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					Translation Studies in the New Millennium: Volume 1 (2003)
THE PRAGMATICS OF TRANSLATOR EMOTIVENESS AND VISIBILITY: A SOCIO-TEXTUAL PERSPECTIVE
Basil Hatim American University of Sharjah, U.A.E. Heriot-Watt University, U.K. email: bhatim@aus.ac.ae Abstract This paper is primarily concerned with various aspects of pragmatic meaning viewed from the general perspective of intercultural communication. Categories such as Text, Discourse and Genre (subsumed under „socio-textual practices‟) will be under focus, with translation between English and Arabic as the specific domain of practice examined. In this domain, translator emotiveness and visibility are singled out as basic, yet problematical. These are aspects of translator performance which are closely bound up with residual „orality‟, a communicative condition which hampers efforts in certain languages and cultures to achieve a reasonable degree of „literacy‟ despite the availability often of a most elegant written medium. Higher-level rhetorical conventions at work in the native language tend to be negatively transferred into written or spoken target languages (e.g. English), standing in the way of effective language use in such areas as academic writing and translation.

HANDLING EVALUATION IN TRANSLATION TRAINING
Hannelore LEE-JAHNKE University of Geneva email: hannelore.lee-jahnke@eti.unige.ch Abstract It is pedagogically axiomatic that true quality can only be achieved if the goal is made perfectly clear to the student. This paper discusses a fresh approach to the following issues: • Various methods to heighten awareness of students‟ perception of evaluation; • Formative evaluation as used in our courses; • Ongoing research in summative evaluation; • Necessary collaboration between Universities and professional associations: CIUTI1 -institutes and FIT.

NE METTEZ PAS VOS PENDULES À L’HEURE ou DE LA TRADUCTION COMME MÉTISSAGE LANGAGIER
Alexis Nouss Université de Montréal, Canada email: nuselova@poste.umontreal.ca Abstract «S‟il est neuf heures trente-cinq à l‟une de ces horloges, et si une autre horloge indique neuf heures trente-cinq au bout d‟un certain temps, arriver à la conclusion que la seconde imite la première est absurde» affirme Djélâl, personnage du Livre Noir d‟Orhan Pamuk. Tout aussi absurde que de prétendre qu‟une traduction imite son original. Imitation, fidélité, transparence, vielilles lunes traductologiques qu‟il est temps de décrocher. Le métissage ouvre une troisième voie entre fusion et différentiation, homogène et hétérogène. C‟est un processus oú les composantes d‟un nouvel ensemble conservert leur identité et leur histoire. Une pensée du métissage est fortement d‟actualité sur le plan socio-politique mais la traduction connaissait la recette. Le “texte traductif” ne privilégie ni l‟original ni la traduction; il révèle, au contraire, leurs interactions et se pose véritablement comme un modèle éthique.

ASSUMED TRANSLTION: A METHODOLOGICAL CONCEPT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS
Gideon Toury Tel Aviv University, Israel email: toury@post.tau.ac.il Abstract Anyone wishing to tackle translations for any scholarly purpose is faced with the delimitation of the object of study: How is one to know what to take up and what to leave out? The current state of Translation Studies (henceforth: TS) makes this a tough question indeed to answer in a way which would be acceptable to one and all. Not only does today‟s discipline constitute a hotchpotch of (more or less fragmentary) paradigms, but there still reigns a tendency to regard essentially different approaches as mere alternative ways of dealing with „the same thing‟. Which they are not, nor should they be expected to be: Far from being a neutral issue, the object of study is perforce a function of the theory in whose terms it is constituted; and every theoretical paradigm is geared to cater for needs of its own, which may easily be different from those of any other paradigm. One question of far-reaching methodological implications is, how much previous knowledge should one claim to have, when doing research. As the title of this contribution implies, my answer would be that we should exercise some modesty and admit that all we can purport to do is tackle texts and acts, or events, which we assume (rather than „know‟) to be translational.

THE USE OF DICTIONARIES IN TRANSLATING CULTURE-SPECIFIC ITEMS: A CASE STUDY IN THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA (UKM)
Nor Zakiah Abdul Hamid & Intan Safinaz Zainudin National University of Malaysia email: zakiah@pkrisc.cc.ukm.my

Abstract This paper is based on an experiment attempting to investigate the use of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries among students in translating English culture-specific lexical items into Malay. According to Mona Baker (1992), lexical items which contain culture-specific concepts create problems in translation due to unknown or non-equivalent concepts in the target language. A pre-test was carried out with these students and the results show that a number of culture-specific items, such as dressing-gown, continental breakfast and punch, create problems in translating even though the students are equipped with dictionaries. The research question is: how efficient do the students use dictionaries in their translation work? The methodology used is based on the framework applied by Atkins and Varantola (1997) in their research to monitor students‟ use of dictionaries in translation. In this experiment, students are given texts containing culture-specific items to translate. Then they are given a task sheet reporting on what type of dictionary they use (either monolingual or bilingual), the words they search for and their comments on the dictionary search. In the task sheet, students report on the usefulness of using dictionaries when translating, particularly culture-specific items. The data will be the students‟ translation and their remarks on the use of dictionaries recorded in the task sheet. Quantitative and qualitative analysis is used to process the data. The quantitative analysis is used to gauge the frequency of dictionary lookups among students and the qualitative analysis is to identify problems encountered by the students when translating culture-specific items and how they deal with them.

TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETATION AS ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN INTERNATIONAL ORANIZATIONS: THE CASE OF NATO
Şebnem Koser Akçapar Bilkent University Ankara, Turkey email: sakcapar@yahoo.com Abstract This paper aims to highlight interpretation and translation services that are essential for the working of official agencies. As translation is essential to ensure good communication between member states within international organisations, the machinery established to maintain the provision of this service will be explicated. Against this background, the translation and interpretation policies in NATO as an international body that has two official languages, namely English and French will be expounded. In NATO, there are currently 19 member states. Despite the ten native languages present among its members, work is conducted only in two languages with simultaneous interpretation and document translation from one official language to the other. Additionally, NATO Russia Council, one of the subsidiary bodies, is responsible for the interpretation and translation between Russian and the two official languages. The purpose of this paper is furthermore to investigate the present and the future role of translation and interpretation in the process of communication across linguistic and cultural

barriers, to inform how translation and interpretation services are carried out in NATO and to question the use of other languages in times of globalization and the wide use of English by non-English speakers. This paper will also address the work conditions and environment of translation and interpretation staff, their workload, recruitment and job assessment policies, the number and professional qualities of people working in translation and interpretation services and their training. Participant observation method and in-depth interviews with the personnel and directors of the translation and interpretation departments are used to get insight and to learn the issues and challenges encountered in NATO during the translation/interpretation process as well as in the daily running of these services.

CATCHING THE BUTTERFLY IN FLIGHT A BILINGUAL DATABASE OF TERMINOLOGY IN THE HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
Anja Katrine Angelsen Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway email: anja.angelsen@hf.ntnu.no Abstract Words are commonly referred to as the building blocks of language, but in observing words‟ behaviour, the butterfly seems to be a better metaphor. This also applies to words or terms that make up the terminological apparatus of some fields of study, especially within the human and social sciences. In relation to the translation of academic texts, an ordinary, bilingual dictionary with an alphabetical listing of terms does not capture the butterfly-like behaviour of terms. Creating a parallel, bilingual database of translated, academic texts is an attempt to capture the apparent wavering of terms.

“OLMAK YA DA OLMAMAK” OLUR MU?
Bülent Bozkurt Bilkent Üniversitesi, Ankara Turkey email: bbozkurt@bilkent.edu.tr Abstract How to say „Julius Caesar‟ in Turkish? – “Translating” the titles of Shakespeare‟s plays. While translating Shakespeare‟s plays I have occasionally had to tackle some curious complications in rendering the titles. Typical cases in point include Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, and A Midsummer Night‟s Dream. The title “Julius Caesar” has been rendered into Turkish by various translators as “Jules Cesar,” “Jül Sezar” and “Julius Caesar”. One of the earlier translators of the play used a French translation as his source and initially adopted the French title (“Jules Cesar”) unchanged for his translation. However, for a later printing of the same translation he preferred “Jül Sezar,” the Turkish spelling of the French title. “Jül Sezar” is still the established spelling of the Roman general‟s name in Turkish and its validity had not been questioned until later translators of Shakespeare‟s play found it unsatisfactory. Indeed, in the Shakespearian context “Jül Sezar” looks and sounds decidedly awkward, if only because no aspect of the play can be remotely associated with France and French language. Nor are there other characters whose names may be rendered into Turkish in a comparable way. There seems to be little doubt that the title of Shakespeare‟s play should be rendered into Turkish as “Julius Caesar,” that is, in its English and original Latin spelling. What would remain unsolved in that case is the problem of the pronunciation of the title, since it doesn‟t make sense to expect the Turkish reader and audience to adopt either the English or the Latin pronunciation. In fact, translators have simply left the problem “to take its own course”. Accordingly, the later translations (including mine) of Shakespeare‟s play are called “Julius Caesar,” and referred to by all as “Jül Sezar”. Although that is far from being satisfactory for me as a translator, at least I am comforted by the notion that no one is likely to blame me for not exerting more efforts to solve this far-reaching problem of the state of Turkish language and culture. The Turkish version of Antony and Cleopatra is called “Antonius ve Kleopatra”. There are two relatively minor problems here: firstly, the fact that you have to use “Antonius” instead of “Antony” in Turkish makes the name sound more formally “Roman” than it actually is in the original, thereby somewhat misrepresenting Antony. Secondly, since Shakespeare uses “Antonius,” too, at least twice in the text (and, apparently deliberately) the translator is unable to make the same distinction in Turkish by using both versions of the name. In A Midsummer Night‟s Dream, the problematic element is “Midsummer”. The play has been translated as Yaz Ortasında Bir Gecelik Rüya (“A Night‟s Dream in Midsummer” (or, “...in the Middle of Summer”)), Bir Yazdönümü Gecesi Rüyası (“A Summer Solstice (or “Turn of Summer” (?)) Night‟s Dream” – which sounds awkward in Turkish and does not convey the meaning of the original title), and Bir Yaz Gecesi Rüyası (“A Summer Night‟s Dream”), which misses the magic and ritual associations of “Midsummer”.

One could, of course, translate “Midsummer” into Turkish as “Yaz Ortası”, but it would be misleading to do so. Because that would only mean “the middle of summer” and would be chiefly associated with hot weather. It seems, then, that the translators of A Midsummer Night‟s Dream have not agreed on which of the the possible renderings of the title would be less unappealing in Turkish.

