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TRAVELLING

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									Кафедра англійської мови і перекладу Інституту східних мов

ЗАВДАННЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

ІІІ курс

Самостійна робота студента ІІІ курсу Інституту східних мов включає: 1. Individual Reading. Обсяг – 70 сторінок/модуль; словник із 20 невідомих для студента слів та 20 виразів із тексту);
2. Listening Comprehension. (English streamline; Destinations).

Усний послідовний переклад; 3. Письмове виконання нижчезазначених завдань:

Module 1. TRAVELLING Read through this rather long text over the next day or so, noting some of the key words concerned with trains, boats, cars, coaches and planes. As you read, note down the details of each of the six journeys described. Travel Broadens the Mind June 29th ... June 30th ... July 1st. And they're off. Suitcases packed. Notes left for the milkman. Arrangements made for the budgerigar to be looked after. They're all off. Uncle Bill and Auntie Jane are on the quayside at the cross-channel port of Dover - the first stage of their Mediterranean cruise - the voyage of a lifetime' their travel agent called it. They've been through customs (half an hour's delay while suitcases were emptied in search of missing passports) and they‟ll be embarking soon. When they go aboard, Bill will finally be allowed to take those boarding cards out of his mouth. Granny's at the coach station armed with her special old-age pensioner's season ticket - a kind of away day, runabout, extended period, half-price ticket rolled into one. Today she's off on a one-day sightseeing excursion to Stonehenge, Blackpool Tower and Canterbury Cathedral. Julia's with her boyfriend at the airport, kicking their cases, through the departure lounge of what they hope is Terminal 3 and the right place to be for the package holiday charter flight that their tour operator assured them would be leaving sometime this morning. To their right, the 1st class passengers are sipping champagne cocktails; to their left, those in economy and tourist class are drinking coffee from the machine and, under their feet, those on stand-by, are looking hopefully up from their sandwiches. Mum and Dad are already on the open road. They decided to make an early start on their touring holiday through the Loire valley. Tour turn to drive now. Come on, let's get moving. Switch on, then. OK, it's all clear. Pull out, there's nothing coming. Well, take the handbrake off. Right, indicate. Come on, drive away. At last! Right, keep over. Keep to the right. Change gear, then. Come on, accelerate!' 'Porter!' 'Sir?' 'How much?' '50p.' 'No thanks; I'll manage my own luggage. Uncle Mac is about to board the 10.40 inter-city express to Glasgow for a fortnight's holiday back in the homeland. 'Do I have to change?"No, it's a through train, sir, non-stop all the way.' It looks as if quite a few expatriates have had the same idea. The compartments 11 look full — especially the non-smokers - and the buffet car already sounds like Glasgow on the night of a Celtic-Rangers football match. My brother's on the slip road of the Ml motorway at Junction 14, a rucksack on his back containing sleeping bag, biscuits and a change of underwear. He's been there for an hour and a half with his homemade sign saying 'Anywhere', trying to thumb a lift. There are no hostels or transport cafes in sight. The rucksack is getting heavier and the sky is getting darker. It's not much of a life sometimes, hitch-hiking. Oh dear. Granny's coach has got stuck in a traffic jam, a queue of cars as far as the eye can see. OK, so central Birmingham is on the direct route from Blackpool to Canterbury. But during the rushhour? With thousands of commuters heading for home? Not a good plan. After all, what are bypasses and ring roads for? Right, you can overtake this one. There's no speed limit here. Oh, a diversion. You'd better turn off the main road. Pull across to the middle. Now keep in the right lane. I mean the left lane. I mean ...' Crashes at take-off, mid-air collisions, flight recorders never recovered, no survivors ... This is your captain speaking‟ wakes Julia's boyfriend up. Another nightmare over. The stewardess is smiling down at him. Fasten your seat-belts, please.' Uncle Bill and Auntie Jane have settled into their cabin, unpacked their things and have gone up on deck. The sea is calm, the sunset is out of this world, and Uncle Bill is beginning to feel just a little bit seasick. They are due to set sail in half an hour. Traffic is still crawling along behind and in front of Granny's coach. You can see the casualties by the side of the road, in lay-bys and on the grass verges - bonnets up, overheated engines, steaming radiators. The guide is into his second hour on the history of Canterbury Cathedral. Toilets 1 mile!' the cry is heard. There is great happiness. 'Right, here's a garage. 'Essence' must mean petrol station. We'd better pull in. Come on, slow down. Now, what's French for 'fill up the tank' and 'top up the battery‟ and...?' Brother got a lift half an hour ago - for five miles. He was dropped at the next exit off the

motorway and is now trying his luck on a minor road. There's a four-star hotel on his left (full board £35 a night for a single room), a guesthouse on his right (£15 per person for bed and breakfast) and a long road ahead of him. Granny's having her packed dinner and gazing at the silhouette of Canterbury Cathedral against the night sky. No matter. She can sleep on the return journey (reclining seats and air-conditioning on the coach), and tomorrow's another day. There's a trip to the local brewery; that sounds much better. Uncle Mac is sitting on his cases in the corridor outside the guard's van, surrounded by a ring of miniature bottles of scotch. Julia's plane has landed. Her boyfriend's wondering whether to try and save something from the bottles of duty-free spirits he's just dropped. Julia's more interested in the connecting bus that's supposed to take them to their final destination. Uncle Bill is on the bridge with the captain, asking him if there's any chance of being put ashore before the sea gets any rougher. 'Well, it's about time we found a bed for the night, don't you think? You see that motel on the left? There! There, where I'm pointing! There, the one with the ... Hey, pull up! Pull up! Oh dear, pull over. I wonder what the French is for Tm sorry, we appear to have dented your bumper'. TASK 1. Which form of transport - train, car, boat or plane - do you associate with each of the words and phrases below? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. set sail a cruise traffic jam compartment bonnet fast lane 7. to indicate 8. sundeck 9. commuter 10. take off 11. quayside 12. mid-air collision 13. departure 14. buffet car 15. pull in 16. charter flight 17. to disembark 18. express 19. bypass 20. guard‟s van

TASK 2. Write the answers to these questions. 1. What are the pleasures and horrors of modern driving, for you? 2. Look at the aspects of travel listed below. What are they like in your country? How are they different in any other country you have been to? a roads and car-drivers b airports с train services d hitch-hiking possibilities 3. What's the furthest you have travelled in one 24-hour period? Describe the journey. 4. Think of films or film sequences - disaster movies, car chases, train adventures, sinking ships - that involve travelling. Describe in detail the ones that impressed you most. 5. Write or act out a conversation in a car. A driving instructor is taking a learner driver out for their first lesson. The learner knows absolutely nothing about cars. 6. Write, in dialogue form, a conversation in which three friends argue about how they should travel to a distant city for a long weekend. One thinks it would be best to go by car, the second is for going by train, and the third would prefer to go by coach. 7. Write a circular letter to parents on the travel arrangements for a school's weekend excursion from London to the North of France, which you have organised. 8. Write a dramatic paragraph from your latest novel, as the hero tries desperately to get to the airport in time to catch his plane to Prague. It begins: Jackson jumped into his waiting Porsche and ... Add here any other words or expressions that you meet on your travels.

