing service - careers education in schools, colleges, work based learning providers and the Connexions Service. 5.2 Our overall assessment is that the current arrangements are characterised by extreme variability in the nature, quality and relevance of the services experienced by young people. There is some excellent provision but others barely meet the legislative requirements. This results in a significant waste of money, talent and energy. Our conclusion is that the significant flaws in the current arrangements for delivery of CEG mean that they are not sustainable in today‟s education and economic environment or in the face of the challenges of the next few years. 5.3 In our view, the key problems leading to the variability in the quality and relevance of CEG are that:  insufficient priority is given to CEG in many Connexions Partnerships, schools, colleges and work-based learning providers, in Ofsted inspections and in policy making;  responsibilities for CEG policy and other elements of schools and post-16 learning policies are with different ministers and supported by officials in different parts of the DfES;  responsibility for CEG delivery is fragmented between different DfES delivery chains;  not enough attention is given to young people‟s preferences for delivery methods and structures and too much to those of careers providers and professionals;  system-wide targets for progression focusing on the numbers of young people remaining in education or training do not pay sufficient attention to the appropriateness of progression decisions;  national standards are spread between documents issued by the DfES, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority and the Inspectorates (Ofsted and the Adult Learning Inspectorate);  the current regulatory framework does not offer clear national standards, roles and responsibilities for delivery organisations or robust arrangements to ensure minimum expectations are met consistently;  many schools, colleges and work-based learning providers do not have a co-ordinated CEG delivery programme;  many people involved in designing and delivering CEG activities do not have appropriate training or qualifications. 5.4 Throughout this report we make a series of recommendations which address some of these specific issues. But we believe one way of addressing the overall picture would be via a thematic review of CEG. Recommendation: Ofsted should be asked to carry out a thematic review of careers education and guidance that identifies the key priorities in developing the delivery of CEG.

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Young people’s perceptions A study by the University of Southampton, published in May 2004, The Influence of the School in the Decision to Participate in Learning Post-16, commissioned by the DfES to enhance understanding about the role of school in shaping the perception and choices of post-16 pathways, found that pupils needed careers advice at an earlier stage than is currently available. The views expressed by over 1000 pupils in focus groups set up by the study pointed to:  a lack of impartial advice, especially in schools with sixth forms;  a desire from pupils to have more direct experiential learning, for example visits and short tasters to post-16 providers. The research found that the provision of a sixth form within the schools was an important influence on the decision of young people to stay on and participate in post-16 training and education. Schools, particularly those with sixth forms, often actively promoted post-16 academic routes, compared to other forms of post-16 participation which were much less clearly promoted. Knowledge of work-based routes was low across all schools in the study. Connexions was found to be an important intervening agency for the majority of pupils, particularly in low socio-economic status schools without sixth forms, and with stable or falling participation rates. School was a less important source of advice than parents or home related influences for pupils likely to pursue academic pathways. 5.5 The findings of the research were backed up by the views of the young people we met during the course of the review. Some students, especially those aged 16 and over, reported that the advice they had been given was sometimes stereotyped and not always impartial. Most frequently mentioned was the assumption by many teachers that academically able students were automatically heading for University. 5.6 Work experience was seen as valuable by all. Those who had had contact with Connexions found it widened their perspective beyond opportunities in school. Young people suggested improvements such as access to advice immediately after receiving GCSE results, information on local and national employment trends and more contact with employers and with people who could talk about their own careers experience. In all, the young people we met at all progression stages had little sense of experiencing a carefully managed, purposeful and coordinated programme of CEG activities with clear goals. Careers education in schools A DfES survey into the delivery of careers education and guidance in schools by NFER (research brief 296, 2001) found a wide variation in CEG provision. „Only 18% of surveyed careers co-ordinators were “very satisfied” with their schools‟ provision of careers education and guidance. Some 16% expressed dissatisfaction, while nearly half (46%) requested more in-school support for their programmes. 5.7 As there is no statutory programme of study for careers education (CE), schools have great flexibility to determine what is delivered, and how much curriculum time and other resources should be devoted to it. Many people told us that the incentives, both financial and through the accountability system, to invest heavily in CE activities are extremely weak.

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5.8 We heard from young people, education and careers professionals alike about weaknesses in CE arrangements in schools in many parts of the country. Many people in schools do not believe they have the resources, expertise or incentives to invest in CE. Many spoke of the growing importance they attach to CE and their regret about the extent to which it had been crowded out of their agenda by other priorities and targets. At the same time, they report a relative reduction in the availability and expertise available from Connexions Partnerships. 5.9 This is not the first study to highlight the variability of careers education. Many of the issues that we identified were observed by Ofsted in 1998/99. These included the need for improvements in assessment, curriculum design, training of careers teachers and others involved in delivering CEG, and in monitoring and evaluation. An overview of National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) – March 2004 - research pointed to the characteristics associated with the effective development of CEG skills by young people. These are where:  young people had access to individual discussions about their future;  they had good access to ICT guidance materials;  careers related activities were provided by properly trained CEG staff;  provision started at an early stage of secondary education;  schools gave a high priority to careers education and worked closely with providers of professional guidance, including sharing information about individuals and career requirements.

5.10 We also have a good understanding of the barriers preventing schools and colleges from delivering consistently and effectively. These include:  the belief in the majority of schools that they did not have the capacity to provide appropriate CE programmes;  the lack of staff qualified to deliver CE programmes;  uncertainty among school staff about the role of Connexions or the role of Personal Advisers;  poor links with post-16 learning, employment and training providers;  partial and often outdated advice in many schools, reflecting the personal experience of teachers and tutors;  lack of resource for ICT;  an under valuation of CE as a specialism resulting in part from the unchallenging nature of CE provision in many schools compared to other curriculum areas and lack of standing in preparing teachers for promotion to senior roles within schools or the inspectorate;  limits on the time made available in the curriculum arising from pressure from other subjects; citizenship was mentioned by many people we met;  the focus in schools on activities that have a direct impact on school performance and targets.