NOVELS TRANSLATED FROM ENGLISH INTO TURKISH: ANALYSING CULTURAL, LITERARY AND LINGUISTIC NORMS IN TRANSLATIONS
Ġsmail BoztaĢ email: boztas@hotmail.com ġirin Okyayuz Yener email: sirinyener@hotmail.com Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey Abstract Translators of literary works make choices in the act of translation that they would not make if they were writing in the target language. These choices are mostly systematic and thus form a certain discourse of translated literary texts from English into Turkish. These may be referred to as the markers of a translated text. Within the scope of the study these markers have been defined and categorized as the subcategories of the cultural, literary and linguistic aspects of the text. The research depicts the systematicity of the use of certain structures as well as possible reasons for the uses and the mishaps, and the appropriateness of the choices made. Finally the paper discusses the norms of translation reflected through these choices in the target language and goes on to consider how translation contributes to the target language.

TEXTSORTENKONVENTIONEN, TEXTBAUSTEINE UND “FREIE” GESTALTUNG IN WERBEBRIEFEN (SPANISCH-DEUTSCH ALS FREMDSPRACHE)
Jenny Brumme Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona) email: jenny.brumme@trad.upf.es Abstract Our paper deals with letters offering products and services, which is a subgenre within commercial correspondence. It is also one of the most translated genres (Schmitt 1998, 10), and, in the Spanish context, one of the most translated into German (Roiss 1998, vol. 2, 6). Although there are a great number of textbooks containing models of letters and phraseology which students and translators may have access to, in most cases the problems encountered in the translation of a specific text require special treatment. Therefore, one of the goals of translation-teaching should be to develop the basic competence to resolve difficulties encountered in this genre. Our analysis is based on the premises established by contrastive textology (Hartmann 1980; Spillner 1981), and furthermore, we describe the genre conventions of the advertising letter in both languages and cultures (intralingual analysis). In interlingual analysis, the persuasive function is the tertium comparationis, since the translated text retains the same function in the target culture. As an example of our approach we have chosen a letter offering a Deutsche Bank investment fund; this bank habitually addresses its clients in Catalonia either in Spanish, Catalan, or German. The main extratextual features (either communicative or situational) which have been taken into account are the following: a) the textual function, already mentioned, which is persuasive; b) the relationship between sender and receiver which by convention is asymmetrical (from a lower to a higher position between the seller and the buyer of the product); c) place and time, which are a specific trait of the letter as a “communication removed from space”.

Among the intratextual features (linguistic features) determined by the previous features, the following are compared: d) macrostructure in general; and, more specifically, greeting and ending formulae (e.g. differences in the degree of formality of different formulae; the treatment of names in German when addressing a client whom one knows); e) text coherence and cohesion (the different ways of structuring letters into paragraphs, and the difference in the use of anaphoras); f) the use of recurring textual formulae which differ in the two languages (search for equivalent formulae according to their function in the text); g) the inscription of the sender and the receiver in the text (e.g., the sender shows a stronger inscription in the German text); h) advertising style specific to each language (e.g., length of sentences, function of the postscript). Through the analysis of this example text, we have reached the conclusion that it is necessary to make adjustments to the original text in order to achieve the persuasive function in the target language. It is also necessary to observe genre conventions and fixed formulae in each language. Therefore, available translation programmes only provide partial help. In order to resolve other the rest of problems, it is necessary to develop specific abilities and great linguistic and cultural competence in the target language.

THE CONSTRAINTS THAT MANIPULATE INTERPRETING SERVICES AT DISASTERS
Alev Bulut İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey email: obulut@superonline.com Abstract This work focuses on the voluntary interpreting services provided for foreign rescue team members at disaster sites (with specific reference to the constraints that manipulate the task of a voluntary interpreter) and the project started for the standardization and development of these services. Interpreters-in-Aid at Disasters (IAD) / Afette Rehber Çevirmen (ARÇ) is a voluntary group launched in 1999 at İstanbul University in collaboration with the General Directorate of Civil Defence in İstanbul and the Association of Translation, bringing a university, a state and a civil organization together for the purpose of „contributing to the National Disaster Preparedness Plan‟. The efforts in the way of standardizing the voluntary interpretation services given under disaster conditions challenge us, the researchers, with a profound theoretical basis from the status, the role and the position of the interpreter to the group identity and the code of group behavior. The status of the individuals serving voluntarily at disaster sites needs to be discussed with reference to the constraints of role description, expertise, inter-cultural and ethical beliefs. Since IAD is under Community Interpreting by definition, the

theoretical and applied work done in the field has been the major source of information in the attempt to define IAD services.

BOġANMA KARARLARI ÖRNEĞĠNDE TÜRKÇE - ALMANCA HUKUK ÇEVĠRĠSĠ ÖĞRETĠMĠ
Hasan CoĢkun Coşkun Tercüme Bürosu, Ankara, Turkey email: hcoskun@bir.net.tr Abstract We frequently come across legal translations in the translation market. Among these legal texts we see a growing increase in translations of divorce decisions. Therefore, we must place more emphasis on divorce decisions in translation lessons. In this paper we will discuss translating legal texts from Turkish to German. Moreover, we will touch upon teaching translation of divorce decisions.

ARDIL ÇEVĠRĠ EĞĠTĠMĠNE NÖRODĠLBĠLĠMSEL VE PSĠKODĠLBĠLĠMSEL YAKLAġIM
Aymil Doğan Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara-Turkey email: aymil@hacettepe.edu.tr Abstract Consecutive interpreting is a process where skills such as listening, comprehending, note-taking, storing in the memory, retrieving and reformulating in the target language are all conducted in a manner specific to interpreting, within a constrained time period, increasing the mental load of the interpreter tremendously. Thus, a special training program is needed to enhance the related skills in the students. This paper is devoted to overviewing the neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic aspects of consecutive interpreting and suggesting a curriculum draft accordingly.

