College of Lifelong Learning - Wayne State University

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					College of Lifelong Learning
5700 Cass Avenue Detroit, MI 48202

Division of Community Education Metropolitan Programs & Summer Sessions and Interdisciplinary Studies Program

…for 30 years from1973 to 2002…

Preface
The College of Lifelong Learning (CLL) has existed at Wayne State University approximately thirty years. It has a proud history of providing encouragement and opportunity to countless students to pursue higher education who otherwise might not have done so. Many graduates of CLL have gone on to complete higher degrees, and many have become prominent in our community and elsewhere. The impetus for this commemorative project was a need to bring appropriate closure to a college that has meant so much to so many students who have benefited from it as well as faculty and staff who have given so much of themselves to assure its success. In May 2002, Ms. Doris Pailen, an ISP student and current President of the CLL Student Senate, proposed the concept of this commemorative project to Dr. Stuart Henry, Associate Dean for Degree Program, College of Lifelong Learning and Director of the Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Dr. Henry endorsed the idea and has provided continuous support for it. Student Senate officers, Ms. Cheryl Ford-Walk (President-Elect) and Ms. Jacqueline Jones (Secretary), together with Ms. Ruthie Flowers, Student Senate Advisor, and Mr. Howard Finley, Associate Director for Student Services, provided enormous encouragement and essential groundwork for gathering needed historical information and background data for this project. Mr. Finley’s enthusiastic leadership and encouragement guaranteed the success of the project. Several people have given freely of their time and energy to edit and organize the materials for this commemorative booklet. We express our thanks to Interim Dean Paula C. Wood, Interim Deputy Deans Sharon Elliott and Joanne Holbert, to the CLL administration, to Dr. Stuart Henry, Dr. Roslyn Schindler, Mr. Howard Finley, and Ms. Ruthie Flowers in the Interdisciplinary Studies Program, to Dr. Sandra E. Alford and Ms. Mary C. Dickson in the Division of Community Education, to Ms. Cynthia Ward and Ms. Sharon O’Brien in Metropolitan Programs and Summer Sessions, and to Dr. Susan Raftery. We especially want to thank Dr. David Strauss and his staff for coordination of the contractual services and Ms. Tiffany Moss, WSU Student Council, and various members of the Student Council for their financial support of this project. Faculty, staff, students, and alumni contributed histories, memories, and comments regarding CLL. We are grateful for the support of all those people named and others, too, who have helped us with this important project. We know that the functions and missions of our much-appreciated College of Lifelong Learning and the efforts of those who have worked so hard for the sustained success the College has enjoyed will live on in the hearts and minds of all of us. We also know what the functions of providing higher education to nontraditional students will continue through CLL’s co-structure units, which continue to be a force for growth and change for students in the Greater Detroit community. In preparing for this commemorative booklet, we started collecting overviews, data, and comments on the history and mission of the College of Lifelong Learning in May 2002. The material is organized into three categories. Part 1 includes letters from university and program administrators. Part 2 contains broad overviews about various divisions of the college. Part 3 contains individual historical reflections by various members of the entire CLL community. Together, these documents offer a wonderful cross-section of important memories and perspectives that are testimony to the contribution made by this College. We are proud to present this set of materials to the attendees of the Commemorative Recognition Ceremony. We are proud of our association with the dedicated people who have brought education, training, and richer lives to so many in the Greater Detroit Community.

Doris J. Pailen, President, CLL Student Senate ISP

R. Fred Wacker Associate Professor,

CLL, The Proud One
I am the College of Lifelong Learning, and I am extremely proud of my accomplishments over the last 30 years. I have used all of my inner resources, my stars: the faculty, the academic staff, the administrators, clerical staff, technical support, other departments and units to reach my ultimate goal of providing education to all non-traditional students within my reach. I have traveled long and far, from across the street to halfway around the world, seeking, receiving, and sharing information to help educate people. My bright shining stars have written books, given presentations, written grants, taught classes, and researched projects. I have stretched my long arms and big hands out to all those that my bright shinning stars have touched. I provided educational opportunities to people who never thought they would have a chance to earn a college degree. I have physically moved into the community to make education more accessible to all. I have bridged gaps between the community and Wayne State University. This is how I accomplished my goals: I offered classes on and off Wayne State’s campus I offered classes at work sites I offered classes on television I offered classes through computers (I am a distance learning pioneer!) I established extension and comprehensive centers in the tri-county area and beyond I offered classes on weekends I offered classes at convenient times and locations I offered classes for all departments at WSU at many of my extension centers

I offered seminars and in-service training to the community
I offered career and professional development courses, both credit and non-credit I developed and implemented programs for non-traditional students I helped the weak to become strong I helped those seeking knowledge to find a path to their goals I have served as a model for other colleges and universities organizing programs for nontraditional students. I am very proud of my accomplishments. I am proud that I stood tall and cared about others. I am going away for awhile, but my stars will shine forever. Please remember me, COLLEGE OF LIFELONG LEARNING, as THE PROUD ONE.