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The NAO report – Connexions Service Advice and Guidance for All Young People – March 2004 found that 94% of schools reported some or a great deal of development was needed to the CEG they provided: of those 57% wanted more time allocated to CEG and 48% wanted more provision for young people who are not likely to become NEET; around two thirds of schools do not have staff with formal CEG qualifications. 5.11         School staff, mainly careers specialists, we met highlighted the: importance of being clear about the role of the careers co-ordinator; importance of providing good quality, accredited professional development; importance of making more time for careers co-ordinators to tutor other school staff; scope for better use of progress files to help young people recognise the skills, knowledge and understanding they are developing; potential for using labour market intelligence to help shape the curriculum experienced by young people, especially as schools and colleges begin to offer a wider range of programmes; importance of adopting a „whole school‟ approach including CEG, student support and progression issues; need to integrate learning from conventional work experience into wider learning at school or college, and find sufficient employers with the capacity to host work experience; need to recognise that schools are not always able to meet the guidance needs of young people who are NEET and this might be best met by outreach as provided by the Connexions Service.

5.12 Our conclusion is that the greatest potential for improving CEG lies in driving up the quality and relevance of careers education in schools. We need to create a climate in which schools recognise the importance of CEG and want to do it well – without adding to their burdens or being overly prescriptive. We should identify schools that are excellent at addressing issues of progression and integrating this within their approach to whole-school planning, and find ways to disseminate this best practice. 5.13 We should also ensure that through self evaluation and the single conversation, schools currently doing little to support the effective progression of their young people are challenged to review their existing CEG provision and are supported to improve it in line with what is happening in the best schools. Recommendation: Schools should be encouraged to adopt a „whole school‟ approach, incorporating CEG, student support and progression issues, starting in year 7. The DfES should publish examples of good practice.

Careers Education and Guidance in colleges and work based learning providers 5.14 Most colleges provide some form of CEG for students. The size of many colleges allows them to offer on-site careers information, advice and guidance facilities, often on an all-age basis

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in student support centres. This tends to associate careers guidance with remedial interventions in the minds of many students and management teams. In other places the fragmentation of responsibility can inhibit the development of a fully professional approach to careers education and guidance. 5.15 In general terms provision in sixth-form colleges and discrete sixth-form centres mirrors that in schools with sixth forms. In colleges, careers education is often restricted to those courses where it is required by the examination board or awarding body. This usually takes the form of work experience or a work-based project. 5.16 Careers education is not generally recognised as part of work-based learning. However, many work place assessors employed by work-based learning providers frequently offer informal advice and support to apprentices and other learners. In part, this arises from their role in helping young people to deal with problems that arise with their learning, on and off the job.

Recommendation: LSC guidance for provider 3 year development plans should reinforce the importance of enhanced CEG and working with Connexions to support 14-19 year old learners, especially those at risk of dropping out, under the arrangements initiated by Success for All. The Connexions Service A summary of available evidence on the progress of Connexions in March 2004 found that the service was making an impact, especially for young people who require intensive support. It has measurably reduced the number of young people in the NEET group. Young people report that the service makes a real difference to their progress through information, guidance and ongoing support. The University of Southampton‟s research found Connexions was the most important intervening agency for the majority of pupils. Ofsted reports on 28 Connexions Partnerships have concluded that all but 3 were satisfactory or better. 5.17 The Connexions Service has an annual budget of approximately £450 million, around double the budget of the Careers Service it replaced but its remit is wider. The fundamental principle of Connexions is to provide support to any 13- to 19-year old who needs the services it offers. It is an inclusive service, differentiated according to the needs of the young person. All young people in the age range who need it can have access to a personal adviser who can provide them with, or broker access to, objective, impartial careers advice. 5.18 There were nearly 8,000 Personal Advisers (PAs) delivering the Connexions Service at the end of March 2004. This is just over half the number originally envisaged resulting in questions about its capacity to meet the original expectations. Around half of the people delivering Connexions have a level 4 qualification in careers guidance. 5.19 Some stakeholders expressed concern at the risk of losing the professional expertise in CEG, but most Connexions Services have retained high levels of qualified and experienced

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careers staff or are using sub contract careers companies to deliver the service. 5.20 We encountered many people who welcomed the added emphasis and investment in young people at greatest risk of a lifetime on the margins of society since the launch of Connexions Partnerships. They believe the Connexions approach makes a substantial difference to the life chances of these vulnerable young people. 5.21 We know from the NAO report on the Connexions Service that Connexions Partnerships have made excellent progress in offering holistic support for young people at risk of exclusion from employment and full participation in society; that is, those young people not in education, employment or training – or at risk of becoming so. Connexions Partnerships have helped many young people to make the most of the new opportunities resulting from a stable economy and reform of the education and training system. Effective partnerships between Connexions and other agencies now exist in many parts of the country offering a strong foundation and practical experience in building the relationships needed for children‟s trusts. 5.22 However many people we met believed this had been accompanied by a reduction in the capacity to offer more traditional forms of professional careers support for young people and for staff working on CEG programmes within schools and colleges. This is backed up by the NAO report which said: More than half of schools are satisfied with the contribution of Connexions to their school. While they are confident in the work that Connexions does with young people who most need specialist support, only half are satisfied with the level of response to the needs of other young people in schools.'

5.23 There were particular concerns about the apparent assumption that academically able young people did not need information, advice and guidance to develop the skills and understanding needed for informed occupational and learning progression choices. Many pointed to a significant group that one labelled as “committed but confused”. 5.24 In our work, we were struck by the continuing tension between the targeted service for young people at risk of becoming NEET, and the general needs of young people for effective careers education and guidance. This is backed up by evidence from the NAO report. Our conclusion is that Connexions Partnerships do not have the resources to deliver both targeted support and CEG. Recommendation: The DfES should consider whether the current funding arrangements via Connexions Partnerships are the best way of delivering CEG.

