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HANDBOOK ON THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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					HANDBOOK ON THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FOR HUNGARIAN PARTICIPANTS OF EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS

Edited by the Hungarian-American Fulbright Commission for Educational Exchange

Budapest, June 1999

TABLE OF CONTENTS SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICANS...................................................................... 5 PART I. .......................................................................................................................................... 8 EDUCATION IN THE U.S. ......................................................................................................... 8 1. CONTROL OF EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES ................................................... 9 1.1. Role of the Federal Government ............................................................................... 9 1.2. Role of the State Government ................................................................................... 9 1.3. Role of the Community ............................................................................................ 10 2. ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF U.S. EDUCATION ......................................... 2.1. General Information .................................................................................................. 2.2. Higher Education ...................................................................................................... 2.2.1. History and Development of the American University Structure ............ 2.2.2. The Characteristics of the American Higher Education ........................... 2.3. The U.S. Campus ...................................................................................................... 11 11 12 12 17 25

PART II......................................................................................................................................... 27 PRACTICAL INFORMATION .................................................................................................. 27 1. ESSENTIAL DOCUMENTS .................................................................................................. 1.1. Passport ..................................................................................................................... 1.2. Visa ........................................................................................................................... 1.3. Certificate for Exchange Visitor Status, Form IAP-66 ............................................ 1.4. Arrival-Departure Form (Form I-94)........................................................................ 1.5. International Student I.D. Card (ISIC)...................................................................... 1.6. Health Care ............................................................................................................... 1.7. Credit Cards .............................................................................................................. 1.8. Social Security .......................................................................................................... 1.9. Reference and Study/Teaching Materials 1.10. Papers and Photographs .......................................................................................... 1.11. Other papers ............................................................................................................ 1.12. Safeguarding Your Valuable Papers ...................................................................... 2. TRAVEL .................................................................................................................................. 2.1. Baggage ..................................................................................................................... 2.2. Computers ................................................................................................................. 2.3. Customs..................................................................................................................... 28 28 28 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 33 33 33 34

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3. LIVING ABROAD .................................................................................................................. 3.1. Emergency................................................................................................................. 3.2. Security...................................................................................................................... 3.3. Money and Banking .................................................................................................. 3.4. Housing/Living Accommodation ............................................................................. 3.5. Hours of Business ..................................................................................................... 3.6. Electrical Equipment................................................................................................. 3.7. Communications ....................................................................................................... 3.8. Food........................................................................................................................... 3.9. Tax Regulations ........................................................................................................ 4. TRANSPORTATION IN THE UNITED STATES................................................................ 4.1. Public Transportation................................................................................................ 4.2. Purchasing an Automobile........................................................................................ 4.3. Leasing an Automobile ............................................................................................. 4.4. Automobile Insurance ............................................................................................... 4.5. International Driver's License ................................................................................... 4.6. State Driver's License ............................................................................................... 4.7. Non-driver Identification Card ................................................................................. 4.8. Drinking and Driving ................................................................................................ 4.9. Safety Belt Use Laws ................................................................................................ 4.10. Child Passenger Protection Laws ........................................................................... 4.11. Other Driving Considerations.................................................................................

36 36 36 37 42 43 43 43 45 46 47 47 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 50 50

5. DEPENDENTS ........................................................................................................................ 51 5.1. Your Spouse .............................................................................................................. 51 5.2. Your Children ........................................................................................................... 51

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APPENDIX A .............................................................................................................................. 53 USEFUL ITEMS TO BRING ...................................................................................................... 53 APPENDIX B............................................................................................................................... 55 BEFORE YOU GO ...................................................................................................................... 55 APPENDIX C............................................................................................................................... 56 FINAL STAGE CHECKLIST ..................................................................................................... 56 APPENDIX D .............................................................................................................................. 57 USEFUL INFORMATION TO KEEP ON HAND WHILE ABROAD .................................... 57 APPENDIX E ............................................................................................................................... 58 TIME ZONES .............................................................................................................................. 58 APPENDIX F ............................................................................................................................... 59 CLIMATE .................................................................................................................................... 59 APPENDIX G .............................................................................................................................. 61 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ................................................................................................... 61 APPENDIX H .............................................................................................................................. 63 COMPARABLE CLOTHING SIZES ......................................................................................... 63 APPENDIX I ................................................................................................................................ 64 HOLIDAYS .................................................................................................................................. 64 APPENDIX J ................................................................................................................................ 69 GLOSSARY OF EDUCATION TERMS AND ACRONYMS ................................................. 69 APPENDIX K .............................................................................................................................. 76 COMMONLY USED ACRONYMS IN INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION .......................... 76 APPENDIX L ............................................................................................................................... 80 STATE TRAVEL INFORMATION SOURCES ........................................................................ 80 APPENDIX M .............................................................................................................................. 87 IMPORTANT AND USEFUL ADDRESSES ............................................................................ 87

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SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICANS

It is not easy to generalize about the United States, for above all it is a land of diversity. The size of the country, its geographic and climatic differences, and the ethnic mixture of its people all contribute to its variety. Still there are a few characteristics you will encounter in "typical" Americans from Atlantic to Pacific. For example, Americans tend to value their individuality, to think themselves the equal to any other man or woman, and to believe they are masters of their own destiny. They feel free to speak their minds on most subjects and are often astonishingly frank in expressing political opinions, cherishing above all other rights the freedom of speech guaranteed by the Constitution. They are direct in their communications; they say no when they mean no. Americans do not commonly exhibit class consciousness or make distinctions amongst themselves along class lines. If anything, the vast majority identify themselves as belonging to the middle class. Except for, perhaps, the very rich or very poor, Americans do not usually feel that their success in life will be determined by the social class into which they were born, and do not usually show excessive deference or superiority to each other in public situations. This may be different, however, within a professional setting. Americans appear open and friendly at first meeting, but this means only that they are pleased to make your acquaintance; it may or may not lead to true friendship. They are informal; they often introduce themselves by their first names and call others by their fist names on very slight acquaintance. In professional situations, however, it is preferable to address people using their title and last name (e.g. Dr. Smith, Ms. Jones) until they ask you to use their first name. Americans tend to stand at least an arm's length apart when conversing and are not inclined to touch one another, except to shake hands upon greeting one another. They value their privacy and rarely call on even good friends without phoning first. When they do make an appointment or accept an invitation, they can generally be counted on to appear at the appointed time. They view punctuality as a virtue, especially in professional life. In fact, Americans often seem to be in a hurry since "time is money". They are materialistic on the whole, but generous as well. By and large, differences are indulged, and "doing one's own thing" is held in high regard. Thus, there is no need for you to change your own habits or lifestyle nor, certainly, to like everything you observe in the United States. Nonetheless, there are a few customs you may find convenient to adopt while you are in the U.S.

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Appointments/Punctuality It is always appropriate to make an appointment before visiting someone, particularly at an office. It is best to be on time for appointments. When they are professional in nature - an appointment with a doctor or a colleague at the university - you should appear within five minutes of the time you have agreed upon. On social occasions, especially when the invitation is for a meal, plan to arrive no more than ten to fifteen minutes after the appointed hour (but never before the hour, the host may not be ready). In both cases, be sure to phone if you are unavoidably delayed. Remember that public events such as concerts, university classes begin promptly at the scheduled time.

Invitations If you accept an invitation or make an appointment, it is very important that you appear as promised, since your hosts will have taken considerable trouble to prepare for your visit and professional people will have arranged their schedules to accommodate you. It is perfectly acceptable to decline an invitation if it is not convenient for you, but some response is always called for. On a formal, written invitation, "RSVP" means "please reply". It is not necessary to take a gift unless the occasion is a birthday party or Christmas, or perhaps the invitation is for an entire weekend. In these cases, a simple, inexpensive gift of flowers, candy, a bottle of wine or a small souvenir from your own country would be appropriate. Don't forget to ask your host whether you can bring something with you. A thank-you note to your host or hostess, especially following an overnight visit, is considerate. If you have been invited to go out for a meal, you should assume that all parties will pay for themselves, unless the invitation included a specific offer to pay for your food.

Dietary Restrictions If health or religious beliefs restricts the foods that you can eat, you should feel free to explain this when you accept an invitation to visit. Such preferences are always understood; your host or hostess will usually be happy to take them into account when the menu is planned. You can also be assertive about dietary preferences or restrictions in a restaurant. Many places will try to accommodate your request.

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Smoking Restrictions It is now quite common in the U.S. for cigarette smoking to be either restricted or completely prohibited in public places. This includes restaurants, theaters, stores, museums and many office and university buildings. Cigar and pipe smoking are almost always prohibited. You should also be aware that Americans often object to guests smoking in their homes, and it is considered a courtesy to inquire whether your host will mind before you light up.

Asking Questions Probably the best advice this handbook can give is to suggest you ask questions whenever you need guidance or information. Americans do so freely and never think that inquiries are a sign of ignorance or weakness. On the contrary, questions indicate interest, and you will find most people glad to be of help.

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PART I. EDUCATION IN THE U.S.

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1. CONTROL OF EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES
Under the U.S. federal system of government, education is decentralized. This means that direct control of education is at the state or local level rather than at the national level. The Constitution of the United States, upon dividing the powers between the federal government and the state governments, left the major responsibility for education to the states by keeping silent on the subject. In other words (as stated by the 10th Amendment to the Constitution), "the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people". The people have always placed the authority over education - and the responsibility for organizing and administering it - in the hands of the states, and the agencies and institutions within the states.