Howard Finley Associate Director for Student Service September 20, 2002

To Readers of the Commemorative Program Book CLL Commemorative Recognition Ceremony
As my contribution to the college commemorative program, I will record some of my historical memories from my personal perspective hoping that along with the memories of others this may provide a reader a broader grasp of the college's almost three decades of existence. In the early seventies, Otto Feinstein, my Monteith College faculty colleague of over ten years, envisioned this College and convinced then WSU President George Gullen to establish it. It consisted of an innovative adult general education curriculum and degree program with its own faculty (which justified its being designated a college), along with off-campus scheduling and sites (later MPSS), and a division for otherwise non-admissible students who could be brought up to admission levels with a supportive program (DCE). Several of my other Monteith faculty colleagues (including Norma Shifrin, Eric Bockstael, Harold Stack, among others) left Monteith to assist Otto in this venture in its earliest days. Except for discussing some aspects with Otto, I remained at Monteith where I had been deeply involved with curriculum, teaching and administration. In March 1975, I became aware of the WSU administration plan to terminate Monteith and spent the next eight months (with some assistance from Otto) in what proved to be a vain attempt to save Monteith - but this is a story for another occasion. During the fall 1975 semester, Otto's resignation as Weekend College Program Director was accepted during one of the program’s recurring birth pain crises, Nola (Curl) Tutag, who became the Acting Director, called me in October and asked if I would leave Monteith and join her as an assistant administrator since she needed someone she knew well who also knew the University at large and how it worked. There was a pressing need to not only administer the Program but also to deal with its multiple relations with other portions of the University, some of which were not all that friendly or supportive. I told her no; at that time I was still deeply involved in the Monteith struggle and I could not leave it in its darkest moments. On the morning of December 12, 1975, the Board of Governors voted to phase Monteith College out of existence over a period of years. That very afternoon, Nola Tutag contacted me again and this time I said yes. I had been selected during the struggle to work closely with the Provost's office and one of my last Monteith tasks was to assist in the placement of Monteith faculty who wished to stay, into other units at WSU. Provost Diether Haenicke and I, while on opposite sides of the issue, developed a mutually respectful working relationship. One day he stated to me that while he could not order any unit to take me, he would use the full influence of his office to place me in any faculty position of my choice, The obvious choices for me were the History department (because of my Ph.D. in the History of Science), the Math department (because of two math degrees and CLL (Weekend College Program). I told him I chose the Weekend College Program because it was the only remaining place in the University that emphasized a quality undergraduate general education in the spirit of Monteith. I was officially transferred in February 1976 (being the first Monteith faculty transfer after the Board of Governors vote). Subsequently, approximately one-third of the Monteith faculty also were transferred into CLL over the next two years. They included: Ronald Aronson, Gloria House, Roland (Fred) Wacker, and Rolland (Bud) Wright. There was a lot of tension, chaos and uncertainty in those days both within the Program and in its relations with the rest of the University. Some WC/US (Weekend College/University Studies as it was labeled at the time) faculty were leery about us Monteithers joining them. After all, we were more established in the University (e.g. I was a tenured full professor) and most of them still had a long, tenuous struggle ahead of them. Also, we were refugees from a sinking ship and lost struggle; could we be of much help to them and did we share their hopes and vision? I still remember being asked by one of them if I was a spy for the Provost's office (probably because of my recent close association with it during my previous Monteith administrative positions and the struggle for survival). That person has been long gone, but I hope that my twenty-five years of subsequent service with the College have proven my deep

commitment to the cause and interests of the College and its students. I became one of Nola Tutag's three administrative assistants, being the Associate Director for Faculty and Curriculum from 1976-1980. These were rough years, but the College and Program survived through crises and changes. Many interesting (and some almost unbelievable) events occurred during this period, but these are for a longer narrative. The five most crucial changes that I remember vividly and that come foremost to mind are the following: One: Changes in the G.I. Bill The Weekend College Program student enrollment at that time consisted largely of veterans (over 90%) and union workers (heavily UAW). It was predominately male; female students were a rarity. The joke was that if you taught a Union class it would be all male; if you taught one in the Library module, it would have one female student. That is exactly what I had in my first full semester teaching in the Program. The 1973-74 enrollment had been several hundred (if my memory is correct, somewhere in the 300-400 range), but the Program reached 3600 by winter 1976. At one time I had 75 full-time faculty and about the same number of part-time faculty, hiring some as we created new classes during the first week of a semester. Then the G.I. Bill changed and the V.A. indicated that veterans had to use up their educational benefits within ten years of their discharge. This immediately made all of our Korean veterans and others up to the early Vietnam ones immediately ineligible. And each year we would lose another cadre. We lost 1800 student enrollments over one summer. But yeoman efforts by student services replaced some with 600 new enrollments, so we started the next fall with 2400 students. In a classic case of part of the University not knowing what is happening in other parts, we had been approved to hire faculty for an expected 4100. This created a crisis of multiple year duration for the survival of many of the then current faculty. Of the approximately 100 fulltime WCP faculty I dealt with during this period, only 20+ survived. They were truly survivors and mourned the loss of some of their colleagues. Two: The V.A. Court Case The Veteran's Administration indicated that our veteran students were no longer eligible for full-time VA benefits especially since our weekend conference courses did not meet each and every week. We won a favorable judgment in Detroit Federal Court when Judge Damon Keith ruled in our favor. We had many academic allies from institutions and organizations across the country on this issue, but lost on a narrow interpretation by the Sixth Federal Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. They ruled that one academic credit means one hour of class each week of the semester, a decision that now seems incredibly antiquated with today's varying scheduling modes. This decision further hurt our enrollment and intensified our shift away from veteran students. By the early 1980s we stopped our precipitous slide at approximately 600 students. Also, the makeup of our new student enrollments shifted away from veterans and union line workers to more middle class employees with the new majority being female. Three: Competition When Otto started the Weekend College Program, it was essentially the only game of its type in town, with working Adult Non-Traditional students as a primary program focus. During the1980s and 1990s, we were deluged by competitors, many of who were freer than we were to adjust their offerings to attract the market. In the early days, some top administrators indicated an expectation that we might reach 10,000 in a few years. Of course, with the various crises and competition, this never happened. Instead we became a smaller, committed, quality general education degree program for working adults in a prestigious University. In the process, I believe, we have largely won and deserve the respect of many others at WSU, respect that had been was withheld in the earlier days. Of course, there are still the others, of whom we must be forever vigilant and wary, but never let them divert us from our vision and goals.