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CHAPTER 6 KEY DELIVERY ISSUES 6.1 This chapter looks at key delivery issues for careers education and guidance, such as impartiality, workforce development and employer engagement. It also examines issues which End to End Reviews are required to address including coherence and collaboration, choice and contestability, equal opportunities, quality standards, performance measures and targets, value for money, reducing bureaucracy, and ICT and e-government. Access to impartial careers advice A key finding of the Southampton research on the influence of school in post-16 decision making was that pupils in schools with sixth forms tended to judge the advice and guidance functions of their school as being less impartial than those in schools with no sixth forms. This is backed up by a survey into apprentice feedback conducted by John Berkeley at the University of Warwick in March 2004, which reported that two thirds of Advanced Modern Apprentices had been strongly advised by teachers against work based learning. An EEF report comparing the UK to France and Germany 2003,„Bridging the Continental Divide‟ points to the inferior status given to technical training and vocational education, and the lack of systematic provision for introducing students to career opportunities in science and engineering as key factors in skills shortages. 6.2 A recurring theme among those we met, including careers co-ordinators in some schools, was about the lack of impartiality in the help offered by schools, colleges and other providers, especially in schools with sixth-forms and with tough recruitment targets. Many people spoke about the refusal of some schools to give their students access to literature produced by colleges and work based providers, permission to attend information giving events or in more general terms to give others a “fair hearing”. 6.3 This stems in part from the complexity of handling a wide range of diverse materials of varying quality and accuracy from colleges and work-based learning providers. This led the End to End Review of Modern Apprenticeship delivery (January 2004) to recommend the establishment of a collaborative mechanism to promote and handle applications for modern apprenticeships. 6.4 For others these problems reflect the strong academic flavour of the educational mission of many schools and the impact of associated achievement based targets. However, many people see these problems as arising from a desire on the part of many schools to retain every pupil in their sixth forms, even where this may not be the best course of action for some individuals. Such beliefs undermine the basis for collaboration between potential CEG partners in many local communities. Our conclusion is that schools (especially those with sixth forms) do not always provide impartial guidance to 14- to 16-year olds on the full range of local learning opportunities. 6.5 While there is no simple answer to this problem, we believe progress may be made through recommendations which we are making elsewhere in this report:  reaffirming every young person‟s entitlement to impartial careers information and advice;  facilitating much closer collaboration between schools, colleges and work-based learning

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providers to make it easier for young people to acquire accurate information and advice about progression routes; increased CEG professionalism amongst staff in schools and colleges; explicit references in Ofsted and ALI Guidance for Inspectors to address this issue; a new focus on the quality and effectiveness of progression decisions alongside cruder measures of whether young people remain in learning at different stages.

Workforce Development Research has consistently found that the schools workforce is not well qualified to deliver CEG. The 1997/8 Ofsted thematic survey of CEG found that only one-third of schools careers co-ordinators held a recognised qualification in CEG. The DfES survey into CEG in 2001 found that out of 528 schools surveyed, less than half of careers co-ordinators had achieved or were working towards nationally recognised guidance qualifications. The Working Group on 14-19 reform recognised the need to ensure that: „those responsible for giving information, advice and guidance (whether personal advisers, teachers/lecturers or support staff) are properly trained to undertake the role‟. But it also acknowledged that resources will need to be made available to ensure significant development of and improvement in the information, advice and guidance provided by schools, colleges and training providers and by Connexions. The 14-19 White Paper said that “we will ensure that objective and individual advice and guidance is available at key points in the 14-19 phase and that more detailed plans would be set out in due course. 6.6 Equipping the workforce with the appropriate skills and competences is widely recognised as the cornerstone for improving CEG delivery. The critical underpinning question is about the motivation and incentives for people working in the field and their managers to make the necessary investments. We were unable to obtain specific information about the investment made in CEG related staff development in schools, colleges, work-based learning providers and Connexions Partnerships. 6.7 As well as staff whose primary role was as subject teachers, schools need to have access to professionals responsible for assessing young people‟s needs/offering personal guidance, brokering learning programmes relevant to individuals‟ needs, and providing access to personal development opportunities/other non-curricular activities. 6.8 The current qualifications framework appears to offer sufficient scope and capacity to meet the training needs of the workforce but there is evidence that schools are not releasing teachers for training, even where funding for supply cover is offered.

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„The greatest difficulty CEG advisers have experienced is schools not releasing teachers to participate in training events, even when funding for supply cover is offered.‟ „The problem of teachers not being able to get out of school to attend courses is, however, only part of the picture. Some careers co-ordinators are not interested in taking developments forward and do not attend, others attend but there is little impact on provision in school, either because the teachers themselves do not take the initiative or they are not enabled to put developments into practice because of other priorities in school.‟ „Support and Training for CEG within Connexions Partnerships: review and emerging trends”(David Andrews, February 2004) 6.9 Careers education is not included in most initial teacher training programmes for school or college staff, nor is there a requirement that people delivering CEG in schools or colleges should hold an appropriate CEG-related qualification. 6.10 Whilst opinion favoured introducing measures to qualify the workforce to minimum standards, this has implications. The teachers we spoke to thought that more training was needed for staff in schools, and that there were not enough careers specialists. INSET training days would help, but finding time to fit this in with teachers‟ other commitments was difficult. 6.11 There were concerns about the low numbers of people involved in co-ordinating careers work, who have a relevant qualification. More emphasis also needs to be given to continuing professional development in CEG. If this is embedded senior managers and heads will see it as a valued area and will encourage their staff to participate. 6.12 The NVQ Level 4 in Careers Education and Guidance is currently being piloted. Given the problems associated with releasing teachers to attend off-site training, and lack of understanding of the NVQ, we believe the evaluation of the pilot should examine the quality of current provision and the barriers to improvement. 6.13 Most Connexions Partnerships offer well-regarded support for schools and colleges in developing their careers education and information arrangements including in service training, consultancy and funding to support careers qualifications. 6.14 Connexions PAs who deliver in-depth careers guidance are required to hold a relevant careers guidance qualification including:  the Qualification in Careers Guidance (QCG) – The higher education delivered qualification for career guidance practitioners in the UK. The Institute of Career Guidance is the Awarding Body for the qualification, which is a one-year full time, two years parttime course offered by 14 Universities across the UK. The DfES currently provides funding to Connexions Partnerships to sponsor a number of students on this course; the NVQ level 4 in Advice and Guidance including specified units which are particular to careers guidance specialists. This qualification is largely undertaken by employees working with Connexions Partnerships.

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Recommendations:  The chief executives of the National College for School Leadership and the Centre for Excellence in Leadership should be invited to consider whether greater prominence should be given to CEG strategies in their learning programmes.  A coherent workforce development strategy (linked to the work of the Lifelong Learning and Social Care Children and Young People Sector Skills Councils as they come on stream) which enables all practitioners who work with teenagers to support them in managing transitions (working with the Children, Young People & Families Workforce Council and others as appropriate). Evaluation of the NVQ level 4 pilot should examine the quality of current provision and the barriers to improvement.