Module 2. SPORTS AND GAMES TASK 1. Choose the right answer. 1. This year team are … favourites to win the cup. a) firm c) grand b) full d) hard 2. The team‟s coach insisted on a programme of … training before the big match a) harsh c) severe b) rigorous d) searching 3. The team had practise hard so that it could … the trophy a) regain c) restore b) replace d) return 4. The teams recent wins have … them for the semi-finals a) fitted c) promoted b) matches d) qualified 5. John is always ..... about how well he plays football. a) boasting c) parading b) flaunting d) puffing 6. His poor standard of play fully justifies his ..... from the team for the next match. a) ban c) exclusion b) exception d) ejection 7. The footballer was ..... the field for kicking the referee a) brought off c) sent off b) put off d) taken off 8. The footballer scored four ..... , so his team won the match a) aims c) goals b) games d) scores 9. The fan shouted at the ..... of his voice. a) head c) limit b) height d) top 10. The ..... at the football match became violent when their team lost. a) customers c) observers b) groups d) spectators 11. Our village team were hopelessly ..... by the professional visitors a) outclassed c) outnumbered b) outgrown d) outraced 12. He was nervous at the beginning of the game but later he came into his ..... . a) best c) own b) nature d) style 13. The ..... said it was a foul and gave us a free kick a) controller c) referee b) director d) umpire 14. In his first game for our team he ..... a goal after two minutes a) earned c) scored b) gained d) won 15. Manchester United are playing ..... Birmingham this Sunday a) against c) opposite b) facing d) with 16. Even though the match wasn't very exciting, the ..... managed to make it sound interesting a) announcer c) narrator b) commentator d) presenter

17. The football match resulted in a ...... a) draw c) loss b) equalizer d) zero 18. The football team won partly because they had been trained by such a good ..... . a) coach c) instructor b) director d) teacher 19. After their long period of training, the footballers were in good ..... . a) cut c) shape b) figure d) style 20. The referee ..... the goal because of a previous infringement. a) annulled c) disallowed b) b) demolished d) disqualified 21. Having lost the match, the team travelled home in ..... spirits. a) cold c) empty b) dark d) low 22. As they watched the match, the crowd ..... in unison. a) bellowed c) crowed b) chanted d) intoned 23. We still don't know who is going to win, because at half-time the score is one ..... . a) all c) equal b) each d) together 24. I advise you not to ..... the referee's decision. a) condemn c) conduct b) condone d) contest 25. As the minutes ticked by and we held on to our narrow lead our hopes of victory ..... steadily. a) arose c) raised b) aroused d) rose TASK 2. Choose the right answer. 1. I met Pete … his bicycle along the pavement. a) pulling c) turning b) rolling d) wheeling 2.He was … from the competition because he had not complied with the rules. a) banished c) forbidden b) disqualified d) outlawed 3. Some of the best golf … are to be found in England. a) courses c) pitches b) courts d) tracks 4. Sport is a good … for aggression. a) let off c) outlet b) offshoot d) way out 5. When she was told she had won the first prize in the competition, she had to ..... herself to make sure she wasn't dreaming. a) grasp c) scratch b) pinch d) seize 6. This is the running ..... where the first 4 minute mile was run. a) circle c) ring b) course d) track 7. Have you been able to book us a tennis ..... for tomorrow? a) court c) ground b) field d) pitch 9. The boxer ..... and almost fell when Ms opponent hit him.

a) scrambled c) staggered b) shattered d) stammered 10. He has always been ..... supporter of Ms local rugby team. a) a forcible c) a staunch b) an unbeaten d) a sure 11. They stood glowering at each other, their fists ..... ready for action. a) clasped c) grasped b) clenched d) joined 11. It seems that the world record for this event is almost impossible to ..... . a) balance c) compare b) beat d) meet 12. The boxer ..... his opponent as hard as he could. a) knocked c) slapped b) punched d) touched 13. Our team faced fierce ..... in the relay races. a) attack c) contest b) competition d) opponents 14. She is a good runner but she's not much good at ..... . a) barriers c) hurdles b) fences d) jumps 15. He ran four ..... of the course in half an hour. a) hurdles c) sprints b) laps d) vaults 16. Most ..... tennis stars learn the game at an early age. a) hopeful c) will-be b) prospective d) willing 17. Mary tells me she is ..... my horse in the Derby. a) backing c) gambling b) betting d) staking 18. I always feel ..... before the start of a race. a) jerky c) timid b) jittery d) unsteady 19. All the athletes were wearing ..... suits when they came into the stadium. a) jogging c) sports b) running d) track 20. The new sports centre ..... for all kinds of leisure activities. a) caters c) furnishes b) deals d) supplies 21. I'm afraid we shall have to call ..... the match on account of the bad weather. a) back c) off b) in d) on 22. I tried to ..... my disappointment at losing by cheering the winner loudly. a) hide c) shield b) mask d) veil 23. The fastest runner took the ..... just five metres before the finishing line. a) advance c) lead b) head d) place 24. There is a lot of friendly ..... between the supporters of the two teams. a) contention c) defiance b) contest d) rivalry

25. He's ..... to win. No one else in the race stands a chance. a) bound b) liable

c) probable d) unavoidable

WRITING The Olympics have changed enormously in the last fifty years. No doubt they’ll change enormously in the next fifth, too? But how? Imagine it’s the year 2040. You’re a presenter working for a local satellite TV company and the Olympic are being in the capital city of your country. Write a brief script which describes the opening ceremony. What can you see? How many competitors are there? What are they wearing? Two new sports are being introduced at these games … what are they?