Four: Budget Structure Many within the Program have never fully appreciated the fact that Diether Haenicke probably saved the Program by an action he took during some of our darkest days. Initially, the Program was required to live on a budget derived solely from a (large) percentage of the funds generated by our own enrollments. In other words, the Program had to be self-supporting and even produce some excess funds for the University. Diether transferred us to a regular academic budget line. We would then be funded similar to other academic departments and programs. With our precipitous drop from 3600 to 600, it is doubtful that we could have survived financially if he had not done this and even if we had miraculously survived, the remaining faculty and staff would have been smaller and the nature of Program different. I became Acting Director of the Weekend College Program (from fall 1982 to November 1983) when Ernie Benjamin became Dean and then Interim Dean (July 1983- September1984 when Ernie left to become the AAUP National Executive Secretary. This provided me with an opportunity to deal more intensely with the whole College, get to know its personnel, budgets and operations. While the College was an unusual conglomerate of diverse operations, which never completely melded into a smooth holistic operation, I believe each unit actually did gain from having the others as associates. I see this as a major loss with the demise of this College. For example, the Interdisciplinary Studies Program (the new Department of Interdisciplinary Studies in CULMA) will no longer have its close association with DCE and the off-campus centers. For a time, past connections between individuals will still endure, but with the passage of a few years, these will weaken and fade. We will be just another entity in another administrative unit to each other. That will be a loss. Five: University General Education Requirements When the University introduced its mandatory universal general education requirements in the 1980s this forced us to completely revise our curriculum. Even though we had always stressed undergraduate general education, we were now forced to comply with the strictures of the new Gen Ed requirements. Overall, even though this may have helped many non-CLL WSU students get a better general education, it did distort our mission since we were forced to follow the requirements of others who had their own agendas and visions different than ours. We did our best and still offered a high quality program as coherently as we could under changed conditions. When I left the Dean's office in Fall 1984, I had held five different administrative positions in the University and hoped to now be able to finish off my career as a regular full-time faculty member. I have always believed that it would be better for higher education if more of its administrators didn't desert the classroom once they became administrators. For me, as an administrator, it was always better knowing that in a little while I was going to have to live with the consequences of my own policy decisions. Also I think I was a better administrator because I always intended to return to the faculty and knew that the worst thing higher administration could do to me, if they were too unhappy with what I was doing, was to send me back to being a tenured faculty member, which I always considered to be the superior position. But I had one more administrative adventure to survive. Then Dean Carter asked me to serve as his Deputy Dean, running the day-to-day operations of the College, while he spent most of his time fulfilling a large additional assignment given to him by President Reid--the Interim Vice Presidency of Student Affairs. I served in this capacity from October 1998 until July 1999. Since I knew how slowly WSU proceeds on filling some positions, as a condition of my acceptance, I had the Dean agree that I would leave my Deputy Dean position during the summer of 1999, even if the Vice Presidential position was not yet filled. It wasn't, and I had made a good conditional decision. I returned to a full-time teaching position for my last full year before retirement. To illustrate the diversity of ISP faculty, during that last year I served as Coordinator of the Science and Technology Division, but taught no Sci. & Tech courses. Instead, I taught critical thinking and the World War I and Arab courses. It is the way I wanted to leave. The University and Community are all better because this College has been here during these three decades. Over the years, many thousands of students have had the opportunity for an education of quality

and coherence with a student-centered emphasis. The College has also provided hundreds of staff, faculty and administrators with meaningful career opportunities and experiences. Let's hope that those who remain and follow will continue these traditions of quality. Clifford L. Maier, September 20, 2002 Monteith faculty 1959-1975 CLL (WCP/ISP) faculty 1976-2000