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Employer Engagement The Sector Skills Development Agency in its „Strategic Plan for 2003-6‟ envisages a bigger role for Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) in the design and delivery of foundation degrees and apprenticeships. Its report „Lessons from Trailblazers- An Evaluation‟ conducted in October 2002, highlighted the work of trailblazer SSCs at school curriculum level through initiatives such as piloting new courses or projects that reflect the needs of the sector. 6.15 In our discussions, we were struck by the low level of active employer engagement nationally or locally in much of the CEG work undertaken by young people. There are, of course, important exceptions, for example, employers offering work experience placements, teacher placements into industry, industry visits, careers conventions, enterprise projects for young people and their central role in apprenticeships. 6.16 Several people with a long-standing involvement in CEG mentioned the extent to which Connexions staff appeared to be more remote from the day-to-day workings of the job market than was the case ten years or more ago. Equally, some employers and their representatives were critical of CEG arrangements, especially the accuracy of information given to young people and their responsiveness to employers. 6.17 The employer organisations and business people we spoke to said that work experience, employer links and careers education are often just bolt-ons to the curriculum and that the approach needs to be integrated. Those consulted accept that employers must have a role in providing work experience, visits and mentoring opportunities for young people. 6.18 Issues around child protection/insurance etc can prohibit employers‟ involvement, but schools need to be proactive in encouraging their participation. Work experience often provides the best value for young people where it can be effectively linked back into the curriculum. Some of those consulted suggested that group visits could be more valuable than work experience - to provide an overview of an industry rather than individual work experience. There was a strong view that Education Business Partnerships (EBPs) were key to this, although a greater consistency of approach, through LSC lead is needed to spread good practice.

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6.19 Nationally, we need to look at how Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) can add value and not duplicate or overlap with EBPs. Many SSCs already have careers websites, produce careers information and promotional materials on equal opportunities. These need wider publicity. SSCs need to build on this work and also disseminate good practice to Connexions, EBPs and others with careers interests. Recommendation: That employers acting collaboratively at national level through Sector Skills Councils should play a stronger role in providing accurate employment, careers and occupational information to young people. Coherence and collaboration The NAO study concluded that there was a lack of clarity regarding the respective role of schools and Connexions in providing careers advice to young people. 6.20 One of the characteristics of the existing CEG arrangements is that none of the main participants has CEG as their main preoccupation. The priority of each of the front-line delivery organisations lies elsewhere; as a result, CEG often fails to capture the sustained interest of organisational leaders who have to manage complex portfolios of activities, objectives and targets. 6.21 The delivery of CEG is best described as a series of loose partnerships. Effective CEG within these partnerships requires a strong degree of coherence and co-ordination – coordination within institutions, between institutions and with the Connexions Service. Annex 5 shows the accountability and funding lines for organisations involved in the existing CEG delivery system. From this it is clear that the current arrangements lead to fragmented delivery with several front line delivery organisations active in each area. Their respective roles and those of intermediary organisations are shown in Annex 6. 6.22 ln most parts of the country there are service level agreements and other formal documents setting out the respective roles and commitments between Connexions and schools. The nature and impact of these documents varies greatly across the country. In part, this reflects the potential confusion arising from the various elements in the legal framework and associated standards. Our conclusion is that there is confusion over the respective roles and responsibilities of schools and Connexions Partnerships. 6.23 Many teachers we met said they were confused about the role of Connexions, with some believing that Connexions Partnerships were wholly responsible for CEG and that their school had no responsibilities in this area. Others believed that Connexions had to provide a careers interview for each pupil in year 11, regardless of need or relevance. The impact of this confusion is that young people do not receive a full integrated and coherent CEG programme at the critical stages in their progression. 6.24 In some places, the partnership agreement approach has been extended to colleges. It is rare for there to be formal agreements between Connexions and work-based learning providers. It is also rare for there to be effective formal agreements setting out the relationship between Connexions Partnerships and Jobcentre Plus. 6.25 Many Connexions PAs we met highlighted the importance of effective careers education if

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they are to make good guidance interventions. PAs said they often spend their time offering information services better provided by others leading to poor value for money and considerable disenchantment amongst Connexions staff. We found little evidence of robust systematic arrangements to coordinate the publicly funded CEG related activities within schools and more widely within local communities. 6.26 Information about the full range of provision, including quality and performance of providers is another area of concern. It is not always readily available and is not easy to pull together. The LSC, Connexions and Local Authorities should have a role in countering this, and in helping young people and parents to access and interpret the information. 6.27 To improve and expand information available, the DfES will start developing the UK Register of Learning Providers in late Autumn 2004. The Register will bring together existing datasets on learning providers. This will mean more informed choice for learners and employers, and streamlined funding and contracting systems for providers. It is planned to be operational from Autumn 2005. 6.28 The Enhancing Learner Choice project was set up to establish what, if anything, should replace the Section 50 returns (which used to require colleges to publish information each year about achievements and destinations). The project report makes a series of recommendations, recommending collaborative working between the LSC, the LGA and Connexions, to improve the availability, accessibility and quality of information available to young learners, particularly performance information on providers. Recommendations:  Responsibility for delivery of both careers education and careers guidance should be brought together in one organisation in each area who would be clearly accountable for delivery. Proposals should be invited for pilot collaborative working on career development and progression planning, possibly based around existing 14-19 or Excellence in Cities Partnerships, or Foundation Partnerships. The LSC, local authorities and Connexions should improve the availability of information on the full range of provision, including quality and performance, learning from best practice recently gathered and shared, using the UK Register of Providers as a basis once it becomes operational.

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Choice and contestability 6.29 In common with other End-to-End reviews, we looked at the choices open to users (young people and their parents in accessing CEG), and the extent of contestability in the systems for contracting CEG services. 6.30. Current arrangements do offer a certain amount of choice in respect of some elements of the overall package of CEG support available. The range of information about career opportunities and associated learning is expanding with the growing use of new technologies. Previously most information came from locally managed services through face-to-face contacts 27