Module 3. A QUESTION OF HEALTH TASK 1. Choose the right answer. 1. There's an old saying, "it's the double gins that cause the ..... ". a) crossed eyes c) flat feet b) double chins d) knock knees 2. Exercise tends to ..... the effects of old age. a) offset c) set back b) run down d) waylay 3. A diet high in carbohydrates contains little of the ..... material needed to build up tissue. a) calorific c) nourishing b) digestible d) sustaining 4. He will have to go on a diet because he is worried that he is ..... . a) buxom c) robust b) chubby d) strong 5. I think you'll find that the inconvenience of the diet is ..... by the benefits. a) outranked c) overbalanced b) outweighed d) overthrown 6. When there is excessive obesity patients are sometimes put on a ..... diet which enables them to lose weight extremely quickly. a) balanced c) light b) crash d) slim 7. ..... your food will give you indigestion. a) Bolting c) Gorging b) Cramming d) Munching 8. When dieting, eat only to satisfy your hunger ..... , not to gratify your desire to eat. a) aches c) spasms b) pangs d) twinges TASK 2. Choose the right answer. 1. She died after a long ..... . a) disease c) illness b) failing d) sickness 2. The doctor had three ..... of nose-bleeding in the same day. a) aspects c) examples b) cases d) illnesses 3. He still suffers from a rare tropical disease which he ..... while in the Congo. a)contracted c) infected b) gained d) received 4. My grandmother is very old and is not..... very good health. a) from c) on b) in d) with 5. The teachers at the school went..... with flu one after another. a) down c) out b) off d) under 6. Malaria is ..... by the female mosquito. a) broadcast c) transmitted b) sent d) transported 7. Mary is in bed with a ..... attack of flu. a) hard c) large b) heavy d) severe 8. My brother was ..... ill yesterday and is now in hospital. a) broken c) fallen b) caught d) taken

9. The school is half empty as a serious epidemic of measles has broken ..... a) down c) out b) in d) up 10. Several ..... of malaria have been reported. a) cases c) occurrences b) doses d) types 12. To our ..... , Mary's illness proved not to be as serious as we had feared. a) anxiety c) judgement b) eyes d) relief 13. He ..... a rare disease when he was working in the hospital. a) caught c) suffered b) infected d) took 14. My headaches are usually brought ..... by worry. a) in c) up b) on d) out 15. The doctor examined him carefully and ..... influenza. a) concluded c) diagnosed b) decided d) realised 16. Some diseases ..... quickly from one person to another. a) catch c) move b) get about d) spread 17. Tropical diseases are comparatively ..... in Poland. a) few c) scarce b) rare d) slight 18. It was a minor illness and he soon got ..... it. a) around c) over b) on with d) up to 19. The ..... last thing I want now is to catch a cold. a) extremely c) utterly b) most d) very 20. I can never touch lobster because I am ..... to shellfish. a) allergic c) sensible b) infected d) sensitive 20. She couldn't go out because she had a ..... cold. a) flowing c) running b) leaking d) treaming 21. The local medical officer reported a serious ..... of food-poisoning. a) event c) outbreak b) incident d) state 22. The patient ..... his illness down to a virus infection. a) laid c) put b) placed d) traced 23. You keep sneezing. You must have caught ..... . a) a cold c) a headache b) a cough d) an illness 23. The children were suffering from the ..... of the hot weather. a) consequences c) products b) effects d) results 25. He had a very bad cold and couldn't stop ..... . a) sneezing c) spitting b) snoring d) yawning WRITING 1. 10 golden rules for keeping healthy. 2. Nobody wants to live till they are hundred and ten. 3. Describe the way of life which you consider to be healthy.

Module 4. BRITAIN AND THE BRITISH Holidays and special occasions Britain is a country governed by routine. It has fewer public holidays that any other country in Europe and fewer than North America. (Northern Ireland has two extra ones, however). Even New Year‟s Day was not an official public holiday in England and Wales until quite recently (but so many people gave themselves a holiday anyway that it was thought it might as well become official!). There are almost no semi-official holidays either. Most official holidays occur either just before or just after a weekend, so that the practice of making a „bridge‟ is almost unknown. Moreover, there are no traditional extra local holidays in particular place. Although the origin of the word „holiday‟ is „holy day‟, not all public holidays (usually known „bank holidays‟) are connected with religious celebrations. The British also seem to do comparatively badly with regard to annual holidays. These are not as long as they are in many other countries. Although the average employee gets four weeks‟ paid holiday a year, in no town or city in the country would a visitor ever get the impression that the place had „shut down‟ for the summer break. (In fact, about 40% of the population do not go away anywhere for their holidays). Traditional seaside holidays The British upper class started the fashion for seaside holidays in the late eighteenth century. The middle classes soon followed them and when they were given the opportunity (around the beginning of the twentieth century), so did the working classes. It soon became normal for families to spend a week or two every year at one of the seaside resort towns which sprang up to cater for this new mass market. The most well-known of these are close to the larger towns and cities. These seaside towns quickly developed certain characteristics that are now regarded as typical of the „traditional‟ English holiday resort. They have some hotels where richer people stay, but most families stay at boarding houses. These are small family businesses, offering either „bed and breakfast‟ or, more rarely, „full board‟ (meaning that all means are provided). Some streets in seaside resorts are full of nothing but boarding houses. The food in these, and in local restaurants, is cheap and conventional with an emphasis on fish and chips. Stereotypically, daytime entertainment in sunny weather centres around the beach, where the children make sandcastles, buy ice creams and sometimes go for donkey rides. Older adults often do not bother to go swimming. They are happy just to sit in their deck chairs and occasionally go for a paddle with their skirts or trouser-legs hitched up. The water is always cold and, despite efforts to clean it up, sometimes very dirty. But for adults who swim, some resorts have wooden huts on or near the beach, known as 'beach cabins', 'beach huts' or 'bathing huts', in which people can change into their swimming costumes. Swimming and sunbathing without any clothing is rare. All resorts have various other kinds of attraction, including more-or-less permanent funfairs. For the evenings, and when it is raining, there are amusement arcades, bingo halls, dance halls, discos, theatres, bowling alleys and so on, many of these situated on the pier. This unique British architectural structure is a platform extending out into the sea. The large resorts have decorations which light up at night. The 'Blackpool illuminations', for example, are famous. Another traditional holiday destination, which was very popular in Britain in the 19£os and 19605, is the holiday camp, where visitors stay in chalets in self-contained villages with all food and entertainment organized for them. Butlin's and Pontin's, the companies which own most of these, are well-known names in Britain. The enforced good-humour, strict meal-times and events such as 'knobbly knees' competitions and beauty contests that were characteristic of these camps have now given way to a more relaxed atmosphere.