1.1. Role of the Federal Government The responsibilities of the Federal Government toward education, as they have evolved today, are to provide encouragement, financial support, and leadership. The Congress of the United States has constitutional powers to allocate funds for education, but it has no direct control over education.

1.2. Role of the State Government Since each of the states is responsible for its own education system, practices and policies differ. In each state, the department of education and its controlling board of education and chief school officer hold central authority. The legislature enacts laws pertaining to education for both public and non-public schools in the state, but the state department of education and local school districts are responsible for the operation of the school system. The State Board of Education determines educational policies in compliance with state laws. Board members are elected or appointed and usually serve for terms ranging from two to six years. They are empowered to formulate policies relating to educational affairs such as allocation of school funds, certification of teachers, textbooks and library services, and provision of records and educational statistics. The chief executive officer of the state board of education is the superintendent of public instruction or state commissioner of education. This person may be elected by the people, or appointed by the state governor or by the board of education. Superintendents or commissioners are responsible for administering the state school system and implementing policies adopted by the board.

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1.3. Role of the Community One of the unique characteristics of the United States system of education is the degree to which schools are operated by local school authorities. The broad discretion given local boards of education allows public educational programs to be responsive to the needs of the community. There are approximately 15.500 school districts in the United States. The majority are run by regularly elected boards of citizens. Working within certain broad policies set at the state level, these boards construct buildings, determine instructional policies, employ teachers and administrators, and generally oversee the day-to-day operation of the schools. The superintendent of schools is responsible for the execution of the policies set down by the Board of Education. Together, the superintendent and the board prepare the school budget, determine the amount of local taxes (usually property taxes) necessary to finance the school program, employ teachers and other school personnel, provide and maintain the school buildings, purchase equipment and supplies, and provide transportation for pupils.

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2. ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF U.S. EDUCATION
2.1. General Information Education in the United States is comprised of three levels: elementary, secondary and postsecondary education. Vocational training, adult education, schools or classes for special education of children, and kindergartens also form part of the program in most states. Parents may choose whether to send their children to their local, free public schools, or to private schools which charge fees. The organization and curricula of private schools and colleges are similar to those of the public schools although the administration differs. Through the transfer of students and other contacts, public and private schools maintain many cooperative links. The majority of students (about 85%) at the primary and secondary levels go to public school. Most of those who attend private school attend church-sponsored parochial schools. The school year is usually nine months, from early September to mid-June. The common pattern of organization, referred to as the 6-3-3 plan, includes elementary school in grades 1 through 6, junior high schools in 7 through 9, and senior high schools in grades 10 through 12. The older 8-4 plan, however, in which grades 1 through 8 were the elementary school and 9 through 12 the high school, continues in many localities. There is also a 6-6 plan, grades 1 through 6 in the elementary school and 7 through 12 in the secondary school. Today, unified systems operating both elementary and secondary schools most commonly use the 6-3-3 plan or a 6-2-4 variation. Grading Throughout most elementary and secondary schools, pupils are tested frequently and graded, usually with letter-grades as follows: A - excellent B - good C - average/fair D - poor (but still passing) E or F - failing This procedure may be followed as early as first grade, although children at the lower levels may be graded in a more general way such as the following: O - outstanding S - satisfactory N - needs improvement U - unsatisfactory

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Most children are accustomed to being graded in this way and expect even their homework to be given a grade. Sometimes a grade of "pass" or "fail" is used at the college level. The process of frequent testing is different from many other countries. Especially at the secondary level, pupils are given frequent written tests in addition to comprehensive mid-term and final examinations.

2.2. Higher Education

2.2.1. History and Development of the American University Structure From the very beginning of the New World experience, Europe aided in the shaping of American educational structure. Harvard, Yale and other schools received funds and books from European patrons. Europe also contributed to the educating of Americans. Long before exchange students programs were conceived, European students of science and society visited America to describe the new land and, many class conscious Americans in turn, began sailing for Europe to obtain a degree if not an education. There were probably several reasons why Americans braved a long sea voyage to Europe for an education but among them was the range of courses offered within the old liberal arts curriculum and the international reputations of the lecturers. One must remember that American schools were not large and that even Harvard College at the end of the American Revolution, had only five lecturers and a few tutors. Not all Americans, however, were enchanted with European educators. Old John Adams wrote to Thomas Jefferson in 1825 warning him not to hire European professors for his new university in Virginia. "I do not approve of you sending to Europe for tutors and professors. I do believe there are sufficient scholars in America to fill your professorships and tutorships with more active ingenuity and independent minds than you can bring from Europe. The Europeans are all deeply tainted with prejudices, both ecclesiastical and temporal, which they can never get rid of". Adam's views, however, were not shared by all of his countrymen. In the early nineteenth century, the people of the United States pushing against an expansive frontier often saw economic survival as more important than excessive "book learning".

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In America the college curriculum was modelled on that of the English university. As in England, and in much of Western Europe, the curriculum emphasized literary and philosophical studies drawn from classical sources and assumed that such knowledge marked a liberally educated gentleman. Research had no place in college life in the early nineteenth century and was only promoted in learned societies like the American Philosophical Society. Typically the American college curriculum before the Civil War was based on certain assumptions: (1) Education was for gentlemen; (2) Knowledge was thought to be a more or less fixed quantity of truth and the primary function of education was to get as much.Christian truth into the heads of undergraduates as possible; and finally (3) The mind was assumed to consist of faculties such as reason, memory, judgement, etc. The mind was conceived rather like a muscle; the more one exercised it, the more it grew and so the function of education was to exercise the mind and develop mental discipline. Despite the growth in the number of colleges, education beyond the rudiments of the writing, reading and simple math, proved only for the few. In 1849 per capita enrollment was only one tenth of what it was in the 1950's. The more usual route was to go from grammar school directly into an apprenticeship or business. As the French traveler, Alexis de Tocqueville noted, "The Americans can devote to general education only the early years of life. At fifteen, they enter upon their calling, and thus their education generally ends at the age when ours begins". College was viewed more as a detour than an opportunity and, as Tocqueville discovered, only the less intelligent children were packed off to college and the bright ones were sent into business. In the years following the Civil War, geographical expansion gave way to industrial expansion and this was reflected in education. The college of the nineteenth century that was centered on a classical education and was generally connected to a religious denomination gave way to the forces of science and industry. For many educated in the earlier America, this shift caused a certain mental disjuncture. One has only to note Henry Adams - grandson of President John Quincy Adams - and the tortured intellectual wanderings he made in late nineteenth century America. He felt completely out of step with the times and confessed that his early nineteenth century education equipped him to live only in the eighteenth century. He, like many others, was unable to make any sense of the present and distrustful of the future, escaped to Europe to embrace the past.

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The demands of a rapidly expanding industrial and commercial society emphasized science and specialized skills and raised the question of what kind of liberal arts curriculum was necessary in an age of specialization. Complementing this trend toward "practical education", where the rise of black colleges such as Howard University and Tuskegee Institute. Tasks that used to be performed by students who worked for their room and board at the old manual labor schools of the early nineteenth century were now elevated to actual courses at many of the black colleges that were begun after the Civil War. Two paths were taken to meet the requirements of an industrial age. One stressing research came from Germany and led to the founding in 1876 of John Hopkins University as a graduate institution. Many Americans returning from Germany with their Ph.D. brought back not only a thirst for learning, but also the conviction that universities should be centers of research. Between 1820 and 1914, 10.000 Americans took German Ph.D. and by the end of the nineteenth century the cult of the Ph.D. was firmly entrenched in American higher education. The other path stressed professional education and was laid out by the Land Grant Act of 1862 and subsequent legislation. Even before the Civil War there was a growing awareness of many that the college program as then constituted did not reflect the needs of an expanding nation. There were calls for a national agricultural college that would be similar to West Point, the national military academy. Despite the distrust of farmers for "book-farming", the Land Grant Act of 1862 provided federal land to the states for the creation of colleges that would provide courses benefitting the agricultural and mechanical arts. This not only gave rise to agricultural and mechanical colleges, but also contributed to the development of institutions like Michigan State University, University of Wisconsin, University of Minnesota, and Ohio State University. Although the Act did not prohibited the teaching of the liberal arts, the stress was plainly on vocational training and emphasized agriculture, engineering, nursing, commerce and business. This, of course, opened the university to a much larger public and provided sound courses for the industrial classes. No longer would education address only the development of the mind and be possessed by the few, now higher education would be available to the masses. The acquisition of skills and the training of thousands became an important aspect of the university's mission. For many, Europe and the classical heritage had been overthrown, replaced by a technical education crafted to fit the needs of the present. The United States became the land of the "eternal now". The seemingly "anti-intellectual" stance fostered by the vocational oriented universities and the very intellectual perspective emanating from Germany, combined in an enthusiastic drive for a better America through research.