THE BACKGROUND OF TRANSLATIONS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES: PUBLISHERS AS CULTURE PLANNERS

Arzu Eker Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey email: ekerarzu@hotmail.com Abstract This paper is mainly based on my MA thesis submitted to the Department of Translation and Interpreting at Bogaziçi University in 2001. In order to understand the notion of translation in general in any given culture, one needs to, at first hand, explore the target-source text relationships by comparing and the translational norms at work during the act of translating. However, it is also very important to approach and explore translations as cultural products in a broader context. Only then their functions or the functions attributed to translations can be revealed. The question at this stage for the researcher to ask is why these translations exist in that target culture in the first place. From this perspective, publishers, as active decision-makers in choosing the books, i.e. translations, to go into publication, should be consulted for answers to this question. Taking this as a starting point, this paper focuses on the Turkish translations in the social sciences where the bulk of translations published cannot just be overlooked. Therefore, the question that this study starts out with is "Why do these translations exist?” The answers to this question are explored in interviews I held with nine publishers, namely Ayrıntı, Metis, İletişim, Alan, İz, İnsan, Pınar, Sarmal and İnter Publishing. However, for reasons of time and space, only samples that are found most relevant to the aim of this paper will be presented. The paper will give some statistical data from the publishers‟ catalogues of 2000 and samples from their initial aims in order to reveal the relationship between their published translations and initial aims. The data gathered shows that each publisher had a different agenda as a natural result of the diversity in their policies. However, this fact acted as no barrier to each one‟s claim for intervention in the cultural, political and social life of Turkey. At the end of the paper I will discuss how the data gathered can be thought of in theoretical terms, mainly in terms of the notion of "culture planning" as suggested in the theories of Itamar Even-Zohar and Gideon Toury. Publishers, in this context, will be regarded as culture planners who, by way of the "options" (translations) they choose to import and present readers, try to intervene in the cultural life of Turkey with the aim of transforming it.

RECHTSTEXTE AUS DER PERSPEKTIVE DER TRANSLATIONSWISSENSCHAFT UND TRANSLATIONSDIDAKTIK
F. Sâkine Eruz Universität Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkei email: seruz@ttnet.net.tr Abstract Legal Texts Considered from the Viewpoint of Translation Studies and Translation Didactics The study begins with an outlook on the prevailing circumstances in translation didactics in Turkey. The concepts of translation didactics and translatory competence are defined in terms of contemporary translation theories like, for instance, Skopos and Action Theories. The study will be focused on an extremely interesting text type, namely legal texts, considering the fact that legal texts are primarily significant for Translation Studies due to their cultural characteristics, to the frequency and amount of translation involved. Most laws of the Turkish Republic have been made via translation. The term legal text covers a wide range of meanings so the study elucidates the concept of legal text, the text type conventions involved, the processes related to the translation oriented text analysis for legal texts and exemplifies this using the concrete case of a contract. The example used here not only is realia, a text produced during the actual legal process, but also a part of the lesson conducted in the 8th semester of our department. The methodology involves the research techniques specific to the Translation Studies and the use of parallel texts. Finally, it is pointed out that the interdisciplinary nature of Translation Studies necessitates a cooperation between the translator and/or translation scholar and the expert in the related specific field.

COMMUNITY INTERPRETING AND TRANSLATING IN AUSTRALIA: MEETING TRAINING NEEDS
Dimitra Gallos NSW Department of Education and Training-Bankstown College of TAFE, Sydney, Australia email: dimitra.gallos@tafensw.edu.au Abstract This paper will first attempt to provide a descriptive account of the development of Community Interpreting and Translating in Australia with specific emphasis on how Australia has been meeting the training needs of the profession and which institutions played a role in this. Secondly, it will give a brief outline of the accreditation and recognition processes and the role of the National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in establishing interpreter and translator levels and standards in ethics and skills and in setting guidelines for accrediting courses for the training of interpreters and translators in educational institutions in Australia. Thirdly, it will describe the role and effectiveness of the professional body which represents interpreters and translators, the Australian Institute of Interpreters and Translators (AUSIT), in the provision of professional development and training. Lastly, the paper will examine one of the major employers of interpreters and translators, the Department Health and in particular one Area Health Service, the Southwestern Sydney Area Health Service in New South Wales, Australia. It will then attempt to analyse the area‟s population composition and diversity and explore the challenges it faces in aiming to provide specialist interpreting and translating services to its diverse community, which includes large numbers of refugees and victims of torture and trauma. The role and innovative approach in providing affordable translating services both to its community and to other areas within New South Wales will also be discussed.

DIALOGISM AND MONOLOGISM IN HUMAN AND MACHINE TRANSLATION
Ann Jorid Klungervik Greenall Norwegian University of Science and Technology email: ann.j.k.greenall@hf.ntnu.no Abstract Errors made by human translators and machine translation (MT) systems are not only quantitatively but also qualitatively different. The reason for this, it is argued in this paper, is that human linguistic processing in general and human translational processing in particular is dialogical whereas MT processing is monological. The human translation process is heteroglossic – i.e. it takes into account all of the different „voices‟ inherent in the translation process and in language – and these voices are then dialogized, i.e. they are put into meaningful relations with one another in an active, back-and-forth contextualizing process. MT systems, by contrast, being based in static computing principles and Cartesian, rationalist linguistic theory, work unidirectionally and do not sufficiently contextualize structures, words and expressions. An example is provided in order to illustrate these differences between human and machine translation, and it is concluded that although MT systems can be improved by „dialogizing‟ the way they work, it is not likely that they will ever outperform human translators.