with careers teachers and advisers, but increasing use is made of nationally provided technology-enabled services such as Connexions Direct. 6.31 Other aspects of the CEG package for young people offer fewer choices as they are integral to the curriculum offered by their school, college or work-based provider. Within this, many elements are optional, for example the choice of work experience placements and involvement in activities such as Young Enterprise. 6.32 The approach used in establishing Connexions Partnerships did not involve a high degree of contestability in selecting service providers. When Connexions Partnerships were established, their delivery arrangements reflected the map of existing careers companies in their area. Although in theory they had the freedom to select providers from outside the area, in practice most chose to continue to contract with the existing supplier. Neither the partnership formation process nor the funding methodology offered strong intrinsic incentives for value-for-money improvements. However, Connexions Partnerships have started to review their provider arrangements through their self-assessment reviews using Best Value principles, and competitive tendering. During 2004-05 a number of partnerships have already carried out such reviews and have opted for a change of provider. 6.33. As so much of the overall CEG offer is part of the wider curriculum and reflects the institution‟s mission and ethos, we do not see extending choice of service provider to young people or their parents as an immediate priority. However we would look to any new arrangements to introduce a greater degree of contestability into the selection of organisations to deliver the parts of the CEG offer outside the core taught part of the curriculum. Equal Opportunities The Equal Opportunities Commission interim report on its investigation into gender segregation in Modern Apprenticeships „Plugging Britain‟s Skill Gap: Challenging Gender Segregation in Training and Work‟, May 2004, highlights the damage caused by gender segregation to the UK economy by contributing to skill shortages and restricting individual‟s life choices. It found that careers advice to young people often reinforces gender stereotypes by failing to represent the full range of employment options open to men and women. It recommends that careers advice should challenge traditional choices. 6.34 The equality organisations that contributed to the review reported that many mainstream schools and colleges are often ill informed about the post-16 opportunities and options that are available to disabled students and as a result often offer a poor service. They have found the service offered by Connexions to be patchy and dependent on the expertise and interest of individual staff rather than the organisation as a whole. Young people with learning difficulties and /or disabilities who have a statement of special education needs are more likely than others to have benefited from the advice of a PA, because of the statutory requirements placed on the Connexions Service in relation to this group of young people. Young people from minority ethnic backgrounds are also identified by the Connexions Service as a priority group for advice and guidance and a strategy is in place to improve outcomes for this group of young people.

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„Developing Connexions – Young people with disabilities, mental health needs or autistic spectrum disorders – May 2004‟ reports on a project conducted by the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities, commissioned by the DfES. The two and a half year study evaluated the support offered by the Connexions Service to young people with learning difficulties, physical impairments, hearing and visual impairments, young people with autistic spectrum disorders and young people experiencing mental health problems. The report highlights the value of Connexions as an independent source of advice and support and identifies the role of the Personal Adviser as a key to supporting young disabled people. 6.35 The equality organisations reported a lack of priority from schools and Connexions Partnerships to address stereotyping and traditional choices. They argue that the emphasis on achievement in schools and colleges is not matched by encouragement to make the most of that achievement in terms of career choice. High academic performance, by girls for example, is not always translated into achievement in the workplace. Equality organisations recommend the Government should take the lead on ensuring that careers education, joined with other aspects of the PHSE curriculum, challenges gender stereotyping and that schools are supported by appropriate training. 6.36 The National Framework for CEG includes learning outcomes that help young people to recognise influences on their attitudes in relation to equal opportunities. Recommendation: We recommend that equal opportunities are identified in national standards, addressed in workforce development and the inspection framework and monitored through arrangements for performance measurement and evaluation. Quality standards A survey that included 35 Connexions Partnerships Inset and Curriculum Support for Careers Education and Guidance - A survey of current practice (Careers Education Support Programme July 2003) revealed that 93 percent of the partnerships which took part in the survey had developed or adopted quality standards for schools to use to support self-review and evaluation in the provision of careers education. 6.37 The National Framework for Careers Education and Guidance recommends local quality standards as an aid to self evaluation. It provides national criteria for local quality standards and awards. It also includes advice on how to quality assure careers education and guidance programmes and develop continuous improvement processes. 6.38 Many Connexions Partnerships have developed or adopted quality standards for schools to use to support self evaluation, and have offered consultancy services to schools around reviewing existing CEG programmes against the national framework. Some Connexions Partnerships have developed award schemes for schools. 6.39 The Investor in Careers Award, developed by Cornwall and Devon Connexions Partnership is an example of a quality standard for the management of CEG in schools, colleges and training providers. Assessment is based on standards required by legislation or nationally 29

produced guidelines on good practice. Many of these have been successful in raising the profile of CEG work and increasing standards, but only with a minority of schools. Recommendation: Local quality awards for schools should be encouraged. 6.40 Many Connexions Partnerships and careers companies are accredited to the matrix standard. This is the standard which all providers of information and advice to adults funded by the LSC‟s IAG programme budget are required to be accredited against or working towards. It encourages the top management of an organisation to integrate their strategy and plans with their information, advice and guidance activity to achieve improvements in performance. Performance Measurement and Targets 6.41 Connexions has played an important role in meeting the Government target set for reducing the proportion of young people who are not in education, employment or training (NEET) and the quality of CEG is a key element of this. However there is no target specifically for CEG, or any means of measuring performance either in schools or Connexions Partnerships. Developing success measures would not be easy. It would require precise measurable objectives. Data on the destinations of 16 year old school leavers would be one indicator of school performance. This is already collected on a local authority basis and so the additional costs of collating data for every school should not be prohibitive. 6.42 We need a coherent performance measurement and evaluation programme for career development and progression planning. Its initial aim should be to develop and introduce a clear methodology for measuring success. Ideally, this approach would also encompass the performance of front-line delivery organisations. The programme would also advise on the feasibility and desirability of introducing a CEG outcomes based target for the main delivery organisations. The essential test of such an approach would be confidence that the benefits would outweigh the burdens from the point of view of front-line delivery organisations. 6.43 Within the Learning and Skills Sector, work is already taking place to develop measures of success in post-16 learning. This is being introduced as part of the Success for All reforms announced in November 2002. The DfES and the LSC have worked with the Inspectorates and a range of external partners to develop new measures where they can properly recognise and celebrate learners‟ success and evaluate the effectiveness of providers without imposing unnecessary burdens. Following a consultation exercise, plans for developing priority measures were published in June 2004. The aim is to launch the measures in September 2005, with full implementation planned in 2006.

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Recommendations  A coherent performance measurement and evaluation programme for CEG should be initiated. This would provide robust information about the progress of the whole CEG system. Its initial aim should be to develop and introduce a clear methodology for measuring the success of CEG programmes in outcome terms and the performance of front-line delivery organisations. Linked to this programme, we recommend that a feasibility study, involving external stakeholders, including Ofsted, is undertaken to assess the scope for developing and implementing new outcome focused performance measures for career development and progression planning. This would feed into the proposed Ofsted thematic review. HMCI should be invited to consider how the effectiveness of progression planning arrangements, including CEG, can best be captured in the more regular inspections of secondary schools now being proposed. Similarly, the Chief Inspectors should be asked to consider how the career development vision and progression planning should be handled under the new arrangements for inspection of local areas and schools.