Rock There is one kind of sweet associated . with holiday resorts. This is 'rock', a hard thick stick of sugar. Each resort has the letters of its name appearing throughout the stick, so that one hears of'Brighton Rock', 'Blackpool Rock' and so on.

Seaside postcards Humorous postcards like the one below can still be bought at seaside resorts. The joke always has an element of sexual innuendo in it. The traditional seaside holiday in the first half of the twentieth century represented a relaxing of Victorian restrictions on overt reference to sex. These days, of course, no such restrictions exist, so these postcards are mainly enjoyed in a spirit of nostalgia for the past. Modern holidays Both of the traditional types of holiday have become less popular in the last quarter of the twentieth century. The increase in car ownership has encouraged many people to take caravan holidays. But the greatest cause of the decline of the traditional holiday is foreign tourism. Before the 19605, only the rich took holidays abroad. By 1971, the British were taking 7 million foreign holidays and by 1987, 20 million. These days, millions of British people take their cars across the channel every year and nearly half of all the nights spent on holidays away from home are spent abroad. Most foreign holidays are package holidays, in which transport and accommodation are booked and paid for through a travel agent. These holidays are often booked a long time in advance. In the middle of winter the television companies run programmes which give information about the packages being offered. People need cheering up at this time of the year! In many British homes it has become traditional to get the holiday brochures out and start talking about where to go in the summer on Boxing Day (oCalendar of special occasions). Spain is by far the most popular package-holiday destination. Half of all the holidays taken within Britain are now for three days or less. Every bank-holiday weekend there are long traffic jams along the routes to the most popular holiday areas. The traditional seaside resorts have survived by adjusting themselves to this trend. (Only the rich have second houses or cottages in the countryside to which they can escape at weekends.) But there are also many other types of holiday. Hiking in the country and sleeping at youth hostels has long been popular (see chapter ^) and so, among an enthusiastic minority, has pot-holing (the exploration of underground caves). There are also a wide range of „activity' holidays available, giving full expression to British individualism. You can, for example, take part in a 'murder weekend', and find yourself living out the plot of detective story. An increasing number of people now go on 'working' holidays, during which they might help to repair an ancient stone wall or take part in an archaeological dig. This is an echo of another traditional type of 'holiday' - fruit picking. It used to be the habit of poor people from the east end of London, for example, to go to Kent at the end of the summer to help with the hop harvest (hops are used for making beer). Christmas and New Year Christmas is the one occasion in modern Britain when a large number of customs are enthusiastically observed by most ordinary people within the family. The slow decrease in participation in organized religion (see chapter І з), and the fact that Christmas in modern times is as much a secular feast as a religious one, has had little effect on these traditions. Even people who consider themselves to be anti-religious quite happily wish each other a 'Happy Christmas' or a 'Merry Christmas'. They do not (as in some other countries) self-consciously wish each other a 'Happy New Year' instead. Indeed, the 'commercialization' of Christmas has itself become part of tradition. Every November in Oxford Street (one of the main shopping streets in the centre of London), a famous personality ceremoniously switches on the 'Christmas lights' (decorations) thus 'officially' marking the start of the period of frantic Christmas shopping. And it certainly is frantic. Between that time and the middle of January, most shops do nearly half of their total business for the year (most have 'sales' in early January when prices are reduced). Most people buy presents for the other members of their household and also for other relatives, especially

children. Some people also buy presents for their close friends. And to a wider circle of friends and relatives, and sometimes also to working associates and neighbours, they send Christmas cards ( Christmas cards). Some people even send such greetings to people whom they have not seen for many years, often using the excuse of this tradition to include a letter passing on the у ear's news

Christmas cards Many people send cards at Christmas time depicting some aspect of the birth of Christ. Most people, however, do not. Christmas is an opportunity for the British to indulge their dreams about a vanished rural past. You can see this on many typical Christmas cards. They often show scenes from either the nineteenth or eighteenth centuries and may be set in the countryside, very frequently covered with snow. (In fact, snow at Christmas is rare in most parts of Britain). The Christmas party In thousands of companies throughout Britain, the last working afternoon before Christmas is the time of the annual office party, at which a lot of alcohol is often consumed. Sexual feelings, hidden throughout the year, come into the open. This is a problem for company bosses. By law, an employer is responsible for sexual harassment at work and may have to pay as much as £ 10,000 in compensation. The peak time for complaints of sexual harassment is in January - just after the annual office party. Many employers now insure themselves against claims for compensation at this time. Christmas dinner The traditional meal consists of stuffed roast turkey with roast potatoes and some other vegetable (often Brussel sprouts). Other foods associated with Christmas are Christmas pudding, an extremely heavy sweet dish made of dried fruits (it is traditional to pour brandy over it and then set it alight) and Christmas cake, an equally heavy fruit cake, with hard white icing on top.