Notes on the History of the Interdisciplinary Studies Program
The ISP started operations in May 1973. As Cliff Maier’s overview notes, the founder of the program was Otto Feinstein. Otto was joined in the early years by both ex-Monteith College faculty and by a series of new hires. These people were committed to a new form of education. The ISP was originally called University Studies/Weekend College Program. US/WCP was part of another organization, a consortium founded by Otto, called ―To Educate the People.‖ A distinguishing aspect of US/WCP was that it had a permanent resident faculty when most ―adult education‖ programs merely borrowed faculty from departments. It was also based upon models adapted from workers and folk education in Europe. It sought to respect the students’ experience and provide the conditions for full participation as opposed to more hierarchical forms of higher education. US/WCP grew very rapidly in the initial four years and then experienced a rapid enrollment decline. The Program was functionally based on student-oriented modules (which were year long studies in social sciences, humanities, science and technology, theory and method, and advanced studies for regional or occupational cohort groups). Soon after it was started, the Program developed Divisions, in large part to handle efficiently the greater number of students. As Cliff states, the original major recruiting base was the UAW, but by the early 1980s, the union recruitment was down, and the Program increasingly recruited white-collar workers from such companies as Michigan Bell, Blue Cross/Blue Shield and the City of Detroit. These new cohorts tended to be from lower-management ranks and more often looked to the Program and the Bachelor of General Studies degree in order to secure their positions or gain promotion. Also in the 1980s, the Program sought and gained approval for the innovative BGS-Capstone program, which allowed us to take in holders of two-year degrees from community colleges. This was called a ―reverse‖ two plus two degree. The Program began to have a large presence at the Macomb Community College Campus. In the 1990s, we began to have classes at the Oakland Center in Farmington Hills. All during these years, we were attempting to run our class sections throughout Metropolitan Detroit. As might be suspected, when our enrollment declined, we were often unable to keep sections alive in some locations, which in turn would hamper recruitment, and keep us in a vicious circle. The faculty and staff of the Program created several new courses and modes of recruitment to meet the needs of the new cohorts while continuing the student-oriented missions that was there from the start in 1973. By the late 1980s, however, competition from public and especially

private colleges began to heat up. The Weekend College was strengthened in this competition by the approval of a new degree title, Bachelor of Technical and General Studies (BTGS) in 1984. Moreover; the curriculum underwent several changes once the University began to require the completion of General Education (Gen. Ed.) requirements. These requirements were fully in effect by Fall 1991, and by that time many of the Program’s own requirements were ―embedded‖ with Gen. Ed. credits, allowing students to complete their degrees more quickly. (For a much fuller treatment of all the efforts at recruitment and retention, see the document prepared by Linda Hulbert in 1990 titled ―ISP’s Early History,‖ available on the ISP website. In the 1990s, the Weekend College Program changed its name, not without some risk, to the more descriptive name of Interdisciplinary Studies Program. The ISP became an even more important member of the international organization, the Association for Integrative Studies. We hosted its international conference twice, and have had two faculty members serve as president of the AIS. The ISP began planning a new graduate degree program in the late 1980s and successfully got approval of the Master of Interdisciplinary Studies in 1994. We began graduating MISP students in the mid 1990s, and the ISP continues to support this unique program, which allows graduate students to make use of nearly the entire University curriculum and faculty as they develop individualized programs of study. Robert Carter, who had overseen all the activities of the College as Dean since 1984, retired at the end of the 1990s. Roslyn Schindler, who had served ten years with Carter as the Director of ISP and Associate Dean of Degree Programs, returned to teaching (although at present, she is working both as an administrator and an instructor). Due in large part to several resignations of many of the original founding faculty, the Program has been able to hire a new cohort of bright and committed faculty. Today, after a brief period filled with temporary and interim administrators, the Program is led by Stuart Henry, a renowned criminologist. Henry has created a new solidarity and esprit d’corps throughout the Program. In 2003, we will host for a third time the Association for Integrative Studies Conference. We are sad to leave our friends in MPSS and DCE. There is a deep respect and a set of great memories that we will carry with us into our new home, the College of Urban, Labor and Metropolitan Affairs (CULMA). We look forward to enhancing in the new century the mission and commitment to interdisciplinary studies and to our students that mark our first 30 years. R. Fred Wacker, Associate Professor, ISP

Why the Need to Change? By Stuart Henry, the Last Director of the ISP (1999-2002) In May 1973, when ISP’s institutional life began, I was working as a quality control manager at a Kodak Photo-processing Laboratory in South London, England. I had recently graduated from the University of Kent-Canterbury with a bachelor’s degree in sociology, yet my high school background in pure science, and three years experience in photo-finishing, was why I got the job. I was also looking at a cross-roads in my life: to stay with Kodak and become a corporate manager, or to go back for another three years study towards a Ph.D. in sociology,

which would involve looking at the informal economic exchange networks in South London neighborhoods where lower class economic marginalization had led neighbors to seek alternative, often illegal, ways to make a living. The fascination of studying my own past urban street life from the elevated position of an academic researcher proved the tipping point, and so I became a graduate student of urban life. Already now combining sociology, economics, law and criminology, I would go on to graduate with a doctorate in 1976, and moved on to my first academic job as a researcher at the University of London’s, Institute of Psychiatry located at the world-famous Maudsley Hospital. Here I joined an interdisciplinary research team comprised of psychiatrists, psychologists, sociologists, social psychologists, economists and statisticians looking at the problems of substance abuse and, in particular, alcohol addiction. By 1979, having published two books, I moved on to teach deviant behavior to social workers, police officers and nurse practitioners (health visitors), in the multidisciplinary Department of Social Studies at Trent (Nottingham) Polytechnic, where I remained until leaving for the green pastures of Virginia, USA. I arrived in Virginia in 1983, the same year that I published a third book, advocating an ―integrated theory of law.‖ By 1987 I had moved to Michigan (EMU) and worked on several book projects, including three works on the informal economy, in collaboration with a social worker and a professor of industrial relations, and wrote another book sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, on society’s response to social catastrophe. This, too, was written in interdisciplinary collaboration, this time with an anthropologist and an economist, and was published as: Making Markets: An Interdisciplinary Study of Economic Exchange, in 1992. This project taught me just how difficult it can be for disciplinarians to transcend the knowledge and methods of their own discipline, even to listen to the other view, let alone begin to integrate knowledge across the disciplines. In spite of the struggle, I was convinced this had to be done. By 1996, three years before joining ISP, I published a major theoretical statement that laid the foundation for an integrated ―constitutive‖ theory of crime, that went beyond simply seeing crime and its causation from different perspectives (multidisciplinarity), to integrating knowledge about crime to form a holistic perspective from which to draw comprehensive policy. Such was my intellectual preparation for becoming the last Director of the Interdisciplinary Studies Program. I joined ISP in Fall 1999, after having spent a year as Professor and Chair of Sociology at Valparaiso University. There I had my secular humanism challenged by Lutherans of the Missouri Synod, who do not see a great distance between those who study deviance and those who indulge in it.