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From 1890 on, this mixture of the two orientations - research and training - characterized the American system. The minority of wealth in Europe at the turn of the century never lost its hegemony over Oxford, Cambridge, Paris or Berlin, but in America it was nearly swept aside by the egalitarian thrust of Progressive reforms. Still, to many upperclass Americans, schools of journalism, library science, business, nursing, home economics, and physiotherapy proved strange bedfellows to the liberal arts and sciences, law, medicine and theology. Critics of the new universities that included "professional training" found in them centers of trivia and vocationalism. They seemed to have, according to these critics, no clear-cut purpose; "they were secondary schools for boys and girls, partly graduate and professional schools for advanced students, and partly 'service stations' for the general public". It is true that the new university, in its attempt to provide something for everyone, lacked a clear sense of mission. The new system, however, in its departure from the old emphasis on liberal arts reflected the changing needs of a new industrial-technological civilization by offering a range of skill courses students could take. An important concept of the old liberal education of the early nineteenth century was that educated men should all have the same classical education. In the new system there was no longer a prescribed route to education. If we dwelled somewhat at length on these curricula changes, it is because, as the historian Richard Hofstadter reminds us, a college curriculum "reveals the educated community's conception of what knowledge is most worth transmitting to its...youth, and it reveals what kind of mind and character an education is expected to produce". The curriculum, thus, becomes a gauge for those cultural forces that operate on the educational institution. Society determines the functions education will fill and this function dictates the form of that education. In the late nineteenth century, American universities began to diverge in another way from their European counterparts and from what had existed in the United States before the Civil War. The structure of the university changed. It became more like a corporation with a president answerable to a board of governors or board of trustees. Below the president - who acted as chief administer, policy maker, fund raiser and scholar - were vice-presidents, deans, assistant and associate deans, and department heads or chairs. Each university began to develop its own pattern of government and possessed beside a college of arts and sciences an array of professional schools. By the mid-twentieth century the American university had grown, as the sociologist Thorstein Veblem said it would, into a big business. Tuitions contributed only part of the operating costs and universities competed for private contributions, government grants, and business and philanthropic funding.

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The social stresses and strains in mid-twentieth century America also affected the university intellectually and structurally. World War II and America's new global position produced questions about American ideals, character and mission. This was the time that American studies programs sprung-up on university campuses across the nation as Americans again took up the questions of who they were and where they were going. The returning G.I.s from the Korean War, followed soon after by the "baby boom", flooded the campuses with bodies and overloaded the system. Classes mushroomed from 25 to 30 to 500 and more. The teaching loads of faculty were stretched; courses became more regimented, graduate students were hired to teach lower division courses and came to be known as Teaching Assistants or Associate Instructors. In some classes teaching assistants were so prominent that students seldom saw the professor, who was otherwise known as God. The flight of Sputnik brought demands on universities and colleges to develop better programs in math, science and languages. Americans agonized over what they saw as their declining position in these fields and led them to ask why Johnny could rock and roll but not read or calculate. In the 1960's American universities bore much of the brunt of the anti-Vietnam war movement, the Civil Rights movement, and through the smoke on campus, one could hear calls for free speech, women's rights and Students for a Democratic Society. Students, as consumers, were demanding, among other things, more relevant courses and a say in the structuring of their education. Universities and colleges responded with dropping most of the core requirements that generally included courses in the humanities, social sciences, and physical sciences; initiating teacher evaluation programs; and creating Black, Native American and Women study programs. The campus you will arrive at in September will be a different campus from that of the 1960's and early 1970's. You will find the students less idealistic, more conservative and more career oriented. Core requirements dropped earlier are again being implemented by universities but the debate has shifted somewhat. Now the problem is over the content of these core requirements. While everyone is agreed that history, literature, philosophy etc. ought to be studied, the big question is whose history, literature, and philosophy ought to be studied? Survey courses in American history have given way in some places to courses in world civilization are deemphasized in favor of contributions from Asian, African, and Middle Eastern civilizations. Demands are made that not only women writers should be included but also the works of Black, Asian, Chicano and Native American writers.

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2.2.2. The Characteristics of the American Higher Education

The decentralized character of the American educational system is greatest at the higher education level. This is principally because private higher education in the United States predated public higher education. The early autonomy of the former set them apart from the main stream of publicly financed schools and established a precedent for their relative independence. American higher education refers to study beyond the secondary school level and almost always presupposes that a student has undertaken 12 previous years of study. The United States now has about 3.340 accredited colleges and universities. They offer a great variety of requirements for admission and many different types of programs. The terms "college" and "university" are often used interchangeably, although the former is sometimes a part of the latter. An American college typically offers a blend of natural and social sciences and humanistic studies. Students, generally 18 to 22 years of age, attend classes for approximately four years to receive, if they successfully complete all requirements, a bachelor's degree in arts or sciences. A university, on the other hand, is usually composed of an undergraduate college of arts and sciences, plus graduate schools and professional schools or facilities. Today, about 43% of all university students are 25 years old or older. Many of them are taking courses to advance their careers and qualify for advanced degrees. In 1990, 26% of women and 28% of men had finished four years of college. Two-year community colleges offer associate degrees. For the most part they are locallycontrolled and predominantly publicly financed. Community colleges and technical colleges offer studies leading to technical and semi-professional occupations, and studies which prepare students for four-year degree-granting institutions. As a result, they enroll students with a wide range of abilities and interests. Junior colleges are similar to community colleges in that they offer two-year programs with associate degrees to those who graduate. Students may also take courses which transfer to fouryear degree-granting institutions. However, junior colleges are private, usually liberal artsoriented, institutions where enrollment is not limited to the community. The liberal arts college takes two general forms. It may be, as mentioned earlier, one of the constituent units - a school or college - of a university complex or it may be an independent organization. The university college of liberal arts often serves students in parallel undergraduate professional colleges, such

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as engineering or business administration, by giving them courses in the basic disciplines. It, as well as its independent counterpart, also provides pre-professional training of four years of less for students who proceed to the advanced professional schools, such as law and medicine. In addition, it offers a liberal education for students who do not enter either professional or graduate school. Another characteristic of American higher education is that credit for work is transferable among universities. A student may accumulate credits at one university, transfer them to a second, and ultimately receive a degree there or even from a third university. The greatest number of degrees at the bachelor's level, in recent years, has been conferred in the fields of business and management, education, social sciences, engineering and health professions. The traditional fields of law, medicine and theology are the leaders at the first professional level. The largest numbers of master's degrees were earned in education and business management. The greatest number of doctor's degrees were conferred in education, engineering, physical sciences and life sciences. Most American university degrees are awarded on completion of a specified number of courses which earn students credits or points. The number of credits awarded for each course relates to the number of hours of work involved. At the undergraduate level, a student usually takes about five three-hour-a-week courses every semester. Most students complete 10 courses per academic year and it usually takes them four years to complete a bachelor's degree requirement of about 40 three-hour courses or 120 credits. Although the proportion of male and female students has remained relatively the same in many disciplines for several years, women have registered dramatic gains in business and management, engineering, computer science, and communications. In the last several years, the number of women in graduate schools has exceeded the number of men. Between 1983 and 1988, the number of male full-time graduate students increased by 6 percent compared with 18 percent for full-time women. Among part-time graduate students, men increased by only 1 percent compared with 16 percent for women. In 1989, women earned more than one half of the associate's, bachelor's, and master's degrees and over one third of the doctor's and first professional degrees.

Kinds of institutions Colleges: can be either public (state) or private (or church related); Universities: can be either public or private; can be either large research oriented institutions (depends on library, labs and funding) or non-research oriented institutions; they can be state or city universities; they can be either denominational or non-denominational;

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Community or junior colleges: these are two year colleges and generally are public but can also be private.

Types of courses offered College: (except for community colleges) offers instruction in the liberal arts and sciences; generally a small four-year institution but can also be part of a university (can also be a technological college, often called institute) offering B.A. degree; School: part of a university that offers professional courses, ie. journalism, dentistry, music, graduate work, education (e.g. School of Law); University: includes a college of arts and sciences and one or more professional schools (larger range of options).

Undergraduate Study Undergraduate students are classified according to their year of study. First-year students are called freshmen; second-year students, sophomores; third-year students, juniors; and fourth-year students, seniors. The first two years of a four-year college program are devoted to general learning or the "liberal arts", that is, to a variety of courses in the social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences designed to develop intellectual ability and provide a solid cultural background. The scope of each course is usually broad. Courses that treat a vast area of subject matter, such as the history of art from pre-historic cave painting to modern, are known as survey an entire field of study, they are usually taken as introductory courses or as prerequisites for more specialized courses. During the third and fourth years (occasionally fifth as well) of college, students concentrate most of their courses in one discipline. The field of concentration is called a major. A number of courses are required to obtain a baccalaureate or bachelor's degree in the chosen field; other courses may be taken as electives. Each student is assigned an academic advisor who is a member of the faculty in his major field and who offers guidance on the choice of electives and helps solve any academic problems that arise. The B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) and B.S. (Bachelor of Science) are the most common degrees at this level, but the baccalaureate is also awarded in a few professional fields (e.g. Bachelor of Nursing, Bachelor of Fine Arts).

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The two-year (community, junior, and technical) colleges and institutes have seen widespread expansion in the last two decades. By offering an alternative in higher education, these schools provide students not only with a liberal arts background, but also with the semi-professional and technical training needed to prepare for employment in a highly technological world. Their programs of instruction lead to an A.A. (Associate of Arts), A.S. (Associate of Science), or A.A.S. (Associate of Applied Science) degree. A liberal arts curriculum, corresponding to the first two years of undergraduate study, is generally offered to students who wish to continue their education at a four-year institution. Other programs offer career training for positions which require special skills.