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Value for Money 6.44 The fragmented nature of much of CEG provision means that it is difficult to assess with any certainty the full resources devoted to helping young people acquire the knowledge, understanding and skills needed to take informed decisions about occupational and learning progression. 6.45 The complex arrangements for funding CEG are illustrated in Annex 5. The main funding channels are Government Offices (Connexions), LEAs (for much of schools spending on under 16s) and the LSC (for school sixth forms, colleges, work-based providers and Education Business Partnerships). The fragmentation of funding routes and associated accountability arrangements can be confusing, time consuming and wasteful. 6.46 A key assumption for the review is that there will be no increase in the budget for CEG in the future. Any proposals which we make must therefore be about getting better value for money out of the existing funding, and exploring possible ways of reallocating it. Future funding arrangements for CEG depend critically on the development of children‟s trusts, the details of the New Relationship with Schools and the LSC‟s three year planning arrangements with colleges. See the recommendation at the end of chapter 5. 6.47 Every child matters:next steps proposed that Connexions budgets should be aligned with children‟s trusts, and that the Department should explore the feasibility of devolving funds to local authorities, with the intention of their commissioning a basket of services for teenagers from Connexions Partnerships. Reducing bureaucracy 6.48 We did not find much evidence of bureaucracy in the current arrangements for delivering

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CEG, although many people we met expressed concerns about what they perceived as the added burdens imposed on them by the wider remit of Connexions. 6.49 There is no doubt that the advent of Connexions led to an increase in the amount of management information (MI) required, and there have been conflicting pressures to collect MI across an increasingly wider spectrum of policy areas. However, this was necessary in order to fulfil the wider remit of the Connexions Service, particularly the requirement to keep track of young people. The Connexions Service National Unit (now part of Supporting Children and Young People Group) has made every effort to reduce bureaucracy in the collection of MI by establishing a web-enabled, automated system which minimises the effort required to collect and input the data. The NAO report praised the Connexions MI system as the most effective way of tracking young people. 6.50 In making our recommendations for improvements, we have given careful consideration to the need to avoid adding further burdens to an already overloaded system, especially as we know that increased resource for CEG is not an option. Many people would welcome an increase in prescription, which others might interpret as bureaucracy. For example, many people felt that the current arrangements for delivering careers education could be improved through making the National Framework compulsory, or through the introduction of Individual Learning Plans. However, this approach would not be consistent with the New Relationship with Schools (see paras 2.11-2.12). ICT and e-government Over 5,000 young people contact Connexions Direct every week and over 50% of these enquiries are about careers and learning. In May 2005 there were almost 5000 daily visits to the Connexions Direct website with young people spending an average of over 18 minutes using the site. The most popular feature on the website is the Jobs4U careers database with 32% of visitors accessing this part of the site. 6.51 The aim of the Government‟s e-delivery strategy is to have all services being capable of being delivered online by 2005, with high take up of key services. Good progress is being made towards achieving this aim in the delivery of CEG. 6.52 Connexions Direct provides high quality information, advice and support to young people via telephone, text, adviser online and email. It complements the face to face delivery of services provided by Connexions Partnerships and reaches young people through modern media at a time that suits their needs (the service is available from 8.00am to 2.00am 7 days per week). The Connexions Direct website provides a wide range of careers and learning related articles, products and databases. 6.53 We found good evidence that schools were actively promoting the use of Connexions Direct amongst their clients. However, the review identified a risk of duplication of effort and potential confusion for young people, employers and others where large investments are being made in local web based services. 6.54 Many people saw the potential for a growing role for ICT based careers information services, but there were two areas of concern:  although young people can get up to date and accessible information via the internet, it is not

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a substitute for impartial careers guidance;  some schools were hesitant about giving young people unrestricted access to the Internet, while others were worried that those from poorer backgrounds without ready access to the internet would be disadvantaged by any greater use of ICT.

6.55 We believe these concerns are largely misplaced. Better information is important in its own right and is not a replacement for impartial guidance. Young people have considerable skills in accessing and handling information and in some cases will not require any further guidance. We think it is sensible for the delivery of CEG policies to build on these abilities, especially where it allows careers specialists to devote their energies to those needing professional careers guidance. Recommendation: The DfES and the LSC should build on and further promote existing ICT provision such as Connexions Direct, and continue to improve direct access to advice via the internet, mobile phones and in community locations.

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CONCLUSION We offer this report for consideration in the context of the Green Paper “Youth Matters” and the “Offer for Teenagers”. We conclude by thanking the many people who contributed to our work, often at short notice. Their ideas and analysis were invariably thoughtful, wise and thought provoking in approaching the complex and important issues raised during our review.

CEG Review Team July 2005

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Annex 1 List of organisations consulted In total around 350 people were consulted, including staff and students at schools and colleges, young people taking part in a Connexions Direct user survey, a spread of Connexions Partnerships and their sub-contractors and representatives from the following organisations: Aim Higher Association of Colleges Association of Learning Providers Career Productions Careers England CBI CfBT Construction Industry Training Board Disability Rights Commission Equal Opportunities Commission e-skills UK Foyer Federation Go Skills Government Offices Guidance Council Guidance Enterprises Group HM Treasury Institute of Careers Guidance Learning and Skills Council Local Government Association Modern Apprenticeship Task Force National Association for Gifted and Talented Youth National Association of Careers and Guidance Teachers National Association of Head Teachers National Confederation of Parent Teacher Associations National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling National Union of Teachers Ofsted Qualifications and Curriculum Authority; Secondary Heads Association Sector Skills Development Agency Selly Oak Hospital Skill: National Bureau for Students with Disabilities skillsformedia Universities for the North East University of Northumbria

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Annex 2

Location, within and outside learning, of Young People aged 11 to 18 at the end of 2002
4% 6% 2% 2% 3% 3%
FE colleges (including 6th form colleges) Schools

HE institutions

Work Based Learning

11%

Employer Funded Training

Other Education and Training

Employment without Training

69%
Not in Education, Employment or Training

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Annex 3 History and Central Services 1. This Annex describes the history of CEG and the central services provided by the DfES. The arrangements for the delivery of careers education and guidance have changed considerably since the early 1990s. Prior to 1994 each local authority was responsible for providing careers services. Performance between LEAs was variable. In the mid 1990s careers services across England were contracted out to a mix of private sector and partnership companies. Targets were set to ensure there was universal support to young people based on one to one interviews, group sessions and individual action plans. 2. The 1997 Education Act strengthened the statutory basis of careers education and guidance from September 1998. In 1998-9 careers services were subject to a major shift in the way they were funded. The DfES moved away from specifying activity targets such as numbers of interviews undertaken and action plans produced, and instead made funding of individual careers services dependent on the achievement of goals arrived at through analysis of local need. During 1998-99 the DfES directed the Careers Service to focus its resources to where they were most needed and to encourage schools and colleges to play a greater part in careers education. 3. During the same year the DfES asked Ofsted to carry out a survey of careers education and guidance in secondary and special schools and pupil referral units. The survey found a mixed picture and it identified a number of key issues around the need for improvement:    curriculum design and assessment; training of careers co-ordinators and other teachers; support for school managers in monitoring and evaluating careers education and guidance.