People also buy Christmas trees (a tradition imported from Germany in the nineteenth century). Almost every household has a tree decorated in a different way (in many cases, with coloured lights). Most people also put up other decorations around the house. Exactly what these are varies a great deal, but certain symbols of Christmas, such as bits of the holly and mistletoe plants, are very common, and the Christmas cards which the household has received are usually displayed. A 'crib', which is a model depicting the birth of Christ, also sometimes forms part of the Christmas decorations. In December, as Christmas gets closer, carols (usually, but not always, with a religious theme) are sung in churches and schools, often at special concerts, and also, though less often than in the past, by groups of people who go from house to house collecting money for charitable causes. The role of Father Christmas (or Santa Claus) and the customs associated with the giving of gifts vary from family to family. Most households with children tell them that Father Christmas comes down the chimney on the night of Christmas Eve (even though most houses no longer have a working chimney!). Many children lay out a Christmas stocking at the foot of their beds, which they expect to see filled when they wake up on Christmas morning. Most families put wrapped presents around or on the Christmas tree and these are opened at some time on Christmas Day. Other activities on Christmas Day may include the eating of Christmas dinner (Christmas dinner) and listening to the Queen's Christmas message. This ten-minute television broadcast is normally the only time in the year when the monarch speaks directly to 'her' people on television. (When, in 1993, a national newspaper published the text of her speech a few days beforehand, it was a national scandal.) The general feeling is that Christmas is a time for families. Many of the gatherings in houses on Christmas Day and Boxing Day consist of extended families (more than just parents and children). For many families, Christmas is the only time that they are all together (so it is often a time of conflict rather than harmony, in fact). Parties on New Year's Eve, on the other hand, are usually for friends. Most people attend a gathering at this time and 'see in' the New Year with a group of other people, often drinking a large amount of alcohol as they do so. In London, many go to the traditional celebration in Trafalgar Square (where there is an enormous Christmas tree which is an annual gift from the people of Norway). In Scotland, where the Calvinists disapproved of parties and celebrations connected with religious occasions (such as Christmas), New Year, called Hogmanay, is given particular importance — so much importance that, in Scotland only, 2 January (as well as New Year's Day) is also a public holiday (so that people have two days to recover from their New Year's Eve parties instead of just one!). Some British New Year customs, such as the singing of the song Auld Long Syne, originated in Scotland. Another, less common, one is the custom of 'first footing', in which the first person to visit a house in the new year is supposed to arrive with tokens of certain important items for survival (such as a lump of coal for the fire). As a well-known Christmas carol reminds people, there are twelv days of Christmas. In fact, most people go back to work and school | soon after New Year. Nobody pays much attention to the feast oft epiphany on 6 January (the twelfth day of Christmas), except that this is traditionally the day on which Christmas decorations are t down. Some people say it is bad luck to keep them up after this date. Other notable annual occasions Easter is far less important than Christmas to most people in Brit; although it involves a four-day 'weekend', there are very few customs and habits associated generally with it, other than the sumption of mountains of chocolate Easter eggs by children. Son people preserve the tradition of eating hot cross buns on Good 1 ( Calendar of special occasions). Quite a lot of people go away on ho at this time. None of the other days of the year to which traditional custo are attached is a holiday, and not everybody takes part in these customs. In fact, many people in Britain live through occasions| as Shrove Tuesday, April Fools' Day or Hallowe'en (Calendar of I occasions) without even knowing that they have happened. There is one other day which, although many people do not in any special way, is very difficult to ignore. This is 5 November the day which celebrates a famous event in British history - the gunpowder plot. It is called Guy Fawkes' Day - or, more con Bonfire Night. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, a} of Catholics planned to blow up the Houses of Parliament who James I was in there. Before they could achieve this, one oft Guy Fawkes, was caught in the cellars under Parliament with gunpowder. He and his fellow-conspirators were all killed.

Panto The Christmas and New Year holiday seasons bring with them a popular theatrical tradition. This is pantomine (often shortened to ‘panto’), staged in hundreds of theaters and specifically design to appeal to children. It usually involves the acting out of a well-known folk tale with plenty of opportunity for audience participation. There are certain established conventions of panto. For example, the cast includes a ‘principal boy’ (the young hero), who is always played by a woman, and a ‘dame’ (an older female character), who is always played by a man. The continuing popularity of panto is assisted the fact that these leading roles are today frequently taken by well-known personalities for the worlds of television or sport. St Valentine’s Dar and Gretna Despite the unromantic reputation of the British, on this day every year about 7 million worth of flowers are delivered (orders from men out numbers those from women by forty to one), an extra 40 million chocolates are sold and greetings-card manufactures collect 25 million. Every St Valentine‟s Day, thousand of people travel to tiny village on Scotland‟s border with England. Many of them go to get married, and many more couples go through mock wedding ceremonies. The village is Gretna green. Its romantic reputation began in 1754. In England in that year, marriage for people under the age of twenty-one without permission from parents was banned. In Scotland, however, this permission was not required, across the boarder. The laws that brought fame to Greta no longer apply. But its reputation is secure. In this small place, at least one couples gets married, on average, every day of the year. Weddings for St Valentine‟s Day have to be booked three months in advance. Shrove Tuesday This day is also known as Pancake Day. In past centuries, lent was a time of fasting. Both meat and eggs were forbidden throughout the six weeks .The tradition was to eat up all your meat on Monday before Lent, and all your eggs on the Tuesday - in pancakes. Now, the fasting has gone and only the eating remains. Two events are associated with Shrove Tuesday. One of them is the pancakes tossing contest (how many pancakes can you throw into the air and catch within a certain time?) The other is the pa ncake race. Contestants have to run while cautiously tossing a pancake. Anyone who drops his or her pancake is disqualified. At the time, the failure of the gunpowder plot was celebrated as a victory for British Protestantism over rebel Catholicism. However, it has now lost its religious and patriotic connotations. In most parts of Britain, Catholic children celebrate it just as enthusiastically as Protestant children - or, for that matter, children brought up in any other religious faith. (As with Christmas, most of the customs associated with this day are mainly for the benefit of children.) Some children make a 'guy' out of old clothes stuffed with newspaper several weeks beforehand. They then place this somewhere on the street and ask passers-by for 'a penny for the guy'. What they are actually asking for is money to buy fireworks with. On Guy Fawkes' Night itself there are 'bonfire parties' throughout the country, at which the 'guy' is burnt. Some people cook food in the embers of the bonfire, especially chestnuts or potatoes. So many fireworks are set off that, by the end of the evening, the air in all British cities smells strongly of sulphur.

Every year, accidents with fireworks injure or even kill several people. In an effort to make things safer, some local authorities arrange public firework displays. Finally, one other day should be mentioned. This is a different day for everybody - their birthday. Once again, it is most important for children, all of whom receive presents on this day from their parents, and often from other relatives as well. Adults may or may not receive presents, depending on the customs of their family and their circle of friends. Many will simply be wished 'Happy birthday (not, by the way, 'Congratulations', unless it is a special birthday, such as a twenty-first). Some children and adults have a party, but not all. Moreover, nobody, including adults, is automatically expected to extend hospitality to other people on this day, and it is not expected that people should bring along cakes or anything to share with their colleagues at work, although some people do. WRITING 1. Why, do you think, have the two traditional types of holiday (at seaside boarding houses and at holiday camps) in Britain become less popular in the last quarter of the twentieth century? Is the modern pattern of Britain holidaymaking the same as it is for people in your country? 2. What aspects of Christmas in Britain, and the customs associated with it, are different from those in your country? 3. In Britain, you are generally considered to be unfortunate if your birthday is in the last half of December. Why? What special days do you have in your country for individuals to celebrate which British people don’t celebrate? 4. There is a science-fiction story in which beings from outer space fly over Britain one night and conclude that planet Earth is full of barbaric, cruel people. Which night was it? How did they from this impression?