Academically and intellectually established as a multidisciplinarian, with serious integrationalist leanings, it came as a great surprise to me, to find a program that was both interdisciplinarily diverse yet institutionally (at WSU) isolated. From the outside, WSU’s interdisciplinary studies program had a reputation to be emulated. It had a strong program, core faculty, was a leading force in the national Association of Integrative Studies and had one of the nation’s leading theorists of interdisciplinarity on its faculty. Budding ―interdiscers‖ would give up the security of their disciplinary identity to work here. To have the honor to direct the program was a breathtaking prospect. Yet inside WSU this pioneering symbol of academic transformation was generally frowned upon, reluctantly tolerated, and nothing if not boxed in. Interdisciplinary Studies at WSU seemed to be unable to cross its own borders. Why, I asked, are we not interconnected with other departments, interrelated with other programs, cross-pollinating with other colleges? Why, if we have a shared vision of the transcendence of interdisciplinarity, are we creating a unique and separate program? Something is wrong here. Shouldn’t we be building bridges, collaboratively constructing curriculum across the disciplines, crossing disciplinary borders, burrowing under disciplinary barriers; not only inside our college, but between our college and others in the university? We, in ISP, certainly had a cadre of interdisciplinary talent primed to connect. We had philosophers of education, and of humanities; Shakespearian scholars and geneticists; physicists and social historians; chemists and critical literacy theorists; historians of science and of religion; anthropologists of culture and cognitive psychologists; poets, political scientists, and preachers; mathematicians, lawyers and educationalists; historians and orators; and musicians and movie producers. Oh yes, we had multiple connections inside our College; to the alternative entry programs of DCE and to the alternative delivery locations of MPSS, even to its fledgling non-credit operations; but these programs were also on the academic margins. Where did we connect to the core of WSU’s intellectual life? Moreover why was there silence on this important role for an interdisciplinary studies program, short of it all having to do with ―history and politics‖? Indeed, it seems, as Cliff Maier and Fred Wacker have indicated, that at WSU we were not only innovative, creative and pioneering but, crucially, we were politically marginalized, institutionally isolated, reputationally challenged, and fiscally vulnerable. It also seems clear that our continued existence appeared to pose a threat to others and depended on historically contrived political compromises that produced, in our own institution, a fundamental contradiction: we were a closed system of interdisciplinarity. Attempts had been made increasingly over the years to connect with others in the university, and there had been some significant forward movement, especially in the 1990s. Indeed, Roslyn Schindler, the former ISP Director and CLL Associate

Dean for almost 10 years (1988-97), points out that "there had been slow but steady changes that involved greater acceptance and recognition of ISP within the university community, and outreach through the Nonprofit Sector Studies Program (formerly Service Agency Administration). In fact, Herculean efforts were made in the early and mid-90s to achieve the Master of Interdisciplinary Studies, which would not have been possible without these interconnections." She points out that, "While we still have obstacles to overcome, we are definitely in a different place now, it is true, with far more wide-reaching and overarching possibilities that cross many structural and substantive boundaries. But these are based upon the groundwork, the slow and steady achievements, struggles and victories through the years. The 70s were a period of early infancy and great struggle. The 80s were a period of growing pains and adolescence, a search for a rightful place and identity, self-esteem, self-confidence and self-actualization. The 90s were a period of realization of much of what we are enjoying today, in the New Millennium, in the Program's more adult form." Even so, coming from the outside it seemed to me that the river was too long and the bridges were still too few. A glaring example is that our one major bridge to mainstream intellectual life at WSU, the general education program, was set up in such a discriminatory way that students from other programs, in other WSU colleges, were allowed to take only a limited number of ISP’s general education credits toward their major; students in our programs could not, and to this day, cannot transfer all their ISP general education credits to programs in other colleges (e.g. Liberal Arts). Elsewhere in higher education, having a course accepted for general education credit meant just that: it meets the requirements for all students in the university—no restrictions, no limits, no barriers. Initial attempts that I made to reach out to other colleges who would likely be receptive (as they also had at least multi-disciplinary approaches, such as CULMA and Mortuary Science in the College of Pharmacy and Allied Health), met with enthusiasm at the program and college level, but were resisted at the level of senior administration on account of ―history and politics‖: the conditions under which ISP had been established. In a nutshell, this meant that ISP was established to provide general education degrees and that any attempt to allow ISP to also offer and advertise content area specialties that overlap or interrelate with those offered by other colleges would be seen as a deviation from our original mission. Now I know a thing or two about deviance (I have published two books on the topic). One of the sociological wisdoms of deviancy studies is that structural and organizational arrangements sustain patterns of deviant behavior that channel and limit what their incumbents can do. It is not that deviants necessarily choose their deviant identity; or that they are free to change it at will. Rather, deviance is a result of wider social processes of marginalization that sustain and even amplify