4. The impetus to create the Connexions Service, which was to incorporate the work of the Careers Service, came in the 1999 White Paper „ Learning to Succeed – a new framework for post –16 learning‟ and the Social Exclusion Unit‟s report „Bridging the Gap – new opportunities for 16-18 year olds not in education, employment or training (July 1999)‟. Both documents identified problems with the existing support for young people. Bridging the Gap highlighted the 9% of 16-18 year olds outside of education, training and work that had been a consistent feature since 1994. The Learning and Skills Act 2000 created a framework to allow the establishment of the Connexions Service. Central services 5. For many years the DfES published careers material via the Careers and Occupational Information Centre (COIC) in a mixture of priced and free publications. Priced products were withdrawn completely during 2004. Centrally produced free publications are still well used in schools - 600,000 copies of Which way now? were ordered for year 9 students in 2003-04. There is a buoyant market for careers products but the impartiality of Connexions information is the key factor sought by schools. 6. The delivery of careers information on the Connexions Direct website has opened up opportunities for schools and young people who are able to access information directly and at a time of their choosing, thereby maximising self learning. Occupational information is delivered by a Jobs4U database which enables young people to generate careers ideas using search 37

facilities. Practitioners are able to access frequently updated information on line, generating savings from the printing and purchasing of hard copies. 7. Choices publications for Years 9 to 11 continue to be delivered to schools free of charge. Parents and Carers, identified as a major influencer of young people, are also included with their own targeted publication. This was first produced in 2003-04 and feedback showed over 90% support. The Real Game series was introduced by DfES in 2000, in partnership with its Canadian owners. Following a tendering exercise in 2004, Prospects Ltd were awarded the UK licence to build on the work carried out by the DfES/Connexions in schools to help deliver work life experiences. 8. The mix of both printed and web-based materials provide a valued national support service which supplements the role of Connexions and schools in providing additional local information for young people. 9. In 2003, the DfES issued The National Framework for Careers Education and Guidance a non-statutory framework for careers education providing a significant tool to help schools colleges and work based learning providers to improve programmes of CEG. It includes:  recommended learning outcomes and suggested content for careers education programmes for young people aged 11 to 19;  advice on how young people can gain maximum benefit from the guidance provided by their learning institution, Connexions and their Parents or carers;  advice on how to quality assure careers education and guidance programmes and develop continuous improvement processes. 10. The DfES has also established a national support programme to develop information and services to promote, support and improve careers education in schools and colleges. The programme produces innovative classroom materials and its website (www.cegnet.co.uk) is well used by careers practitioners. Services for Adults 11. In April 2001 the LSC took over responsibility for securing Information, Advice and Guidance services for adults from the DfES. 12. In December 2003, in conjunction with the Learning and Skills Council and UfI, the DfES published the National Policy Framework for Adult IAG services. This defined at a national level the information and advice services which adults should be entitled to expect and the standards to which those services should be delivered. The LSC subsequently published its strategy fo Coherent IAG Service for Adults. The integrated service has been available from 1 August 2004.

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Annex 4 Young Person‟s Journey: Learning Provider options, key decision points and decision influences – by year/age
Key Stage 3 Year/Age Learning Provider Options Y7 (11-12) School Y8 (12-13) School Y9 (13-14) School Y10 (14-15)* School FE College Work-based learning provider Key Stage 4 Y11 (15-16)* School FE College Work-based learning provider Post-16 options (AS and A2 levels/ vocational qualifications/ Apprenticeships/ E2E/Employment) School Connexions College Work-based learning provider Parents Peers Media Work experience School Connexions College Work-based learning provider Parents Peers Media Part-time working Volunteering Y12 (16-17) School Sixth Form College FE College Work-based learning provider Confirm A2s Post-16 Y13 (17-18) School Sixth Form College FE College Work-based learning provider Post 18 options (Higher Education/ Vocational Qualifications/ Apprenticeships/ Employment) School Connexions College Work-based learning provider Parents Peers Media Part-time working Volunteering College Connexions Work-based learning provider Parents Peers Media Part-time working Volunteering (18-19) HE Institution FE College Work-based learning provider

Decisions to be made

Key Stage 4 options (GCSEs/vocational options)

Institutional Influences on Decisions (1)

School

School

School/Connexions

School Connexions College Work-based learning provider Parents Peers Media Part-time working Volunteering

Other Influences on Parents Decisions (2) Peers Media

Parents Peers Media

Parents Peers Media

(1)

(2)

*

Institutional influences include:- curriculum coverage of occupational choices, learning opportunities and progression routes, and key employability skills and attitudes, usually but not exclusively in Public, Health and Social Education (PHSE); formal and informal pastoral support in schools, colleges and work-based learning from tutors, form teachers, student support staff and workplace assessors; participation in “open evenings”, visits, “tasters”, “careers conventions” and similar events, often linked to key progression points at 14, 16 and 18; work related learning and apprenticeships; mediated information provision in schools, work based learning providers and Connexions Centres; impartial careers advice and guidance from qualified professionals. Other influences include:- mentoring; self directed information seeking, including the use of careers publications, Connexions Direct and other web sites from learning providers, employers, professional organisations and Sector Skills Councils; mediated information provision in employers‟ HR departments; volunteering; paid employment; formal work experience; initiatives led by employers and professions, for example: Young Enterprise, “WISE” (Women into Science Education), The Royal Academy of Engineering Scheme, You Can Do IT Too. As part of the greater flexibilities of the 14-19 reforms, some learning may take place outside school in FE colleges or with work-based learning providers.