PROBLEME DES LITERARISCHEN ÜBERSETZENS: HEINRICH VON KLEISTS “DAS ERDBEBEN IN CHILI” IN DER TURKISCHEN ÜBERSETZUNG
Zehra GülmüĢ Anadolu Universität, Eskişehir, Türkei email: zgulmus@anadolu.edu.tr

Abstract Problems of Literary Translation: The Turkish Translation of Heinrich von Kleist‟s “Das Erdbeben in Chili” Since literary texts are by nature determined by content as well as by aesthetic elements, they present special problems for translation. Literary translation involves almost every imaginable translation problem. The translator has to transfer the author‟s originality and message resulting from the content, form and style of the text. Otherwise, the literary translation will be no more than a “simple” translation of a text. This paper is about Heinrich von Kleist‟s novel “Das Erdbeben in Chili” (1807), which was translated into Turkish by Melâhat Togar in 1952. I try to demonstrate a number of literary translation problems. The examples show to what extent different translation strategies can influence the transfer of meaning into the Target-Language-Text.

GLOBALIZATION AND TRANSLATION THEORY George Ho The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand email: akgho@yahoo.com. Abstract This paper examines the impact of globalization on the translation environment. The most recent globalization process has brought about unprecedented changes to the global society. It has also given impetus to the development of the translation and interpretation profession and business. However, a number of issues regarding translation theories and their application to the translation practice in the process of globalization have emerged and need to be addressed urgently. In this paper I attempt to use the “paradigm > crisis > revolution > new paradigm, etc.” model for scientific research proposed by Thomas Kuhn, a well-known Jewish American philosopher, to examine the current status of research on translation theory. The application of this model reveals that the process of globalization has caused a breach between theory and practice of translation, which has been widely ignored so far by mainstream translation theories and has led to a crisis in the field of translation studies. My paper proposes that different theoretical models be constructed for pragmatic and literary translation in order to respond to the pressures and challenges imposed by globalization on translation theories and research approaches. The study then concludes with further suggestions as to how this might be achieved and what might be predicted on the basis of the Kuhn theoretical framework.

KÜRESELLEġMENĠN BAKIġIMSIZ GÜÇ ĠLĠġKĠLERĠ BAĞLAMINDA ÇEVĠRĠ KURAMLARINA YENĠDEN BAKIġ
Ġsmail Kaplan Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Istanbul, Turkey email: kaplanismail@yahoo.com Abstract Revisiting Translation Theories Within the Context of the Asymmetrical Relations of Power Under Globalization Translation is not only a linguistic act but an inseparable component of the totality of human activities and as such loses its multi-dimensional integrity when its relations with other disciplines such as literature, history, culture, philosophy, politics, law, economy, sociology, psychology, communication and international relations are ignored. A sound translation analysis requires a comprehensive approach which takes into account various branches of study. Contemporary theories of translation have paved the way for works that evaluate translation within the context of its relations with other fields.The interaction of translation studies with linguistics, semiotics, literature,

cultural studies, political science and history has become an established fact thanks to the works of students of translation studies. We have to make use of the results of such research done in the light of translation theories in order to review, and, if need be, revise our theories. In line with the basic method of the sciences, we have to combine the process of “ going from theory to research and application” with the process of “turning back to theory from research and application”. My purpose in this paper is to re-evaluate Gideon Toury‟s theory toward descriptive translation studies and Hans J. Vermeeer‟s skopos theory within the context of the asymmetrical relations of power under globalization. By the concept of asymmetrical relations of power, I mean that at present there prevails an uneven and unequal relationship between peoples, nations, classes, and hence, between cultures, language communities and languages in the world. Translation is performed amid unequal relations of power. This inequality is fundamentally the legacy of colonialism and imperialism. Although colonialism and imperialism were greatly weakened due to the resistance of the oppressed peoples, nations and classes in the latter half of the twentieth century, colonial and imperialistic practices have surfaced once again especially after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the establishment of a virtual unipolar international system. Under globalization, a handful of states headed by the United States enjoy a virtual world monopoly over the cultural field beside their enormous economic, political and military power. The cultural artifacts of the United States are poured down on all nation-states thanks to modern communication technology. In such a world, the weak countries of the world have lost control over their relations with the colonial and imperial powers. The weak countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America have also lost direct access to each other‟s cultural products. Toury‟s and Vermeer‟s theories of translation ignore this essential feature of globalization and do not question it in any way. They do not challenge the historical and current implications of a hierarchical, hegemonic and oppressive relationship between the masters and the colonialized peoples. They fail to acknowledge the inherently political role of translation studies in a world of asymmetrical relations of power. What we need, however, is to reformulate our translation theories so as to help the establishment of free, equal, humane and voluntary exchange between nations, peoples and cultures for a world undivided by the selfish interests of a hegemonic minority.