the recurrent patterns of behavior. If we were to transcend our marginalized, isolated status, it would be necessary for us to change the organizational structure in which these behaviors, or at least the labels accruing to them, were, and continue to be, generated. But how could that be brought about? Isn’t the very isolation of the ISP in a protective incubus of CLL, what allowed it to grow in the first place? For sure, ISP in its former University Studies/ Weekend College incarnation would have certainly been gobbled up by the ravenous disciplinary waters of mainstream academics at a Carnegie Research I University, were it not for CLL’s protective home. Yet the contradictions, distortions and frustrations that our organizational cramping has produced were beginning to undermine our ethos.
Perhaps not surprisingly, when the last and most longstanding Dean of CLL, Dr. Robert L. Carter retired in 2000, this was seen by the senior university administration as an opportunity for an organizational review of the College. The last Director also saw an opportunity here: for our liberation from the confinement of our own history. I believed that if we took a proactive position relative to the self-study and external review process, it might be possible to facilitate an organizational transformation that would result in our greater connectedness to the rest of the university, if for no other reason than that we would be joining another college with its own established programs, whose faculty, staff and students could interface with our own. (This is also consistent with my own affirmative postmodernist theory of discourse and social structure which suggests that replacing negative discourse can result in new, positive social structures— see Henry and Milovanovic, Constitutive Criminology at Work, 1999, or not!). In a series of day-long retreats that I held in 2001, ISP’s faculty and staff considered the options to stay as a whole in CLL, become our own College of Interdisciplinary Studies, or join another college as a Department: CULMA, Education or Liberal Arts. Becoming our own college was seen as unrealistic and impractical (especially since the new Provost stated that he does not like one department colleges and that WSU has too many colleges as it is!). Joining Liberal Arts, whose faculty have been some of our biggest critics, was seen as fraught with danger. Joining Education, in spite of the enormously supportive relations we have enjoyed through the transition period under interim Dean Wood, and Deputy Deans Elliott and Holbert, was seen as not an especially good fit. Given that staying as CLL was highly unlikely, joining CULMA, with whom we’d already had constructive negotiations about collaboration across several programs, seemed a strong and viable project. CULMA was also multi- and interdisciplinary, issue-based, innovative, with a high academic reputation and a solid research record. Importantly, CULMA has established good relationships with other programs at WSU, while also knowing the costs of marginalization from the mainstream. CULMA offers a range of master’s degrees in applied social science fields, and we believe that their graduate degrees would benefit from having a large undergraduate program, strong faculty and staff, as well as substantial resources, all of which we would bring to that college. After analysis and deliberation, the external reviewers’ report came to similar conclusions, a view that was communicated to us by the Provost in explaining that the university will act on the recommendations of the report, and that ISP and CULMA should begin to explore the viability of a ―marriage.‖ A transition team was established, reflecting the interests of ISP and CULMA and co-chaired by CULMA’s Associate Dean Robin Boyle and Interim Deputy Dean Sharon Elliott, and charged with anticipating and resolving potential problems and barriers to the transition. The result was

that the recommendation of the transition committee went to a historic vote of the faculties of both CULMA and ISP and was overwhelmingly supported. The recommendation and the vote were the basis for the subsequent favorable decision by the WSU Faculty Senate whose unanimous endorsement of ISP becoming a Department in CULMA was approved without objection on July 16, 2002 by the WSU Board of Governors, to become effective on October 1, 2002. As ISP alumna Luann Brennan says in her comment at the end of this commemorative booklet, ―We only grew through change; it’s time for ISP to grow (again).‖ To do so ISP needs to be repotted from its root-bound home in CLL to the fertile interconnected soils of the College of Urban Labor and Metropolitan Affairs. I look forward to sharing in the challenge and accomplishment that this rebirth will bring to our students, to our staff and to our faculty.