Module 5. AMERICA AND THE AMERICANS TASK 1. Read the text attentively Institutions in the USA The United States of America is a Federal Union of fifty states plus the District of Columbia. The Federal Government resides in Washington D.C., which is the capital of the nation. The Government of the USA is based on the Constitution, a document written in 1787. the Constitution was signed by representatives of the thirteen original States, and since 1789 twenty-six Amendments have been added to it. (the first ten are known as “Bill of Rights”) The USA under the Constitution is republic. This means that its citizens elect the officials who govern them. The USA is also a democracy. In a democracy the citizens have certain rights. These include the rights of free press, free speech, and freedom of religion. Citizens of a democracy also have the right to a fair and fast trial if they are accused of crimes. The rights of citizens in a democracy are known as civil rights. The Constitution also provides for a federal system of government. This is a system in which power is divided between the states and the national, or federal, government. The division of power keeps either the states or the federal government from having too much power. Certain powers are given only to the federal government. These include the power to make peace or war, to print money, and to regulate trade between the states. The powers of the federal government are listed in the Constitution. The powers not given to the federal government remain with the states. This means that the states actually control such things as education, marriage and divorce, and elections. The Constitution provides that certain powers are shared by the national government and the states. These powers include the right to pass tax laws, borrow money, build roads, and try lawbreakers. Notes to be fair and fast trial – to be just and quick process trade – commerce to be listed – to put on a list to be shared – to be divided lawbreakers – those who fail to observe the law TASK 2. Write down the powers of the following institutions in the USA Federal Government ________________________________________________ State _____________________________________________________________ Federal Government and State _________________________________________ TASK 3. Make up questions to get the following answers 1. Fifty 2. Washington D.C. 3. District of Columbia 4. Thirteen 5. Bill of Rights 6. 1787 TASK 4. Name five rights under a democracy and explain what you think each mean Right of ____________________ means that_________________ Right of ____________________ means that_________________ Right of ____________________ means that__________________ Right of ____________________ means that__________________ Right of ____________________ means that__________________ Continuation

TASK 5. Read the text attentively The Political System of the USA The President is elected every four years and is the head of State, of the armed forces and the civil service. He cannot be elected for more than two terms. The President lives in the White House, in Washington D.C., he carries out the decisions taken by Congress, and makes legislation which must be approved by the Congress. Only in times of emergency and in foreign affairs can he cat on his own. He is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, he initiates Foreign Policy, signs bills, prepares the National Budget and nominates upper Government Officials. The President is assisted by his Vice-President and his Cabinet, made up of Department Secretaries. The most important of these is the Secretary of State, who deals with foreign affairs. Congress is divided into two houses: the Senate (100 members, two for each sate, who elected for 6 years and renewed by one third every two years) and the House of Representatives (435 members elected for two years). The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington D.C., its main functions are to make laws and declare war. The Senate ratifies treaties and gives its agreement to nominations of high officials. TASK 6. Complete the following passage: In 1781 the _______ colonies signed an agreement known as the Articles of Confederation under which ______ became the USA. Since it gave too little power to the central government it was _________ in 1789 by the US Constitution. This is the __________ written Constitution in the world and has been limited by many countries over the years. It stated that the United States was a free democratic country, governed by ______ people. This idea was revolutionary _______ 1787 when it was drawn up; in those times kings or emperors or dictators ruled, with the ______ of advisors or parliament. The Constitution stated that the United States was a Presidential Republic and explained ___________ the country was to be governed. At the time it _________ written, it was a document valid for a nation _____ 13 states and about 2 million people. Today the same document governs the life of 50 states and 240 _________ people. TASK 7. Add the correct figures to the following sentences: a) Nowadays there are _______ more US states, than in 1789. b) The Constitution is ________ years old. c) The Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation after _________ years. d) There are _________ political parties in the US and elections are held every _______ years. TASK 8. Insert the correct prepositions where necessary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The President of the USA lives _______ the White House. The President carries _____ decisions taken by Congress. The President is assisted _______ his Vice-President. Congress is divided _______two houses. Americans participate ______ the election of their President.

TASK 9. You are a journalist to the newspaper Times. Write an article about the political system of the USA.

TASK 10. Read and translate the Presidential vocabulary

Presidential Elections to abandon to back a ballot to campaign Vocabulary V. to leave something behind; to give something up V. to give support to N. the piece of paper you write your vote on V. to advertise oneself (or someone else) as a candidate in an upcoming election; to work towards getting oneself (or someone else) elected N. the process of trying to get oneself (or someone else) elected V. to put (your ballot) in the ballot box N. social relationships which allow you certain opportunities; the people you know who can help you (get a job, raise money, gain power...) V. to have a structured, formal argument about a controversial topic N. a structured, formal argument on a controversial topic V. to choose someone through a democratic vote to be a leader N. the process of choosing a leader through a democratic vote V. to campaign to be President, to try to become President V. to formally express one's choice in writing or by raising one's hand; to make one's choice in an election N. the act of formally expressing one's choice in writing or by raising one's hand

a campaign to cast (a ballot) connections

to debate a debate

to elect an election to run for President to vote a vote

TASK 11. Look at the words in the box and put them into appropriate position in the dialogue. Presidential Elections Vocabulary in Conversation

abandoning ballot campaign cast connections elect to back to run for President vote

debates

Sharine: Tony, I have been hearing so much in the news about different presidential candidates. Can you tell me a little about how Americans their President?

Tony: Well, it's a long process. We start off by deciding who the official candidate for each political party will be. Usually, a person first announces that he or she wants . If you want to be your party's official candidate, you need to raise money and gather support from party members. Candidates usually to let people know what they represent. They give speeches, meet with community leaders, and participate in . This process lasts for several months, and then the party members to decide who they want in the election.