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EQUIVALENCE RELATIONSHIPS IN USTA BENĠ ÖLDÜRSEN’E! Elif Kemaloğlu Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey email: elifkemaloglu@yahoo.com Abstract Translation is a process of interpretative transfer from source language into target language. Based on Jacobson‟s classification, translation can be classified into three types i.e. the intralingual, the interlingual and the semiotic. This study presents a descriptive equivalence analysis of the tripartite translational “adventure” of “Usta Beni Öldürsen E!”, a story and a film about the relationships between a master acrobat and his apprentice, written by Bilge Karasu. This original adventure involves not only three source and target works but also three of the translational processes mentioned above. The first step of the translation involves an interlingual and an intersemiotic translation of the story (source work (SW) 1) into an English screenplay by Barış Pirhasan. The latter product is the first target work (TW) 1 titled Sawdust Tales. The second step of this translation process involves a semiotic and intralingual translation of TW 1 i.e. SW 2 (The English screenplay has now become a source work from which the film is originated) into a film directed by Barış Pirhasan (TW 2). TW 2 has been presented to two different target cultures as follows: 1) It has been presented to the non-Turkish target culture in English with the name “Sawdust Tales.” 2) It has been presented to the Turkish culture in English and their Turkish translations in subtitled form. The name of the film presented in the Turkish cultural system is “Usta Beni Öldürsene.” Moreover there exists a third translated work in the framework of this entire translation. It is the Turkish translation of the English screenplay published in Turkish culture with the name “Usta Beni Öldürsen E.” Therefore there is an interlingual translation here involving the English screenplay as source text (SW 3: It conserves its characteristics as TW 1 and SW 2) and the Turkish screenplay as target work (TW 3).

In the first part of the paper the reasons why three target works have been assumed to be translatums are given. The criteria underlying this assumption are the three postulates suggested by Toury, namely 1) source text, 2) transfer, 3) relationship. What remains unchanged, i.e., the invariant information in all the works that are subject to translation is the relationship between the master and apprentice. The things they share and the conflicts they have form a dilemma which is the core of the invariant. The second part of the paper presents a descriptive analysis of the actual equivalences between the source works and the target works in general and in terms of the phenomenon of authority within a theoretical framework. The authority phenomenon has been chosen because it is signified in all the works by a number of signifiers. The paper ends in a commentary on the types of norms governing the concerned process of translation. The appropriate behaviors within a semiotic translation are defined on the basis of this norm analysis.

TRANSLATION ERRORS AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM
Malika Medetova Ablai Khan Kazakh University of International Relations and World Languages, Almaty email: mmedetova@hotmail.com. Abstract The translating process can be defined as a set of operations performed by a translator in rendering source text into target text. Contrastive analysis of these two texts makes it possible to distinguish types of errors which may occur in the process of translation. Understanding of the nature of errors may help to improve the methods of teaching translation. In order to develop a set of tasks which can teach students to avoid errors in translation, it is important to classify translation errors. They can be classified into two groups: 1. errors caused by an inappropriate rendering of the original context; 2. errors caused by an inappropriate modification of original information and the forms of its expression. In the first group it is possible to differentiate between the following errors: distortions, discrepancies, ambiguities. The reasons for them may be misunderstanding of the source text due to the lack of background or factual knowledge, or wrong understanding of grammatical or lexical problems of the text and others. These errors may fully distort the information of the source text and that may lead to general misunderstandings. In the second group we can distinguish errors caused by literal or free translation. In case of literal translation we can also observe distortions and ambiguities, but also the loss of implicit information, systemic errors (i.e. the violation of semantic and logical links in the source text), language errors leading to distortions of the norms of language, errors in the usage of language units (register), stylistic and lexical errors. Free translation is closely connected to literal translation as they both distort the communicative effect of a source text. It means that free translation may lead to the occurrence of practically the same errors, but in case of free translation we observe the excessiveness of information in a target text compared with a source text. The set of tasks to teach students to work with errors may be the following: 1. Compare source text and target text and pay attention to the underlined errors in a source text. Define the group of errors and correct them. 2. Compare source text and target text and find semantic errors, classify and correct them. 3. Compare source text and target text and find register errors, explain and correct them. 4. Compare source text and target text. Define the variants of translation which can be considered optimal. Find all translation errors, classify, correct them. 5. Compare a source text and 3 translations of this text performed by different translators. Find the most appropriate variant, justify the choice. 6. Proof read and edit a target text In any language we can find lexical units which cause translation errors, such as so-called “ translator‟s false friends‟, “traps of the inner form of lexical units”, some kinds of geographical names. To overcome the problem of such words the number of exercises can be fulfilled, aimed at translating and classifying such words. .

AN EVALUATION OF THE REINTERPRETATION OF THE QUR’AN FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE SISTERS IN ISLAM (SIS) IN MALAYSIA.

Rahminah Muharam Centre for the Promotion of Knowledge and Language Learning Universiti Malaysia Sabah email: inal.hm73@excite.com Abstract The Qur‟an as a divine text becomes the main reference for Muslims in both legal and social aspects of life. People rely on the interpretation of the verses in the Qur‟an as an essential tool to really understand the messages of Islam. Generally, there are two approaches to the interpretation of the Qur‟an that are the traditional Islamic interpretation and the Muslim feminist approach (sometimes known as the Islamic feminist). Both the traditional Islam and the Muslim feminist approaches have had direct implications on the new models of female Islamic leadership within Islam. Therefore, in response to the modern challenges of Islam, a group of Muslim women has come forward within the contemporary Muslim society in Malaysia, and this group is known as the Sisters In Islam (SIS). The SIS group was formed in 1988 and initially comprised ten professional women from different educational backgrounds. The SIS mission is to promote the development of Islam that recognizes equality between women and men that adheres to the principle of justice and democracy. The reinterpretation of the Qur‟an by the SIS is done through content analysis studies. The comparison between the SIS reinterpretation with the Islamic traditional interpretation is also being discussed in this paper. The SIS group reinterprets the Qur‟an as female inclusive and this view can be seen through their own publications and memorandums. The reinterpretation of the Qur‟an by the SIS, however, has raised negative reactions from the Muslim society in Malaysia. This paper therefore, discusses whether the reinterpretation of the Qur‟an by the SIS contradicts Islamic provisions and Islamic ethics as well as the traditional Islamic interpretation of the Qur‟an. This paper also identifies whether or not the SIS is a new ijtihadi (methodology of interpretation) movement, which is based on fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) or if is just another gender group. This study found that the reinterpretation of some of the verses in the Qur‟an by the SIS contradicts the traditional interpretation of the Qur‟an. Furthermore, the SIS group may not be seen as an ijtihadi movement as the reinterpretation of the Qur‟an by the SIS is based more on ethics and morals as well as reasoning rather than fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence). This paper hopes to provide an overview of the SIS and their reinterpretation of the divine text.