College of Lifelong Learning Student Senate
Introduction and History
By Ruthie Flowers In 1991, the students and alumni of Wayne State University's College of Lifelong Learning Interdisciplinary Studies Program (WSU-CLL/ISP) formed a student governing board called the Student Organization for Renaissance Education of Adult Learners (S.O.R.E.A.L.). Its founding members, Antonetta Johnson-Gardner, Marian Y. Livsey, and David Baxter, recognized the need for CLL students to have representation at University-wide activities and events. Its goals were "to promote pride and academic excellence among its adult learners and to foster the spirit of the renaissance learner." Because of competing interests of family, community, and work, student participation dwindled from little to no extracurricular campus activities for the next seven years. During 1997, students began to show a renewed interest in the revitalization of the student governing board. In response, the Associate Director of ISP, Student Services, Howard Finley chaired a committee that consisted of Dr. Robert Carter, Dean of CLL, Derrick White, ISP Program Coordinator, Antonetta Johnson-Gardner, ISP Administrative Assistant, and Ruthie Flowers, CLL Student Council Representative. Ruthie Flowers was appointed Acting President by the committee to start the process of reestablishing a new student governing board. In January 1998, the new student governing board was formed and its members voted to rename the student organization, College of Lifelong Learning Student Senate. Immediately following, it was officially registered as a new student organization with the Wayne State University Student Center and Program Activities Office. The CLL Student Senate worked to promote the interests of students and faculty, enhance the image of adult and continuing education, improve student retention, and encourage superior scholastic achievement, service, and leadership. It remained active through 1998-99. After another year's hiatus, beginning 2001, a new group of students once again took on the challenge of another CLL Student Senate revival. They too had recognized that a sustained vehicle for building a sense of community among nontraditional students is vital in the

continuation of superior academic success. These newly energized groups of students have kept the CLL Student Senate active longer than any other, and they remain active to this day. Following is a list of CLL Student Senate outstanding contributions from 1991 to the present.

STUDENTS’ OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTIONS TO CAMPUS LIFE SERVICE, SCHOLARSHIP, AND LEADERSHIP  1991 The establishment of the Student Organization for Renaissance Education of Adult Learners (S.O.R.E.A.L.) Champion Student Lead Organizers – Marian Y. Livsey and David Baxter Facilitator – Antonetta Johnson-Gardner 1997-98 Established the College of Lifelong Learning Student Senate Champion Student Lead Organizer & CLL Student Senate Acting President, Ruthie Flowers Facilitator – Howard Finley, Associate Director, ISP Student Services Established the Theta Xi Chapter of Alpha Sigma Lambda National Honor Society Champion Student Lead Organizer and Facilitator – Ruthie Flowers Ruthie Flowers was the first student from the College of Lifelong Learning Interdisciplinary Studies Program to be elected to "Who's Who Among Students in American Universities & Colleges‖ in recognition of outstanding merit and accomplishment as a student at Wayne State University in December 1998.  1998-99 – CLL Student Senate Officers: Albert Briscoe, Jr., President, Deborah Stewart, President-Elect, Marilyn Corbitt, Treasurer, and Diana Bailey, Secretary CLL Student Senate sponsored a university - wide Christmas food and clothing drive. Champion Student Lead Organizer – Albert Briscoe, Jr., Facilitator – Ruthie Flowers Albert Briscoe, Jr. was the first student from CLL’s ISP to be inducted into the prestigious David Mackenzie Honor Society at Wayne State University in December 1999. This Society recognizes those graduating students who have made outstanding contributions to the University in the areas of student leadership, scholarship, and service. Albert was also nominated and interviewed for the highly distinguished Howard A. Donnelly Leadership Award at Wayne State University. This very prestigious award is given to the man and woman completing their undergraduate degree in May who are judged as having made the most outstanding contributions to the University. These contributions may be in the areas of student activities, service and leadership, and are consistent with high scholarship.  2000 Establishment of CLL - ISP Dean's List Champion Student Lead Organizer – Albert Briscoe, Jr., CLL Student Senate President, 1999-2000 Facilitator – Dr. Stuart Henry, CLL Associate Dean & ISP Director

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2001-02 CLL Student Senate Officers: Barbara Flis, President, Doris Pailen, PresidentElect, Joe Pardlowe, Treasurer, and Robert Jones, Secretary Barbara E. Flis was the first female student from CLL/ISP to be inducted into the prestigious David Mackenzie Honor Society in May 2002. At the same time, Barb was a strong contender for the highly distinguished Howard Donnelly Award. CLL Student Senate sponsored a university-wide activity, called "True Colors." The purpose was to unite students and faculty in a game of fun and laughter while exploring the "true colors" of individual personalities. Guest Speaker – Jacque Martin-Downs Champion Student Lead Organizer & Facilitator – Barbara E. Flis

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2002-03 CLL Student Senate Officers: Doris Pailen, President, President-Elect, Cheryl Ford-Walk, Vacant, Treasurer position, and Jacqueline Jones, Secretary Commemorative Recognition Ceremony & Farewell to the College of Lifelong Learning Champion Student Lead Organizer – Doris Pailen The purpose of the commemoration, according to Doris Pailen, is ―to [offer] appropriate recognition and closure to the College of Lifelong Learning, to acknowledge those who have been instrumental in its extraordinary success, and to say thank you.‖ Shirley Freeman, a summa cum laude graduate from Wayne State University with a Master of Fine Arts with a major in sculpture, is the designer of the sculpture that ―will memorialize what CLL has meant historically to it students, alumni, [and] . . . university community-at-large.‖

Theta Xi Chapter of Alpha Sigma Lambda National Honor Society
Introduction and History
By Ruthie Flowers Many nontraditional college students never had the opportunity to participate in an honor organization or program for the advancement and recognition of high scholastic achievement. In 1997 Emily Jennings, a nontraditional student at Wayne State University's College of Lifelong Learning Interdisciplinary Studies Program (WSU - CLL/ISP), asked me if there was such a program or Dean's List in place in our college. At the time I was not only a student colleague, I was also Acting President of the CLL Student Senate and an employee in CLL/ISP Student Services. Acting on the inquiry, with a commitment to follow up with Emily, I shared her interests with Mr. Howard Finley, ISP Associate Director, Student Services. He confirmed that there was no adult student honor society at the time. However, it just so happened that CLL/ISP had received an invitation from Alpha Sigma Lambda National Honor Society for membership.