Graduate Study Graduate work leading to a master's degree requires at least one year's study beyond the bachelor's degree, although in fields such as engineering and business administration, a two-year program is common. The typical requirements for this degree include successful completion of a specified number of graduate courses, maintenance of a minimum average of grade B, and preparation of a thesis. In general, advanced studies leading to master's degree emphasize either research or preparation for professional practice. Again, the M.A. (Master of Arts) and M.S. (Master of Science) are the traditional degrees, but professional degrees at this level include the M.B.A. (Master of Business Administration) and M.S.W. (Master of Social Work) among a number of others. The Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy) degree requires a minimum of two years' full time study beyond the master's degree, but in most fields considerably more is necessary. For example, completion of the requirements for a doctorate in one of the natural sciences usually takes four to five years of study beyond the master's. In some institutions, highly qualified students may bypass the master's and enter a doctoral program with only a bachelor's degree, but this does not necessarily shorten the period of time required. Doctoral students attend advanced lecture courses and seminars, undergo extensive written and oral examinations, and carry out research under professional guidance. Graduate study leading to a doctorate in most fields emphasizes original research presented in the form of a dissertation. Doctorates are also awarded in medicine (M.D.), education (Ed.D.), law (J.D.), and other specialized fields. Research has become one of the chief functions of the graduate school. Universities carry on research in many fields and extend their services to businesses, government agencies and other non-academic organizations.

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Academic Year The academic year ranges from 32 to 36 weeks in length. It usually begins in August or September and ends in early or late May. Some colleges and universities divide the academic year into two terms of about 15 to 18 weeks each, called semesters. Other schools divide the year into periods of 12 weeks each, called quarters. Students must be present during the three quarters that fall between August/September and May/June; the fourth quarter is the summer vacation. Still other institutions divide the academic year into three equal trimesters. At all colleges and universities, there is a two- to four-week holiday beginning in mid-December, and many schools separate their terms with this holiday. Other institutions hold special short courses in the month of January and begin a new academic term in February. Most schools also have a one-week spring holiday in March or April, and some have a one-week break in the fall as well. Courses: numbered by class level 100 freshmen 200 sophomore 300 junior 400 senior 500-600 graduate Credit System In many post-secondary institutions outside the United States, certificates are awarded in the various areas of study after successful completion of national examinations. These examinations are quite comprehensive and are usually given once a year. The American system involves instead a process of continuous assessment based on a series of individual courses. Each course carries a certain number of credits that are awarded after the successful completion of that course. A student's rate of advancement in meeting degree requirements is measured in course credits. These are often referred to as credit hours, semester hours (in the semester system), quarter hours (in the quarter system), or merely hours. In many cases credit hours equal to the number of hours spent in class per week. In other cases credit hours reflect the workload or level of difficulty of a course. In most universities and colleges the typical class is 3 or 4 credit hours. Two or three laboratory periods are usually considered equal to one credit hour. For the undergraduate student, the normal full-time program - called an academic load - is 12 to 16 credits a semester or quarter. For the graduate student it is 9 to 12 credits. The two-year associate degree generally requires 60 to 64 credit hours. The four-year baccalaureate degree requires between 120 and 136 credits; a normal master's degree, 30 to 36 beyond the bachelor's; and the doctorate, 90 beyond the bachelor's. Approximately 16 of the doctoral credits are usually awarded for the dissertation.

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Assessment At most colleges and universities in the United States, students' academic work is assessed with a letter grade. The A is considered superior; B-above average; C-average; D-below average; Ffailure. Many institutions also employ the use of pluses and minuses to distinguish between a higher letter grade (B+) and a lower one (B-). The undergraduate student is expected to maintain a C average or better to remain in good academic standing. A student whose average drops below C will be placed on probation usually for one term. A student whose grades do not improve in that time could receive either a temporary academic suspension or a permanent academic dismissal. Graduate students are expected to maintain a B average or better to remain in good academic standing. Some institutions use the letter "I" to denote incomplete work and allow the student an additional period of time (usually a semester or a year) to complete the course requirements before a final grade is entered. A few institutions use percentages rather than letter grades; under this system 90 to 100 is usually equal to A; 80 to 89 to B; 70 to 79 to C; 60 to 69 to D; below 60 to F. Many schools also make use of a pass-fail system, either for all courses or for elective courses only. The student who completes a course satisfactorily receives a grade of "pass", the student who does not, receives a grade of "fail". Assignment of a grade for a student's work in a course is entirely the prerogative of the instructor, and it cannot be changed by anyone of higher authority in the institution. Some instructors prefer to grade students against an absolute standard that they alone have determined. Others choose to measure students against one another in a system known as "grading on the curve". This assumes that most students in a class would work at an average level of C, that there would be several B and D and a very few A and F to reflect the normal achievement curve. The system is thought to reduce the element of subjectivity in measurement. Overall academic achievement is measured by grade points. On the common 4-point scale, each credit with a grade of A earns 4 grade or quality points, B earns 3, C earns 2, D earns 1, and no grade points are assigned to F. A student's grade-point average (G.P.A.) or, sometimes, qualitypoint average (Q.P.A.) is computed by dividing the total number of grade points (arrived at by multiplying the grade point for each course by the credit hours of the course and adding all) by the total number of credit hours of enrollment. For example, a student may earn an A grade in a 3-unit course in English and a B grade in a 4-unit course in chemistry. The average is determined as follows:

22

Grade A=4 x B=3 x

Units 3 4 7 = =

Grade Points 12 12 24

G.P.A.

:

7

3.4

Colleges and universities regularly record the progress of each student, and in most institutions the grades that indicate the quality of classroom work are the most important part of the record. Other records cover observations of the student's character, health and extracurricular activities. Access to a student's records is limited, and there are federal laws to protect the student's privacy. Records are maintained in the office of the institution's registrar. Degrees offered by a community college for two years of work offered by a college or school and dependent on courses taken, ie.science, humanities etc. M.A./M.S. given generally upon the completion of a course of graduate study after receiving B.A. or B.S. degree A.B.D. not a real degree, but the term is one you may hear at a university. The letters mean "all but dissertation" and one may say he/she is A.B.D., if they have completed their preliminary exams for the doctorate, but not yet completed the dissertation. Ph.D. given generally after a course of graduate study and the successful completion of exams and an original dissertation. Faculty Faculty are ranked based on academic credentials, performance in teaching and research, and years of service to the institution, and requirements for advancement are relatively standard in higher education institutions throughout the United States. The usual ranks are instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and (full) professor, but faculty sometimes bear the title of lecturer, adjunct professor, and professor emeritus. Faculty members are usually referred to and addressed as professor, regardless of formal title. Instructor is an introductory rank for a member of the full-time faculty; it is usually assigned to persons with limited or no college teaching experience. The time spent in the rank of instructor is often considered a probationary period. Instructors receive one-year contracts that are renewable annually for a period of three or four years, after which they may be eligible to apply for promotion to the rank of assistant professor. In some institutions, if an instructor is not promoted after the probationary period, the contract is not renewed. A.A. B.A./B.S.

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Assistant professor is the more common introductory rank, and usually signifies a tenure-track position (further discussion of academic tenure is given below). Most assistant professors, have a doctorate, although there are some fields in which a terminal degree other than the doctorate is appropriate. Generally five to seven years must be spent at this rank before a faculty member may apply for promotion or tenure. During this time, the young professor establishes his or her reputation in research and gains valuable teaching experience. If tenure is denied at the end of a period, the faculty member may have to leave the institution. Attaining the rank of associate professor implies that the faculty member has had broad and successful experience in a college or university, has made scholarly contributions to his or her discipline, and has been actively involved in the overall life of the institution. After a specified number of years in this rank, the faculty member may apply for promotion to the rank of professor. By tradition, the professor is an academic leader who has made an outstanding contribution to scholarship as well as to the development of the institution in which he or she is employed. The professorship is the highest academic rank awarded to an individual by a college or university. The number of full professors is limited, but there are often several in a given department. A lecturer is usually a faculty member who is appointed for a limited term to teach a specific set of courses. Visiting professors are also appointed for a limited term, but the title is usually given to a scholar of some experience and status who has been invited to work at a university for a limited time. The title of adjunct professor is sometimes given to a ranked academic who is teaching only part time. It is also given to visiting professors, especially from universities abroad, who are serving on the faculty for a limited time. Professor emeritus is an honorary title conferred upon an individual for long and distinguished service to the institution. It is usually given at the end of a faculty member's full-time service or at the time of retirement. Ordinarily, all members of the faculty are evaluated annually by the students, their peers, and the administration. The evaluation is weighted in relation to the priorities of the institution and includes the quality of the faculty member's teaching and research, participation in institutional and student affairs, as well as his or her contributions to the local civic community. These evaluations play a part in contract renewal, promotion in rank, the awarding of tenure or institutional honors, or appointment to one or another of the institution's standing committees. In several large universities, student evaluations of individual courses are published and available through the campus bookstore.