THE DOUBLE LIFE OF ALICE: POLISH TRANSLATIONS OF ALICE’S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND Dorota Pacek The University of Birmingham, U.K. email: a.d.pacek@bham.ac.uk Abstract The existence of numerous translations of Alice in many languages is due to the fact that it is a true „hard nut‟ for translators to crack. Not only is it full of puns and other stylistic devices often considered untranslatable; Alice also functions nowadays on two levels - as a book for both children and adults. Therefore, the specific difficulties in rendering Alice into a foreign language consist not only of formal problems, but also of translating the text in such a way that it retains its „childlike‟ qualities, while still preserving those characteristics that are most appreciated by adults. It appears that this „dual personality‟ of Alice has influenced Polish translators‟ decisions about their translating strategy, depending on the types of audience for which the translations were intended. This paper will discuss four Polish post-war translations of “Alice‟s Adventures in Wonderland”. Due to space restrictions, I will only look at the ways in which translators dealt with some of the stylistic difficulties of Carroll‟s book. Through analysing corresponding examples of the Polish translations, I will attempt to show how a decision to translate for children/adults/both audiences has influenced the choice of particular translatory techniques from the point of view of translation norms and the target audience.

TRANSLATING INVERTED CONSTRUCTIONS: IS IT A FORMAL OR SEMANTIC CHOICE?
Abbas Eslami Rasekh Isfahan University, Iran email: aeslami@vi.ac.ir Abstract In their attempts to provide us with general statements about translation, translation theorists deal with the major question of translatability. Two opposing approaches in the literature have so far emphasized either universals of languages as opposed to linguistic relativity. Translating Persian and English sentential constructions constitutes a particularly fruitful field of research for such studies dealing with syntactic similarities and lexical differences. Since all arguments regarding linguistic and cultural autonomy have focused on vocabulary, a study with a more general interest in other aspects of language structure can be interesting. Focusing mainly on English inverted constructions contrasted with Persian equivalent constructions, this paper will uphold a modified version of a linguistic relativity thesis accounting for differences, while functional theories predicting word order in discourse are substantiated. Inversion is a useful linguistic issue to verify predictions by translation theories which base their claims on formal universals. In the present study, we intend to focus on inversion and present a brief report of findings of studies on Persian inversion rules. We will demonstrate through examples how inversion is dealt with differently in Persian compared with English. We will then underline the discourse functional dominance which opposes the typological differences that exist between Persian and English passive sentence construction. Given the highly controversial issue of translation units being sentence, paragraphs, or the entire text to be translated as units under focus, this paper will further tackle the issue with the aim of examining entire texts to verify the suggestions in the literature. The data analysed in this paper document clearly that some inverted sentential units lose their forms entirely when translated due to differential verbal systems of the two languages in question. The assumption is that under particular circumstances, translation tends to focus on the semantic content of the sentence as the unit of focus at the cost of losing form entirely; hence the unit under focus could in a sense be sentential constructions. And finally sentential constructions will be highlighted in which formal sentential units are not considered for translation when the two languages in question do not permit similar syntactic forms.

ANTHOLOGIZING AMERICAN POETRY IN SLOVENIA
Igor Riznar University of Maribor, Slovenia email: igor.riznar@guest.arnes.si Abstract Paratextual discourses that accompany numerous anthologies of modern American poetry and The Anthology of 20th Century American Poetry are scrutinized in the paper. The first stage in translating American poetry for Slovenians comprises of the choices made by the editor about who and what will be translated, a rather simplified process, comprising mostly of randomly selected authors and poems easily available from existing American anthologies. The role of the editor is thus narrowed to the promoter of the accepted American literary canon or, more likely, to some parts of that canon, without taking into account any changes in perception, which have probably occurred through time in the culture of origin. Translating for anthologies of poetry can thus be understood as creating an (sometimes false, often approximate) image of a part of the literature from which the poems were translated. In addition, it was found that bona fide prefaces bona fide repeat a limited number of themes (lack of space, the inclusion vs. exclusion of authors/poems, etc.), which points towards the overwhelming poverty and unreliable nature of such discourse.

AUDIENCE DESIGN IN LITERARY TRANSLATIONS FROM ROMANIAN INTO ENGLISH Adriana ġerban Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, and Middlesex University, London email: A.Serban@hw.ac.uk Abstract This paper is based on corpus research which takes a pragmatics perspective on literary translation. It starts from the view that literary texts are fundamentally interactive communicative acts and explores several ways in which the translators‟ assumptions and expectations about audience, as well as their accommodation to and design for an audience manifest in translations. More specifically, the aim is to find textual evidence of „audience design‟ (Bell, 1984) in translations, to compare it with the audience design in the original work, and to explore some of the issues involved in shaping the audience design of the target text (Mason, 2000).