According to the 2002 informational brochure of Alpha Sigma Lambda (ASL) under the section ―Introduction and History,‖ ASL is a well-established nonprofit organization that has many great attributes. For example, ASL "presents institutions with a truly prestigious opportunity to recognize the special achievements of adults who accomplish excellence while facing competing interests of family, community, and work.‖ Consistent with a number of ASL member chapters’ perspectives on ―Contributions To Campus Life,‖ another point revealed that . . . [F]or the chapter institution, the Society serves as a vehicle for imparting appreciation for adult students' academic achievements and contributions." ASL is also distinguished by its longevity and outreach to other nontraditional higher education institutions throughout the United States that dates back to 1945-46. Dr. Rollin B. Posey, Dean of University College at Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois, established the Society. ―To this day Alpha Sigma Lambda is not only the oldest but also [the] largest chapter-based honor society for full- & part-time adult students.‖ ASL National Honor Society presented CLL/ISP with the perfect opportunity to establish an honor society. In accordance with ASL National Honor Society Constitution’s goals and objectives, it would "empower student to achieve his/her goals [by giving them] a measure of encouragement and recognition at the early stages [of their academic careers]." Such an honors program could also "aid immensely in the recruitment and retention of nontraditional students." Mr. Finley and I submitted a proposal of interest to Dr. Robert Carter, Dean of CLL, with the many advantages of establishing an honor society. With great enthusiasm, Dean Carter chaired the Committee to establish an ASL Chapter at CLL/ISP that included Howard Finley, Derrick White, CLL/ISP Program Coordinator, and Ruthie Flowers. In winter of 1998, the committee set in motion the criteria required to establish a member chapter with the National Society. In April of that year, the Theta Xi Chapter was accepted as an affiliate of the Alpha Sigma Lambda National Honor Society with all the rights and privileges of the national organization. At the same time and according to university protocol, the new chapter was officially registered as a student organization with the WSU Student Center and Program Activities Office. In compliance with the ASL National Honor Society lifetime membership criteria, a Theta Xi prospective member "must be matriculated and have a minimum of twenty-four graded semester hours or the equivalent at the institution in an undergraduate degree program. Members shall be selected only from the highest ten percent of the class and must have a minimum graded-point index of 3.2 on a 4.0 scale." A letter of invitation for membership is sent out to eligible students at the beginning of the Fall Term. An official induction ceremony is held once a year at the CLL/ISP Fall Graduation Convocation. Since it was established, there are a total of seventy-three proud Theta Xi ASL members. Emily Jennings was one of the first students to be inducted as a member of the Theta Xi Chapter of ASL National Honor Society.

FALL 2000 ASL THETA Xi INDUCTEES
Diana Bailey, Carole Brantley-Bell, Dana Bolstad, Thelma Blakely, Albert Briscoe Jr., Brenda Brooke, Ann Brown, Marilyn Corbitt, Donna Glanton, Marion Green, Glenda Hoagland, Christine Hughes, Emily Jennings, Sheryl Labon, Carole Lally, Steven Linton, Hattie Rogers, Vivian Sanders, Patricia Sims, Deborah Stewart, Karen Tucker, Shelley Verella, Christine Vernier, Frederick Webster, Doriscine Wesley, Alice White, Jacqueline White, Yolande Williams

ASL Theta Xi Elected Officers for Academic Term 1999-2000: Albert Briscoe, Jr., President, Leo H. Liggons, Jr., President-Elect, Marilyn Corbitt, Treasurer, Diana Bailey, Secretary FALL 2001 ASL THETA Xi INDUCTEES Betty Barrow, Keith Bradford, Luann Brennan, Karen Brooks, Stanley Bryant, Cheryl Buswell-Robinson, Benita Cheatom, Ramona Dunbar, Rachael Elliott, Antonio Enoex, Lynn Farthing, Barbara Flis, Laura Frankel, Kathleen Greene, Sherry Goosby, Janet Hale, Mary Harrell-Griffin, Kiki Herfert, Joyce Jackson, Jacqueline Jones, Jennifer Kubit, Erika Martin, Shelley Martinelli-Mabry, Rick McKiddy, Pensacola Miller, Terrie Murria, Daralene Nero, Doris Pailen, Sharon Patton, Mary Phelps, Carolyn Radford, Lesha Radney, Maureen Reilly, Nicole Rossi, Donna Smith, Joseph Smith, Christopher Smith, Lamees Sweis, Valerie Thames, Andrea Thomas, Kevin Thrasher, Diane Tiseo, Regina Trobridge, Verlenia Wilson, Debra, Zebari ASL Theta Xi Elected Officers for Academic Term 2001-02: Barbara Flis, President, Doris Pailen, President-Elect, Joe Pardlowe, Treasurer, Robert Jones, Secretary ASL Theta Xi Elected Officers for Academic Term 2002-03: Doris Pailen, President, Cheryl Ford-Walk, President-Elect, Vacant, Treasurer, Jacqueline Jones, Secretary