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Academic tenure is an arrangement under which faculty appointments in an institution of higher education, after a specified period of probation, are guaranteed continuation until retirement for age or physical disability. A tenured member of the faculty is subject to dismissal only for serious cause (and after due academic process) or as a result of financial exigency or change of academic program. Systems of tenure are designed to provide the economic security that will encourage men and women of ability to choose academic careers, and to ensure academic freedom. Once assigned a course, a faculty member is presumed to be an expert in the field and is free to teach it as he or she wishes, to express opinions without fear of reprisal, and to assign grades for the students that cannot be challenged. American faculty have extensive duties. While about half their time is spent in teaching and preparation for their classes, they are also expected to engage in research leading to publication in scholarly journals. They must "publish or perish", which is to say that their advancement in rank, or even continuation in employment, will depend heavily on their scholarly attainments. They must also spend time raising funds to support the research, including any staff assistance required, advising undergraduate students, directing graduate student thesis and dissertation research, and serving on institutional committees. Many provide consulting services to government or private business as well, on both a profit-making and volunteer basis. Tuition Instate: state residents pay at a state institution; Out of State: out of state residents pay at a state institution; Full tuition: seldom paid by anyone anymore (except foreign students); Work Study: program of employment at an educational institution that students use to help pay tuition, etc.

2.3. The U.S. Campus The academic preparation and development potential of U.S. students are perhaps as varied as the structure of the system itself. Many state institutions have an open admissions policy. Thus, an institution may have students whose performance and abilities range from below average to excellent. Between these two extremes a wide range of abilities exists in most state and private institutions. Classes reflect this heterogeneous character of the student population, although some small private colleges may still have a relatively homogeneous student body which reflects standardized admission criteria.

25

The post-secondary students of the 1990's have been described as serious of purpose and careerminded. They are aware of the competitive job market and the challenge that will face them after graduation. Many students have part-time jobs varying from 20 to 40 hours per week. There is often a great deal of misunderstanding overseas about the cost of attending a university in the United States. This is usually because the annual charges for a full-time resident, degreecredit student vary widely from university to university and from state to state. Some prestigious private universities are indeed expensive, on the other hand, many state-supported institutions of higher education charge very little for tuition to residents of that state. Colleges also may administer other federal aid programs, including ones to assist students who plan to enter nursing or health fields and programs for students in law-enforcement curricula. Some states have scholarship or grant programs to help students attend institutions of their choice. Many awards are made to residents who plan to attend institutions located in their states. U.S. students have become assertive about their expectations in the classroom, ready to challenge and question the status quo. Often, student attitudes and behavior patterns are dependent upon the interpersonal relationship established by the teacher in the classroom. In some institutions, faculty maintain a formal student-professor relationship. In others, an extremely informal relationship is fostered, and, on some campuses, students and faculty are on a first-name basis. These extremes may exist within a single institution and even within a department. Students are encouraged to personal communication with their professors in office hours (see below). In most institutions today, students have an active student council, are represented on faculty curriculum committees and the faculty senate, and may even participate in the interviewing process of new faculty. In most cases, channels of communications have been established that permit students to air their problems, concerns, and violations of their rights. Colleges and universities are very sensitive to the importance of improving teaching methods and curricula to meet students' needs. Student evaluations of an instructor's performance are an integral part of the administrative process, and faculty are accountable for teaching methods to both students and administration. In most institutions, faculty are required to hold office hours and offer personalized assistance to the student. Most post-secondary institutions today encourage a personalized approach to education in an attempt to respond to the changing needs of the student population.

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PART II. PRACTICAL INFORMATION

27

1. ESSENTIAL DOCUMENTS
1.1. Passport Your passport is the most valuable document you will carry abroad. It guarantees that you are a Hungarian citizen. Guard it carefully. If you lose your passport while abroad, report the loss immediately to the Hungarian Embassy. Carelessness has been found to be the main cause for loss or theft of a passport. Hungarian citizens need passports to depart from or enter Hungary, and to enter most foreign countries. With appropriate visas, the passport is acceptable in virtually all countries. To avoid delays, we recommend that you apply for your passport several months in advance of your planned departure whenever possible. Demand for passports becomes heaviest between May and July and service is consequently slower. In order to enter the United States, you and your accompanying dependents must present passports to the U.S. immigration authorities which are valid for the entire length of your stay plus six months. Your passport must be stamped with the appropriate visa before you leave your home country. In addition to a passport and visa, you must present to the immigration authorities at the place of entry the following documents: 1.) a Form IAP-66, Certificate of Eligibility for Exchange Visitor (J-1) Status, and 2.) a Form I-94, Arrival-Departure Record. These forms are explained in detail below. 1.2. Visa A visa is an endorsement or stamp placed in your passport by a foreign government that permits you to visit that country for a specified purpose and a limited time. In most instances, you must obtain necessary visas before you leave Hungary. Apply directly to the Embassy or nearest Consulate of the country you plan to visit, or consult a travel agent. As an exchange visitor (like a Fulbright student) to the United States, you need to get a J-1 visa from the U.S. Embassy or U.S. Consulate in Hungary. The letter J indicates your status as a non-immigrant exchange visitor participating in a program of study, teaching, research or training approved by the Federal Government of the United States. This visa will be stamped in your passport. Each dependent accompanying you is required to have a J-2 visa stamped in his/her passport. This indicates his/her status as a dependent of a J-1 visa holder. J-2 visas are

28

issued for immediate family members (wife, husband, and children under the age of 21). A family member is not eligible to enter the U.S. prior to the J-1 visa holder.

1.3. Certificate for Exchange Visitor Status, Form IAP-66 Before applying for your J-1 visa at the U.S. Embassy or Consulate, you will receive a "Certificate of Eligibility for Exchange Visitor Status" (Form IAP-66). This form stipulates the terms and time period of the exchange visit. Dependents accompanying you to the United States will be listed on a form attached to your IAP-66. As indicated above, you must present Form IAP-66 to immigrant officials at your U.S. site of entry. The Form IAP-66 has three copies, two of which will be kept by the immigration officials. The third copy (pink) will be returned to you for subsequent re-entries to the United States, therefore you should fill it out and sign at the back. Your visa is valid exclusively with the pink copy of your IAP-66. If you intend to travel to other countries during the period of your authorized stay in the United States, you are required to present at the site of re-entry: 1.) 2.) Your Form IAP-66; Your valid passport, stamped with a J-1 visa allowing unlimited or multiple entry; Your I-94.

3.)

If you intend to remain in the United States for valid reasons after the time period indicated on the Form IAP-66, you must request an extension of your IAP-66.

1.4. Arrival-Departure Form (Form I-94) The "Arrival-Departure Form" (Form I-94) will be given to you on the aircraft when you are about to land in the United States. This form is a record of your arrivals in and departures from the United States. This form must be presented to immigration officials at your place of entry. They will attach Form I-94 to your passport which indicates your visa status and authorized length of stay in the United States. As a J-1 visa holder, you are automatically approved to work in the United States under the conditions stipulated on the Form IAP-66. Therefore, the immigration officials are not required to stamp "Employment Authorized" on your Form I-94. Your spouse and/or dependent(s), who will have J-2 visa status, are not eligible to have Form I-94 stamped "Employment Authorized" at the place of entry. J-2 visa holders must wait to apply for work permit at an INS office in the area of your U.S. residence.

29

1.5. International Student I.D. Card (ISIC) The ISIC Card costs around 2.000 HUF and more than pays for itself with reduced admission to museums and cultural events, and travel discounts. Most tourist spots will NOT honor regular college I.D.; therefore it is important to purchase this I.D. before you leave. There is no age limitation to receive an ISIC. The International Student I.D. Card is available through many study abroad campus offices. In general, you must provide proof of registration during the prior school year in order to get an ISIC; a letter with the university seal from the registrar confirming enrollment and work towards a degree, or a clear photocopy of transcripts.

1.6. Health Care Along with copies of your medical records, bring a supply of your prescribed medications. Ask your doctor to write legible prescriptions for you using the drugs' generic names. In the U.S., prescription drugs can be obtained from pharmacists in grocery stores or drug stores.

1.7. Credit Cards If you plan to use your credit cards in the United States, check with the issuing organization to determine: 1.) 2.) the validity of the card in the United States, the maximum amount that can be charged in the United States.

Some credit cards are honored in the United States for cash advances and retail charges, but often you will find that a bank teller or retail store clerk is not aware of this. We suggest that you speak with the manager of the bank or retail store if you have any problems.

1.8. Social Security It is important that you and your spouse/dependent procure a social security number. It is essential for such things as banking, obtaining a driver's license, obtaining insurance, filling income tax forms, registering at some doctor's office, and some schools require a social security number for their records. Application for a number should be made at the nearest office of the Social Security Administration as soon as you arrive in the United States. Take your Form IAP66 and your passport to the social security office. The process may be expedited if you explain that you are applying for a social security number in order to obtain a driver's license.

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1.9. Reference and Study/Teaching Materials It is also suggested that you take reference books and other materials necessary for your work. Also take a supply of business cards along with you. They will be helpful in introductions, as well as giving people your name, address, etc. Teaching Assistants, in particular, are advised to take various visual aids with them that would assist in increasing their students' understanding of Hungarian culture and environment. Items such as photographs, maps and slides of Hungary or any favorite educational materials may be difficult to find in the U.S. 1.10. Papers and Photographs You should take a statement with you from the registrar of your home college or university indicating your degree as well as a copy of your diploma. This is especially important for recent graduates because receipt of an award is contingent upon receipt of this degree, and you should be prepared to present documentation if asked. It is also a good idea to bring several passport-size photos of yourself when travelling abroad for a long period of time. The photos may be used for I.D., transportation passes and souvenirs. 1.11. Other papers Other papers (copies kept in a separate place) to bring with you: * birth certificate, for enrollment at universities and for identification in the event your passport is lost; * grant documents; * project proposal (more copies); * driver's license (international); * bills of lading; * travel tickets; * for married grantees, a copy of your marriage certificate, this is particularly useful and important if husband and wife have different last names; * if school age children will accompany you, it is advisable to bring school records, samples of their school work, copies of the school curricula for the grades your children would have entered at home, as well as their vaccination certificates.