Sharine: Do you have to be rich to become President?

Tony: You don't really have to be rich to become President, but it helps. Usually rich people have more and can raise money more effectively. Most of our Presidents in the past have been relatively rich men, but not all of them.

Sharine: So, how do you make the final decision?

Tony: After several months of television ads, interviews, speeches, and kissing babies we have the presidential election. Citizens go to a voting center and their for the candidate of their

choice.

Sharine: You sounded a little cynical when you said, "kissing babies." What did you mean by that?

Tony: Well, it's quite common for politicians to have themselves photographed kissing babies. It's their way of trying to appear in touch with the average American, but it looks really phony. These days, becoming President is all about acting. The candidates try to appeal to so many different people that they end up their own opinions. Sometimes, it feels like the parties are all the same.

Sharine: How many parties are there?

Tony: We have many political parties in the United States, but most of them are quite small. There are really only two with significant power, the Democrats and the Republicans.

TASK 12. Choose the correct modal verb 1. I can't help you now. You (should have/must have) told me everything at once. 2. The garden is beautiful. The people who lived here (can have/must have) been keen 3. on gardening. 4. I like both houses. I (can't/couldn't) decide which one I like more. 5. The flat looks tidy. It (could have/must have) been redecorated not long ago. 6. We know everything. You (needn't/mustn't) bother to tell more lies. 7. Customers (may/might) leave their cars in the park behind the shop. 8. You (may not/can't drive) here faster than 30 miles an hour. 9. If your eyes are so bad you (are to/should) wear glasses. 10. he manager will be angry with me. I (must have/should have) posted these letters yesterday. 11. I've made a cake. You (needn't have bothered/didn't have to bother). 12. We've run out of paper. I (need/will have to) go and buy some. 13. You (have to/should) close all windows when you go out. 14. He (may not have/can‟t have) left without saying good-bye. He is a well-natured man. 15. You haven't had a holiday for а long time. You (are to be/must be) exhausted. 16. (Can/may) he have spent all his money? He got his pay only yesterday. 17. I (won't have/won't be able) to go to sleep until he comes. I must know everything. 18. I think I (can/will be able to) call on you next week. I’ll have time. 19. They (needn‟t have bought/didn't have to buy) new skates the child. 20. The Smiths had given them a pair of skates. 21. You (were to/ had to) mention this fact in you report. We ha agreed on it, hadn't we. 22. (Might he/can he) have left the house? He is ill. 23. I'm not sure where she is. She (may have/can have) golf shopping.

24. I don't know why he didn't greet you. He (may not/can have noticed you. 25. She left early. The baby-sitter phoned and she (was to/had go home. 26. He has got a lot to do this week. He (will have/will be able) to work on Sunday. 27. You (needn't/don't have to) look for a flat yourself. You can turn to an agency for help. 28. You (must have/should have) reserved a table beforehand. 29. You (are to/have to) meet him at the club. 30. She is in the garden. She (must be/may be) planting something. 31. There were few people there. I (didn't have to wait/needn‟t have waited) long. 32. You can't wear such clothes in the office. You (are to/have to wear a suit. 33. We are looking for a house. It (mustn't/needn't) necessarily be large. 34. You (should have helped/had to help) the old lady to the bags. 35. You (must have/might have) come on time. It's impolite keep people waiting. 36. You (shouldn't have/needn't have) touched it. It's not yours. 37. (must/should) do it I have no other way out.

WRITING Holidays and special occasions in the USA and Ukraine in the context of different cultures.

Module 6. THEATRE TASK 1. Translate into English. Театральний портрет сторіччя На Україні зараз створюється театральна антологія "Обличчя XX сторіччя". До 2001 року планується поставити приблизно двадцять спектаклів-портретів, що змальовують найбільш значущі постаті та події цього сторіччя. На перший пог ляд видається, що проект приречений на апологію лиходійства: найяскравішими особистостями в історії, як правило, виступають аж ніяк не позитивні персонажі. Це підтвердили й опитування з визначення героїв антології: у суспільній свідомості стійко лідирують політики, злочинці й актори. Австралійці, наприклад, думають, що їхню своєрідність краще інших передасть фаховий злодій Нед Келлі, який віртуозно грабував потяги і банки. Німці, правда, віддали перевагу тенісисту Борису Беккеру. Автор проекту, київський режисер і театральний менеджер Віталій Малахов вибрав історію Людини, якій властиві і зльоти, і падіння, і яка залишається єдиною реальною цінністю на Землі. Америку в його антології буде представляти Мерилін Монро, Іспанію - Долорес Ібарурі, Францію - Марія Кюрі, Росію - Гагарін, а Великобританію - який-небудь гравець у регбі, не важливо хто, тому що розчинення індивідуальності теж прикмета сторіччя (взнавши про ідею Малахова, п'єсу про гравця в регбі збирається написати модний драматург Едвард Томас). Для України обраний образ Олександра Довженко, який увібрав у себе творчий досвід і трагедію національної інтелігенції. П'єсу "Земля Довженко" щойно закінчив драматург В'ячеслав Прокопенко. Про прокат спектаклів є домовленості з дирекціями Единбурзького, Кардиффського, Каїрського та інших міжнародних фестивалів.

TASK 2. Indicate in the picture below the listed parts of a theatre. Write the correct numbers next to the name of each Dart. aisle box curtain footlights gallery spotlight stage stalls wings

TASK 3. Choose the right answer. 1. After the performance, please come ..... and meet some of the cast. a) backstage c) inside b) downstairs d) outside 2. The actors walked on to the ..... and the play began. a) landing c) platform b) pavement d) stage 3.I had to stand in a ..... four hours to get the tickets for this performance. a) file c) queue b) procession d) tail 4.After the interval, the change of ..... brought a gasp of surprise from the audience. a) panorama c) view b) scenery d) vista 5.All the theatre seats had been sold, so there was standing ..... only. a) area c) room b) place d) space 6.The box office is open ..... for ticket sales. a) a day c) daytime b) daily d) in day 7. Your seat is number A13. That's in the front ..... on the right. a) line c) row b) rank d) seat 8. We agreed to meet in the ..... of the theatre, near the cloakroom. a) anteroom c) hall b) foyer d) porch 9. My brother, who is fond of acting, has joined an ..... dramatic society. a) amateur c) unprofessional b) impersonal d) untrained 10. Are there any seats left for this week's ..... of „Tosca"? a) acting c) opera b) drama d) performance 11. All the seats in the theatre were ..... weeks before the first performance. a) engaged c) sold out b) occupied d) taken 12. The management ..... the right to refuse admission. a) holds c) preserves b) keeps d) reserves TASK 4. Match each part of a theatre^ on the left with its definition on the right. AISLE BACKSTAGE BALCONY BOX BOX OFFICE CIRCLE FOYER GALLERY (or GODS) ORCHESTRA PIT a) ticket office b) the hall at the entrance to a theatre c) the way between the seats in a theatre d) a line of seats for people side by side e) the seats on the ground floor d) sunken area in front of the stage where an orchestra may play g) the part of a theatre where people can sit above the ground level h) one of the upper parts in a theatre, in which the seats are arranged in part of a circle around the building i) the highest upper floor in a theatre j) a small room in a theatre, on either side, from which a small group of people can watch the play