COLOUR TERMS, IDIOMATICITY AND TRANSLATION M. Tavangar Isfahan University, Iran email: aeslami@vi.ac.ir Abstract The semantics of colour terminology is a sadly underexplored domain within the discipline of translation studies. This situation is particularly noteworthy when it comes to focusing on idiomatic expressions in which colour words feature prominently. Despite the universalist hypothesis that colour categories are assignable to a general conceptuel system common to the human race, there still seems to exist a whole range of cognitive, perceptual and environmental factors with which the potential translator of colour-oriented idioms must grapple. Moreover, socio-pragmatic considerations tend to make the task even more forbidding. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the untranslatability of colour idioms as far as English and Persian are concerned. The key question that the author endeavours to address is this: Given the fact that both languages are endowed with an eleven-term colour system , and that a neat one-to-one correspondence can be set up between the members of the two systems as follows: white black red green yellow blue brown purple pink orange grey where translation at non-figurative level is easily achievable, how is it that we will encounter a noncorrespondence between the relevant members when there is a shift to the figurative use of the terms in question? To take an example from English, the expression a white elephant , when used in a non-frgurative sense, is renderable into Persian as Yet once the expression is interpreted figuratively (i.e. as an idiom), the putative Persian equivalent of white becomes pointless. What is actually required here is the expression (literally, useless and unwanted possession). The reasons behind this dilemma are to be sought in a number of diverse factors on which this paper hopes to shed some light.

METĠNDĠLBĠLĠM VE BĠÇEMBĠLGĠSĠ AÇISINDAN ÇEVĠRĠ ELEġTĠRĠSĠ: BĠR UYGULAMA
R. ġeyda Ülsever

Anadolu Universitesi Eskişehir, Turkey email: sulsever@anadolu.edu.tr Abstract Translation Criticism from the viewpoint of Textlinguistics and Stylistics: A Preliminary Study Translation of ST pragmatic and semantic units as well as ST (source text) syntactic units is considered very important for the adequacy and acceptability of TT(target text). Translating is therefore, a process of creating a new text. Consequently, text formation processes, the notion of text types, text conventions and parallel texts become important criteria of objectivity in the area of translation criticism. In every language,different texts are created with different communicative purposes. Text types which can be found in one language may not be found in another. However,the texts having the same function but different text styles can be considered as parallel texts since they have the same communicative purpose. Parallel texts are classified as “intra-lingual” and “interlanguage”texts. Interlanguage parallel texts are those which have similar contexts (such as invitation cards,) or texts adapted to another language (such as advertisements) and finally, texts formed by translation after a conscious transfer of meaning.The study of parallel texts in terms of text formation will help understand text conventions and also evaluate translated texts more objectively .This study aims to evaluate the translated version of a short story named “Son Kuş” by the Turkish author BekirYıldız through the above mentioned ideas and determine the extent of the meaning loss between the two texts considering functional/stylistic equivalence.

ÜBERSETZUNG: DIE ANDERE SPRACHE ODER DIE ERFAHRUNG DES FREMDEN
Faruk Yücel Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesität, Türkei email: @ Abstract The problem or the experience of “foreignness” has been one of the most controversial themes through the history of translation, especially in literary translation. When we examine the concept of “foreignness”, we can see that it‟s relative and open to changes due to the era because “foreign” factors and points of views might become domesticated parallel to the changes in the values or opinions of the society. Thus, firstly the concept of “foreignness” should be defined within the framework of “translation”. In order to answer questions “What is foreign” or “To what extent is it foreign”, the reception condition of source text, the translators decision, in other words, the changes in the target text should be examined. So, the impacts of language and culture to translation should be analysed. The distance between the source and target cultures and languages may augment the impact of translation by making clear the “foreign” concepts and interpretations in the minds of target reader. In contrary, if the translator translates the target text literally, it may be difficult for the target reader to fill the semantic loss in the text. „unsere übertragungen, auch die besten, gehen von einem falschen grundsatz aus, sie wollen das indische, griechische, englische verdeutschen, anstatt das deutsche zu verindischen, vergriechischen, verenglischen. sie haben eine viel bedeutendere ehrfurcht vor den eigenen sprachgebräuchen als vor dem geiste des fremden werks ... der grundsätzliche irrtum des übertragenden ist, daß er den zufälligen stand der eigenen sprache festhält, anstatt sie durch die fremde gewaltig bewegen zu lassen (...)“. Rudolf Pannwitz

TRANSLATING ENGLISH COLLOCATIONS INTO MALAY: USING CONCORDANCES AS A TEACHING TOOL Intan Safinaz Zainudin & Nor Zakiah Abdul Hamid National University of Malaysia email: zakiah@pkrisc.cc.ukm.my

Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to explore the use of corcordances as a teaching tool for translating English collocations into Malay. It is found that students are having difficulties when translating English collocations into Malay for example, “excellent taste”. The collocation is translated literally as “rasa cemerlang”, which is inaccurate. In Malay, the adjective “cemerlang” does not co-occur with the noun “rasa” or taste, but with performances such as in studies or sports. As quoted from Baker (1992), differences in the collocational patterning of the source and target languages create potential problems in translation. The concordances used are taken from the Malay database developed by the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Language and Literary Agency in Malaysia). This paper is highlighting the use of Malay database to provide concordances that can aid students in their translation. The methodology of this paper is a comparative analysis based on studies done by Zanetin (1998) and Laviosa (1988) on the importance of bilingual comparable corpora in translation. In this paper, students‟ translations of selected chapters of the novel „The Outsider‟ by Albert Camus into Malay are compared with the Malay translation of the same novel compiled in the Malay database. Problems with translating collocations are highlighted and pointed out to students in assisting them with their translations. Through the findings of this paper, the author hopes to present the usefulness of concordances to exhibit the correct patterns of collocations in the Malay language as a guide for students in their translations.