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Annex 5 Accountability and funding lines for the current CEG delivery system
Chart 1

Ministers Ministers
Statutory Duty Careers Guidance DWP DWP Jobcentre Plus Jobcentre Plus DfES DfES Lifelong Learning Lifelong Learning DfES DfES Connexions Connexions Statutory Duty Careers Education DfES DfES Schools Schools

£

£
LSC LSC

£

£
Connexions Connexions Direct Direct

£

£ £
1

GOs GOs

OFSTED OFSTED

£
Jobcentre Plus Jobcentre Plus Districts Districts
2

LLSC LLSC

Connexions Connexions Partnerships Partnerships

LEAs LEAs
5

£

£
Colleges/Providers Colleges/Providers WBL/Prison E&T WBL/Prison E&T

£

3

£
Sub Sub Contractors Contractors
4

£
Schools Schools

6

Learners Learners
40

Organisations involved in delivering careers education and guidance
ORGANISATION Department for Education and Skills ROLE           Connexions Direct

Annex 6

Statutory duty to secure provision of careers guidance. Overall development of CEG policy. Manages relationship and secures resources for Schools and the Connexions Service. Produces careers related and occupational material. Statutory duty to deliver a careers education programme to students in years 7 to 11. Provide CEG to young people from 16+ to age 19 in colleges of FE and sixth form colleges. Provide CEG to young people in work based learning Carry out the duty placed on Secretary of State for Education and Skills to secure the provision of careers guidance and placing services for young people attending school and colleges and for young people ceasing to undergo such education. Provide resources to train staff from schools, colleges and work based providers in careers education and related topics. Produce local CEG and jobs related resources for young people. Provides on line and telephone advice and guidance to young people. Signposts to other organisations and services for young people. Delivery of CEG on behalf of DfES, schools, colleges, work based providers and Connexions on a sub contracted basis. Produce careers related literature and resources. Conducts inspections of schools, colleges, Connexions Partnerships and Area Wide Inspections of 14-19 provision. Inspects all Learning and Skills Council funded work-based learning for those aged over 16, and working with Ofsted, all learning in colleges for those aged over 19. Provide advice, guidance and resources to members. Represent the views of members. Provide advice and support to CEG professionals. Develop and accredit professional qualifications.

Schools Colleges Work based learning providers Connexions Partnerships

 

Private and specialist careers companies Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education) Adult Learning Inspectorate Associations/Unions for professionals linked to CEG Guidance Professions

       

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ORGANISATION Government Offices and regional networks Learning and Skills Council (National office and local offices) Qualifications and Curriculum Authority Higher Education Institutions

ROLE                         Assist in the planning of local learning provision. Link to employer networks. Link to central Government. Sets guidelines for delivery of post 16 learning provision. Funds and manages post 16 provision. Funds and manages adult Information, Advice and Guidance services. Develops of NVQs and guidance on CEG. Funds of occupational standards. Accredits awarding bodies. Set their own admissions criteria and assessment methods. Recruits students including participation in careers fairs and visits. Offer careers advice and guidance to their students. Initial training for careers teachers and careers guidance professionals. Develop occupational standards and training resources. Link to employers, work based providers and the labour market. Recruit young people. Contribute to CEG activities directly, through trade associations or initiatives. Provide work experience, mentoring or work shadowing. Provide advice to Government and organisations involved in the delivery of CEG on equality issues that might impact on the delivery of CEG. Provide advice and guidance and lobby Government on behalf of groups or communities. Influence Government and schools on the impact of policy on young people and their parents/ carers. Offer informal careers advice and guidance to young people. Represent the views of young people at local and national forums. Represent the views of young people to Government and its delivery agents.

Sector Skills Councils (SSDA and SSCs) Employers

Equality organisations Voluntary/community organisations Parent/carers organisations Youth service Youth Parliament, school councils and organisations that represent young people

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ORGANISATION CRAC and National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling (NICEC) Department for Work and Pensions/ Jobcentre plus

ROLE  Research and development in careers guidance.

  

Policy on payments to encourage young people in post 16 learning. Vacancy filling. Advice for young people on the New Deals

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Annex 7 Bibliography John Berkeley, Apprenticeship Feedback.Com- Listening to the Work Based Learners. University of Warwick March 2004 British Chambers of Commerce, Skills in Business – April 2004 Careers Education and Guidance in England, A National Framework 11-19 March 2003 Connexions Direct, Research to Inform Website Development, Brahm Research May 2004 Connexions Customer Satisfaction Survey – May 2003 Connexions Evaluation, Progress and Evidence Synthesis- March 2004 Connexions Requirements and Guidance- November 2003 Connexions, Support and Training for Careers Education and Guidance within Connexions Partnerships – review and emerging trends, David Andrews- February 2004 Derby University, Review of Recent Research into the Impact of Careers Education and Guidance on Transitions from KS3 to KS4 -January 2004 DfES 14-19 Opportunity and Excellence –January 2003 DfES 14-19 Pathfinder Interim Evaluation Report- May 2004 DfES Developing Connexions – Young People with disabilities, mental health needs or autistic spectrum disorders, Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities – May 2004 DfES Interim Report on Longer Term 14-19 Reform, Mike Tomlinson – February 2004 14-19 Curriculum and Qualifications Reform – Final Report of the Working Group – October 2004 DfES End to End Review of Modern Apprenticeship – January 2004 44

DfES Research Brief 296, Delivery of Careers Education and Guidance in Schools, Morris et al – September 2001 Equal Opportunities Commission, Report on Phase One of the Investigation into Gender Segregation and Modern Apprenticeships – May 2004 Improving Careers Education and Guidance in Schools, Roehampton University of Surrey-2001 Learning and Skills Council, Report on the Implementation of Post Area Wide Inspection Action Plans – April 2004 Learning and Skills Council, Response to the Interim Report from the Working Group on 14-19 Reform - May 2004 Literature Review, Research Evidence Relating to Careers Education and Guidance, DfES – April 2004 Modern Agenda for Prosperity and Social Reform, Article by Gordon Brown – May 2004 National Audit Office Report, Connexions Service Advice and Guidance for All Young People- March 2004 Supporting young people to achieve: towards a new deal for skills, HM treasury, DWP, DfES – March 2004 NFER, Research, The Case for Careers Education and Guidance for 14-19 year olds - March 2004 NFER, Young People‟s Views of careers education and Guidance in Schools-1998 OECD Review of Information Guidance and Counselling Services: England, York Consulting – February 2002 Ofsted, Evaluation of First Year of the Increased Flexibility Programme at KS4 - May 2004 Ofsted, National Survey of Careers Education and Guidance – September 1998 Ofsted reports on 19 Connexions Partnerships from 2002 available on the Connexions website Sector Skills Development Agency- Strategic Plan 2003-6 Sector Skills Development Agency – Lessons from Trail Blazers, 2002 Southampton University, Report on the Influence of the School in the Decision to Participate in Learning Post 16 - May 2004 45

Survey on Young people and ICT 2002 - Report to the DfES by BECTA

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