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1.12. Safeguarding Your Valuable Papers You should take a few precautions to safeguard your valuables and to assist you in the event of loss: * Record all passport numbers in a separate but safe place in case your passport is stolen or lost. Take with you an extra set of passport size photos; Photocopy your passport and any visas and leave them at home in Hungary with a relative or friend. Take a copy with you and keep separately from your passport; Do not pack your passport in your luggage; Do not leave your passport in an empty hotel room or with strangers; Carry your passport with you whenever possible; Carry a card with emergency numbers; Use safe facilities at your department or at the post office.

*

* * * * *

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2. TRAVEL
2.1. Baggage You should check the baggage requirements with the airline(s) you are flying for restrictions and fees associated with access baggage. In order to avoid loss or delay of your (educational) materials, it is recommended that you bring these materials with you as excess baggage. You should investigate various methods for shipping baggage abroad to ascertain which is most convenient and economical for you. There is a limit on the amount you may carry as accompanied baggage on a plane ticket without additional charge, but it is possible to ship baggage by air freight, or to transfer your belongings via the international mails. There are limits on the size and weight of shipping cartons. You should check with your post office regarding restrictions. You should be aware that if you are transferring to a foreign carrier at one point during your trip abroad, the weight allowances can change dramatically and you may be charged for additional baggage. It is best to check with each carrier you will be using to find out their baggage weight allowances. Past experience shows that it is best for you to pack the clothing necessary for your first two or three weeks in your hand luggage, since your heavy baggage will probably be forwarded to your ultimate destination, and you might be separated from it for several weeks. It is a good idea to obtain insurance unless you already hold a floater insurance policy covering, pilferage, theft, loss and damage. Baggage insurance can be obtained through insurance companies, travel agencies and airlines.

2.2. Computers Here are a few tips to keep in mind when you are travelling with a laptop computer (notebook): Insurance Almost all insurance policies do not cover laptop computers once they leave your home - few insure them in your home. If you are interested in insuring your computer there are options available. Airport According to airline officials and the FAA the security equipment used by airports has no harmful effect on magnetic media. If you are still concerned about losing valuable data, you can request that the contents of your laptop case be hand searched. Make sure you allow extra time for this procedure. Also be sure that your laptop battery is charged so you can demonstrate to security personnel that you indeed have a working computer rather than a nefarious device.

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Customs To avoid paying taxes and duties, proof of previous purchase is required. The best plan is to carry a copy of your purchase receipt. Be prepared to answer any questions honestly. Upon returning to Hungary the copy of your purchase receipt will come in handy again. The following can serve as a reminder of what you may want to take while traveling with your laptop computer: * * * * * * * AC plug adapter; single-outlet surge suppressor; extra, fully charged battery pack; small, flat blade and Philips screwdriver; long telephone-line cord, phone-line coupler; mouse or trackball (if you are using a Windows software package); MS-DOS boot disk (in the event the MS-DOS files get corrupted on the hard disk, you will still be able to boot the machine. It is best to format them on your own laptop in case the floppy disk drive heads are out of alignment); simple word processor on a floppy disk; 3.5-inch, formatted, 1.44MB floppy disk (in the event you want to copy some files to a machine with only a 720K size drive); hard-disk locking software or device (a hard disk security system designed to prevent unauthorized access to the laptop hard disk); file transfer program.

* * * * 2.3. Customs

Become familiar with U.S. Customs regulations. Foreign-made personal articles are subject to duty and tax unless you have acceptable proof of prior possession. Documents such as a bill of sale, insurance policy, jeweler's appraisal or receipt for purchase may be considered reasonable proof of prior possession. Items such as computers, watches, cameras, tape recorders or other articles which may be readily identified by serial number or permanently affixed markings, may be taken to the Customs Office for registration before departing. The certificate of registration provided will expedite free entry of these items when you return. The precautions listed below will also make Customs processing easier: - Leave all medicines in their original labeled containers. - If you can carry medication containing a controlled substance, carry a doctor's certificate attesting to that fact. However such a doctor's certificate may not suffice as authorization to transport drugs to all foreign countries. Be sure to bring prescriptions, showing generic names of medicines as well as brand names. To ensure that you do not violate the laws of your country of assignment (or one which you may visit), consult the Embassy or Consulate of that country for precise information before embarking upon your trip.

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Agricultural Products There are very specific entry requirements for these items from most parts of the world. Fresh fruit and vegetables, meat, potted plants, pet birds and other organic items are prohibited or restricted from entering the U.S. The publication detailing more information on the subject is "Travellers Tips on Bringing Food, Plant and Animal Products into the United States" and is available free from the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 732 Federal Bldg., 6505 Belcrest Road, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Purchases Keep all receipts for items that you buy in the U.S. They will be helpful in making your U.S. Customs declaration easier when you leave.

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3. LIVING ABROAD
When you are in a foreign country, you are subject to its laws. If you are unsure of how to act or respond in certain situations, play it safe and do not risk your safety. Do not deliver packages for anyone unless you are certain they do not contain drugs or other contraband goods. It is always best to refrain from photographing police and military installations and personnel; industrial structures, including harbor, rail and airport facilities; border areas and in the exceptional event that these should occur during your sojourn, scenes of civil disorder or other public disturbances. For more information on restrictions of this kind it is always prudent to check with a local police officer.

3.1. Emergency In case of emergency (accidents of any kind) call 911. This number can be called from any place free of charge. After your call, the operator will notify the police, fire department or will call the ambulance, etc. In case of medical emergency, you may directly go to the ambulance department of the nearest hospital (this is usually very expensive). You may also call your own physician (make sure you choose one who is available 24 hours a day). The person answering your call will advise you on how to act. Also, in most cities there is an 'Ask-a-nurse' 24-hour hotline that you could call and get help on the phone. In case of poisoning, you could directly call the Poison Control hotline (see your local "Yellow Pages").

3.2. Security Crime is a growing problem worldwide. You should be aware that you can become a victim of crimes such as muggings, robberies, pick-pocketings, burglaries, sexual assaults, and beatings. There is no way to protect yourself totally from crime. However the following tips may be helpful: * Inform yourself about parts of towns that local inhabitants consider risky; if you are out alone at night, avoid secluded, poorly lighted areas. Do not take valuable items with you. In the event that someone demands your wallet/purse or any other valuable, do not resist. Try to get a good description of the assailant(s). If driving keep your car doors locked and suitcases out of sight.

*

*

36

*

Do not walk to your car alone at night. If you see someone loitering near your car, walk away from the vehicle. If the loiterer remains after a few minutes, call the police. Separate your car keys from other keys to reduce the possibility that a household burglary will follow a carjacking. Do not leave your vehicle registration, driving licenses or other documents with names and addresses in your car. When approaching a red light, leave space between your car and the vehicle in front of you so you can pull away if a gunman approaches.

*

*

Be aware that pickpockets in crowd can be men, women, or children, operating alone or in groups. They may use any ploy to divert your attention while stealing your wallet or passport. Pickpockets haunt airports and train stations, and ride public conveyances known to take tourists to popular visiting sites. In many cities thieves on motorcycles may try grabbing your purse or package out from under your arm while you are walking on the street. If you decide to go to the beach, do not relax completely: keep an eye out for robbers. While we do not wish to stress the question of security, here are some final practical hints which have been suggested for international travellers and are provided here for your general information. * * * * Travel wide-body aircraft. Do not sit in the front or rear of the craft, due to proximity to the cockpit and rear entrance. Avoid aisle seats. Be discreet in air terminals. Keep your itinerary and passport out of sight. Avoid crowds, check in early and leave the concourse. Do not attract attention by dress. Females, in particular should be wary of overly friendly males. While in the host country, avoid tourist hangouts. Observe all travel and photography restrictions.

3.3. Money and Banking Currency: U.S. money and currency follow the decimal system, with the dollar ($ 1.00 equals to 100 cents) as the basic unit. Currency includes paper money or bills in denominations of $1, $5, $10, $20, $50 (and higher). All bills are the same size and color but have the value clearly marked in each corner. Coins are minted in denominations of 1c (pennies), 5c (nickels), 10c (dimes), 25c (quarters) and 50c (half-dollars). Coins (also called change) are used for vending machines, which sell cigarettes, soft drinks, coffee etc., for public telephones, parking meters and washing machines and dryers in the laundromat. Many city buses also require passengers to have the correct change.