ROW STAGE STALLS

k) the raised area in a theatre where actors perform l) the area out of sight of the audience

TASK 5. Match each part of a stage on the left with its definition on the right. 1. BACKCLOTH 2. BACKSTAGE 3. CURTAIN 4. DOWNSTAGE 5. DRESSING ROOM 6. FOOTLIGHTS 7. SCENERY 8. SET 9. SPOTLIGHT 10. TRAPDOOR 11. UPSTAGE 12. WINGS a) something built and provided with furniture, scenery, etc to represent the scene of the action of a play b) a painted cloth hung across the back of the stage c) at or towards the back of the stage d) at or towards the front of the stage e) behind the stage, especially in the dressing rooms of the actors f) a room behind the stage where an actor can get ready for his performance g) the sides of a stage, where an actor is hidden from view h) a sheet of heavy material drawn or lowered across the frontof the stage i) a row of lights along the front of the floor of a stage j) lamp with a movable narrow beam k) the set of painted backgrounds and other objects used on a stage l) a small door, covering an opening in the floor on a stage

TASK 6. Choose the correct answer. 1. He ..... on stage for only one scene. a) appeared c) entered b) emerged d) erupted 2. He played the lead in a ..... production of "Macbeth". a) memorable c) recalled b) memorised d) reminded 3. Her ..... as a tragedian took her to every part of the world. a) fame c) renown b) glory d) status 4. Halfway through the first act, the leading man forgot his ..... . a) declamations c) parts b) lines d) speeches 5. He soon made a ..... for himself on the stage. a) fame c) reputation b) popularity d) regard 6. When he forgot his lines the ..... whispered them from the side of the stage, a) messenger c) pusher b) prompter d) reminder 7. Public figures, such as actors, are often reluctant to talk about their ..... lives. a) individual c) personal b) particular d) private 8. I doubt if I will be ..... enough to play tomorrow. a) fit c) recovered b) healthy d) sound 9. Miss Best was proud to be ..... out for special praise for her performance, a) distinguished c) separated b) selected d) singled 10. Don't ..... shouting for ability as a dramatic actor. a) identify c) mislead b) imagine d) mistake 11. For the first night's performance the ..... had to be called in to take the part because the leading lady was ill. a) deputy c) substitute b) reserve d) understudy 12. The highlight of his acting career was the opportunity to play the ..... of Hamlet. a) characterization c) personage b) part d) play 13. The actors have to ..... before they appear in front of the strong lights on stage. a) cover up c) make up b) do up d) paint up 14. He gave the best performance of his acting career in the ..... of Othello. a) action c) role b) personage d) theme 15. That comedian is very good at .....; he can take off the President perfectly. a) duplications c) reproductions b) impressions d) similarities

TASK 7. Match the people on the left with a definition on the right. 1. CAST 2. HAM 3. HERO 4. HEROINE 5. STAND-IN 6. STAR 7. STUNT MAN 8. TROUPE 9. UNDERSTUDY 10. VILLAIN a) the main bad character in a play b) a set of actors in a play c) a company of dancers, members of a circus d) the most important male part in e) a playa famous actor or actress f) an actor who learns an important part in a play so as to be able to take the place of the actor who plays that part if necessary g) a person who takes the part of an actor at dangerous points in a film h) the most important female part in a play i) a person who does dangerous acts in a film so that the actor does not have to take risks j) an actor who acts artificially, unnaturally

TASK 8. Which of the following would you expect to see? a) in a circus b) in a theatre c) in a nightclub Some fit into more than one category. audience fire-eater sword-swallower clown leading lady tightrope walker comedian midget understudy compere ringmaster usher dancer stripper

TASK 9. Choose the right answer. 1. During the dress ..... he was relaxed, but he was very nervous on the first night. a) performance c) rehearsal b) production d) repetition 2. The light gradually ..... and shapes and colours grew fainter. a) died c) faded b) disappeared d) melted

3. The local amateur dramatic group are going to ..... a play by Wilder. a) make up c) show up b) put on d) take up 4. The actors were very pleased that there was such a large ..... for the first night of the new play. a) assembly c) congregation b) audience d) meeting 5. The actor had six curtain ..... after Ms marvellous performance. a) calls c) requests b) demands d) shouts 6. The National Theatre receives a large ..... from the Government every year. a) donation c) subsidy b) gift d) support 7. The audience ..... out laughing when the actor fell over. a) broke c) called b) burst d) shouted 8. During the ..... we had a drink and discussed the first act of the play. a) break c) interval b) interruption d) pause 9. He felt nervous on the first night because he had never performed in ..... before. a) audience c) company b) common d) public 10. "Smoking ..... forbidden in the theatre". a) exactly c) strictly b) seriously d) strongly 11. What is usually called "magic" is really a trick. The quickness of the hand ..... the eye. a) belies c) disguises b) deceives d) mistakes 12. The children gazed at the magician ..... as he performed his tricks. a) eagle-eyed c) open-eyed b) hawk-eyed d) wide-eyed

TASK 10. Fill in the defined words. 1__ __ 2__ __ 3__ __ __ __ 4__ __ __ __ 5__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 6__ __ __ __ __ 7__ __ __ Т H E A Т R E

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _

1.part of a play (3) 2. practising a play (9) 3. people watching a play (8) 4. handclapping after the play (8) 5. author of plays (10) 6. the showing of the play (11) 7. person who shows people to their seats in a theatre (5)


								
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