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Americans generally do not carry large amounts of cash with them, and it is neither safe nor necessary to do so. Traveler's checks are a useful alternative when you are away from your base city. A number of companies, including American Express, Bank of America, and Citibank, sell them in denominations of $10, $20, $50 and $100. They are available for purchase in most banks for a fee of up to 2% of their total value and are readily accepted in hotels, restaurants, and shops all over the country. When you are nearer your U.S. home, bills can most easily be paid by personal check drawn on your U.S., checking account, although shops will often ask you for some form of identification when paying by check (e.g., your passport, a major credit card, a driver's license). An identification (I.D.) card can be obtained at a state motor vehicles department. Banking: The U.S. has no restrictions on the importation of U.S. or foreign currency. This can be done by instructing your bank to issue a foreign draft on a bank near your U.S. university with which your bank has a correspondent relationship. Upon arrival, you can then open an account at that bank and draw on the funds or arrange for the funds to be transferred to a more conveniently located banking institution. You are strongly advised to bring some personal funds with you in the form of traveler's checks to cover expenses during transit and the first few days in the U.S. When you arrive at the airport in the U.S., it is useful to change some money (traveler's checks or foreign currency) into U.S. dollars to pay for transport to the city, tips for baggage handling, hotel, etc. In any event, as soon as you arrive at your university, you should open an account at a local bank. If you have transferred funds from your home bank, you will probably choose its correspondent bank in the U.S. if it is conveniently located. If not, ask your faculty associate to suggest an appropriate one. Although the bank you select will offer you many different kinds of accounts, they will generally fall into two categories: a.) Savings accounts, which pay interest at a modest rate but limit the number of withdrawals per month and often require your presence at the bank to handle the transaction, and b.) Checking accounts, which are designed to help depositors pay their bills by writing checks that can be sent safely through the mail (to pay telephone or utility bills, for example) or handed to cashiers in local stores. Some checking accounts are offered without fee but require that you maintain a minimum balance; others require no balance, but debit the account a monthly service charge as well as a small fee for each check cashed. The bank staff will list the options for you. Most banks issue an "ATM card" that allows bank customers to access funds in their accounts through machines that are open 24 hours a day. These are located outside the bank and in grocery stores and shopping centers.

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It is important to note that checks drawn on out-of-town banks, will take no more than 5 business days to clear, i.e., the time required for the money to be transferred from one bank to the other before it will be available to you. If you transfer your base from one city to another, you can move your funds to a new bank in one of two ways: a.) you can write a check drawn on your original bank for deposit in the new account (which must then clear), or b.) you can purchase traveler's checks with the balance of your funds.

Brief Summary of Finance in the U.S.

Cash

Otherwise known as money.

Traveler's Checks These are the safest form of currency when travelling because, in contrast to cash or other kinds of checks, you can be reimbursed immediately for their loss or theft. When you purchase traveller's checks, you will receive a chart on which to record the serial number printed on each check. In the event of theft or loss, the issuing companies will replace any lost check provided you have the serial number.

Cashier's Check This is a guaranteed check purchased from a bank for the amount of the check plus a small charge. Your bank should honor and allow you immediate access to the amount of the check.

Bank Accounts A checking account will be most useful to grantees. You can deposit cash or checks to open the account. If you are depositing a cashier's check, traveler's check or cash, you should have immediate access to the funds. Other forms of deposit may require a waiting period of no more than five business days before the funds become available. Savings accounts can be opened the same way.

Personal Checks When you open a checking account, the bank will issue you temporary checks. As soon as possible you should order personal checks with your name, address and bank account number printed on them. (There is usually a fee for ordering checks.) Checks can be used in payment for bills, rent, withdrawing cash from your account, and various other purchases. Be sure to have some form of identification with you when writing a check for a purchase. Use of checks may be limited to the area in which you live and your checks may not be accepted when you travel to other cities.

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ATM Card If you obtain an automatic teller machine (ATM) card when you open a bank account, you can get money from your bank account at any time by using the machines that your bank has placed around the town or the city. Sometimes there are fees associated with these transactions. Be sure to record the transaction in your checkbook register.

Credit: Predictions are that America will one day soon be a cashless society. This is to say that payment for goods and services will be made either by credit card or by an electronic transfer of funds triggered by telephoned instructions. Even now, credit/charge cards are widely used. The most popular cards are those issued by American Express, Visa, MasterCard, and Diner's Club, but there are many others available from credit companies with a local focus and from individual shops and department stores. Ordinarily, cards are issued only to applicants with a substantial income and proof of past credit worthiness. The safest place to apply for a credit card is at your bank. Given the complexity of credit-checking outside the U.S., it is difficult for visiting scholars to qualify for cards once they are in the U.S. However, if you can obtain one before you leave home, you will find it useful, especially to rent a car. Credit companies bill monthly and charge interest at very high rates (12-21 % annual rate) on any unpaid balance from the previous month. Some companies, such as American Express, require payment in full at the end of the month. Although no interest is charged on the current month's bills, there are sometimes hidden costs for the convenience of credit. For this reason, some shopkeepers offer a discount to customers paying cash.

Budgeting: The cost of living is highly variable in the U.S. Speaking in very general terms, goods and services are more expensive in the Northeast and on the West Coast, where salaries are generally higher, than in the South or Midwest. The cost of living is lower in small towns and cities than in large urban areas.

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Since you will need to budget your stipend, you may find the following estimates useful: Rent for a one-bedroom apartment (including living-room, dining area, kitchen, and bath) - in a major city $500-1200/month - in smaller cities and rural areas $300- 600/month Utilities (electricity, water, heating oil/gas) - sometimes included in the apartment rents; if not, depending on size of the unit and climate $50- 200/month Telephone - local calls only $15- 25/month Motel/Hotel room (per day) $35-120 Bus or subway fare (one way) $1.00- 2.50 Cup of coffee $0.75- 1.25 Lunch on the campus $4.00- 6.50 Dinner - in a coffee shop or simple restaurant $7.00- 12.00 - with more elegance $15.00- 30.00 Loaf of bread $1.00- 2.00 Dozen eggs $1.25 Quart of milk $1.50 Pound of coffee $3.00- 7.00 Pound of ground beef $1.50- 2.50

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You should also be aware that state and local sales taxes, ranging up to 9 % of the price, depending on the area, are added to the marked price of many items at the time of purchase. The Matter of Tips: There are a number of circumstances in the U.S. when tipping is expected and, in fact, where tips make up a substantial portion of the wage of the person involved. Although tipping should be based on the quality of the service rendered, most people tip as follows: - to porters at airports, train or bus stations, $0.50-$1.00 per piece of luggage (unless a set fee is posted in the terminal); - to bellboys who show you to your room and carry your baggage in hotels, a minimum of $1.00; - to waiters or waitresses in restaurants, 15 % of the bill (for large groups a service charge may already be included in the bill); - to taxi drivers, 15 % of the fare; - to barbers or hairdressers, 10-20 % of the bill. Unless they perform some unusual service for you, you need not tip hotel clerks, doormen or chambermaids, nor is it customary to tip gas station attendants, theater ushers, bus drivers, or airline personnel. If you do not wish the services of a porter or bellboy, you can simply indicate your preference to handle your baggage yourself. Under no circumstances should you offer a tip to public officials, including police officers; this could be looked upon as an attempt to bribe the official and could have serious consequences. 3.4. Housing/Living Accommodation Often, the university with which you will be affiliated will advise you as to possible living accommodations through its (student) housing office. You may write to them directly for such information. However, many university cities are currently experiencing a critical housing shortage and you may have to find your own housing. Upon arrival, it may be necessary for you to stay in a hotel for a few days until you find permanent accommodations. There are tourist information offices at most airports and railroad stations which can assist you in finding a reasonably priced hotel. Single students usually stay in student housing or rent a room in a private home. Families will have more difficulty locating apartments. But, in either case, you should have a clear understanding regarding what is included in the rent before you sign a lease, e.g., charges for services, light, heat, baths and laundry.

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In some cases your american address can serve as an identification. For example banks may ask for certification of your U.S. address. For this we recommend that you - ask the telephone company to install your telephone line right upon arrival (approx. $20-30). Your telephone bill will serve as an official certificate of your address. - or ask your landlord to certify your address. 3.5. Hours of Business Offices are open usually from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday, with employees taking an hour for lunch sometime between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Banks are generally open to the public only until 2:00 or 3:00 p.m., but many now have "automatic tellers", machines that dispense cash from your account or accept deposits 24 hours per day. Shops are open from about 9:30 a.m. continuously until 5:30 or 6:00 p.m. One evening per week they remain open longer ie. until 7:00 or 8:00 p.m. All are open Monday through Saturday, and usually from noon to 5:00 p.m. on Sundays. Drugstores, supermarkets, and smaller food shops usually remain open until late in the evening and on Sundays. 3.6. Electrical Equipment Electrical equipments operate at a voltage of 110, 60 cycles in the U.S. Many former grantees advise against bringing electrical appliances which operate only at a voltage of 220 since, in most instances, these can be purchased at less expense than the transformers themselves. Also if your transformer is not of high quality, it may ruin your equipment. Be especially careful of using transformers with computer equipment. 3.7. Communications Mail: The U.S. Postal Service, a government-owned corporation, provides mail service. Post offices can be easily recognized by the American flag that always flies in front of them. They are usually open from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, and until noon on Saturday. Blue mail boxes are located on many street corners and in public buildings; each carries a sign on which collection times are indicated. In most areas of the country, mail is delivered to individual residences Monday through Saturday. As of this writing, postage for first-class mail within the United States and to Canada and Mexico is $.29 per ounce. Airmail postage to an overseas address is currently $0.50 per half ounce. Airmail postage is not required within the U.S. Telephones: The telephone system in the U.S. is composed of many privately-owned but cooperating companies. The system is effective, and a good deal of business is conducted over the telephone. One can reserve hotel rooms, make travel reservations, buy theater tickets, and shop for any item one might want without leaving home. Almost all Americans have telephones in their homes, often with several extension instruments. 43

Telephone numbers in the U.S. contain ten digits: a three-digit area code (written in parentheses), a three-digit number for the local exchange (occasionally two letters and one digit), and a four-digit number for the individual subscriber. Under the system, the U.S. is divided into many small regions or areas, each reached by an area code that must be dialed whenever you are calling outside your local area. When you call a local number, only the exchange and individual subscriber number must be dialed. In most locations it is necessary to dial "1" before the area code. Be careful not to confuse the letter "l" with the numeral "1" or the letter "o" with the numeral "0" (zero). When calling outside your local area, or "long distance", it is least expensive if you dial direct without using an operator. Calls from hotels often include a substantial service charge. All numbers in the U.S. can be dialed directly (i.e., without operator assistance), and overseas calls can also be dialed from many local exchanges. To ask an operator for assistance, dial "0". He or she will be able to give you the area/international code for the city/country you wish to call and to place "collect" calls (which are billed to the person called) and "person-to-person" calls (which incur a charge only if the person you wish to speak to is present, even if the phone is answered). It is also useful to remember that you can save about 35% of the cost if you dial domestic long-distance calls after 5:00 p.m., and 60% if you call between 11:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m., all day on Saturday, and until 5:00 p.m. on Sundays or holidays. Some businesses in the U.S. have "800" as an area code; such numbers can be dialed without charge to the caller from anywhere in the U.S. There are two kinds of telephone directories: "White Pages", which list individuals and businesses alphabetically by name, and "Yellow Pages", which list organizations and individuals according to their business or profession. Directories give addresses as well as phone numbers. If a directory is not available, you can obtain a local number by calling "Information" (dial "411") and a long-distance number by dialing the area code followed by 555-1212. There are also special numbers, listed in the local directory, that give you a recorded message with the current time, weather report, or more frivolously, a joke or recipe of the day. Public coin-operated telephones can be found on the street, in railroad and bus stations, airports, hotels, restaurants, drugstores, and other public buildings. The charge is between $0.25 and $0.50 per call.

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To have a telephone installed in your home, dial the telephone company's business office (see the directory). Ordinarily, service can be provided within a week. The company charges for initial installation of the line and a monthly fee for local service and rental of equipment (or you may purchase your own phone), with extra charges for long-distance calls. A deposit of approximately 50% will usually be required of new subscribers. Although there will be only one company providing local telephone service in a given area, you will be given information, and asked to make a selection, on a number of competing long-distance companies and their individual service options.

3.8. Food Because the U.S. is a nation of immigrants, foods from all parts of the world can be found throughout the country, especially in major metropolitan areas. Ethnic restaurants abound in cities and towns, and supermarkets and specialty shops often stock ingredients to create the favorite dishes of most nations and cultures. Typically, Americans eat breakfast on workdays between 7:00 and 8:00 a.m. (fruit or juice, cereal or eggs, toast, coffee or tea) and have a light lunch of a salad, soup and/or sandwich between noon and 2:00 p.m. The main meal of the day (dinner or - in some parts of the country supper) is taken between 6:00 - 8:00 p.m. in the evening when family members can be together. Shopping is ordinarily done once or twice a week in supermarkets, often enormous stores that carry huge inventories of foods of all kinds, pharmacy items, and housewares, displayed on open shelves for self-service. These are usually open from early morning to late in the evening (in some cases, 24 hours per day) Monday through Saturday and throughout the day on Sunday. Residential neighborhoods commonly have smaller convenience stores as well, but these tend to offer a limited selection at higher prices; they are handy places to purchase bread, milk or other items needed between major shopping trips. Alcoholic beverages, depending on regulations of the individual state, are sometimes sold in supermarkets or convenience stores, sometimes in separate liquor stores, sometimes in special state-operated shops. You will be surprised at the abundance of processed, "convenience" foods sold in American markets. These can be frozen, canned or packaged in a form that requires minimal preparation time. They are often less nutritious and more expensive than fresh foods, but occasionally they are cheaper. You can eat out inexpensively in so-called "fast food" chain restaurants (McDonald's, Harden's, Pizza Hut, Kentucky Fried Chicken, etc.) that typically feature hamburgers, pizza, fried chicken, and the self-service salad bar. Salad bars can also be found in larger grocery

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stores. The hamburger, a minced beef patty on a round roll, probably comes closest to being the American national dish; it can be found everywhere, usually accompanied by French fried potatoes (chips). If you are vegetarian, the salads and pizza (with plain cheese) are good choices.

3.9. Tax Regulations According to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service publication, "U.S. Tax Treaties" (#901), the United States has income tax treaties (conventions) with a number of countries. Under such treaties, citizens of those countries are taxed at a reduced rate or are exempt from U.S. income tax on certain remuneration received while they are temporarily present in the United States. You are responsible for familiarizing yourself with your U.S. tax obligations before coming on the exchange. Taxpayer assistance can also be requested from U.S. Embassy in Hungary. IRS forms and publications can be requested from the IRS Forms Distribution Center: Forms Distribution Center U.S. Internal Revenue Service P.O.Box 25866 Richmond, VA 23289 http://www.irs.ustreas.gov In particular, you are strongly advised to obtain copies of the following U.S. Internal Revenue Service publications: #515 - Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations #519 - U.S. Tax Guide for Aliens #901 - U.S. Tax Treaties Steps to follow: Apply for a Social Security Number (SSN) or an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) at the state authority; Fill form 8233 (Exemption from Withholding), attach the declaration, and return them to your Withholding Agent for revision and certification; You will receive further notice from your Withholding Agent after current tax year comes to an end.

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4. TRANSPORTATION IN THE UNITED STATES
4.1. Public Transportation Public transportation in the United States is much more limited than that to which you may be accustomed. In major metropolitan areas, there are buses, trains, taxis and sometimes subway systems for local travel. However, in suburban and rural areas, many visiting teachers have found it to be virtually essential to have a car or they would have been restricted significantly in mobility. You may find that, without private transportation, you will have difficulty travelling to school or elsewhere.

4.2. Purchasing an Automobile A number of former students have reported success with purchasing a modestly-priced used car at the beginning of the exchange period and selling it at the end of the year before returning home. If you decide to explore this option, be sure to take along a U.S. friend for advice and guidance when looking for a car. Also, it is important that you inquire about the legal requirements of being a car owner, such as obtaining the license tags, insurance, title and registration, and passing the annual emissions test. Please note that if you buy your car in one state, you may have to pay a considerable fee if you attempt to register it or to resell it in another state. All states do not enforce the same laws regulating vehicle inspection and registration. For example, California enforces strict laws regarding catalytic converters, which affect the amount of automobile exhaust emitted. It can be very expensive to replace the catalytic converter in a car bought in another state in order to meet California standards. 4.3. Leasing an Automobile Leasing or renting a car is also an option. Companies that offer this service are listed in local phone directory books, with which your exchange partner should be able to supply you. 4.4. Automobile Insurance If you purchase a car in the United States you must also purchase automobile insurance from a U.S. insurance company. You will not be able to obtain the required license tags for your U.S. car until you show proof of purchase of automobile insurance. If your exchange partner or support team members are not available, the car dealer should be able to assist you in buying automobile insurance.

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The cost of insurance varies greatly from place to place but, in general, it is expensive. You should ask your exchange partner to find out for you which companies would be willing to sell you insurance, and what the cost would be for the kind and amount of automobile insurance commonly held by people in that locality. The larger national insurance companies (listed in the "Yellow Pages" of the local telephone directory books) may be able to offer better rates and services to international visitors, although it would be to your advantage to check with the smaller companies as well. Bring with you to the U.S. a verified statement from your home insurance company of accidentfree driving. This may help you obtain insurance at a less expensive rate.

4.5. International Driver's License If you plan to obtain an International Driver's License (IDL), you must do so in Hungary before your departure for the United States. It is not possible for an IDL to be purchased in the U.S. for use in the U.S. However, having a valid IDL does not necessarily guarantee that you will be permitted to drive legally throughout the United States. Each state independently determines its own driving laws, and some states may not accept an IDL. You must have a valid driver's license in order to drive in the U.S., whether it is an IDL or a state driver's license. Depending on the state, you may be able to obtain insurance at a lower rate if you carry a state issued driver's license than if you only have an IDL. Another consideration regarding the IDL and a state driver's license is their use as identification. While in the U.S., you will find it necessary to produce positive identification in many instances, i.e., writing checks, making credit card purchases. Again, you may find that an IDL may not be accepted as valid identification.

4.6. State Driver's License States have different procedures and fees for issuing driver's licenses. The Department of Transportation, the Department of Public Safety, or the Department of Motor Vehicles administer the issuance of driver's licenses. All states require the positive identification of an applicant before a driver's license can be issued (i.e. birth certificate, passport, social security card).

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In all states it is necessary to take a written examination which tests driver knowledge, road signs and signals, vision and proper vehicle operation. Some states require a driving test. A study guide is usually available from the driver examination site or a local library. Some states require the satisfactory completion of a driver training or driver education course before the examination can be taken. Each driver's license shows the driver's name, address, date of birth, license number, expiration date (from two to six years after issuance), restrictions (such as eyeglasses required), and signature. Most states also include a photograph on the license. Some states require the applicant to submit a social security number which may be used as the license number.

4.7. Non-driver Identification Card Although a driver's license is widely accepted as identification, it is possible in all states and in the District of Columbia to obtain a non-driver identification card, with information similar to that on a driver's license. The identification card is available from the same department that issues driver's licenses. The only requirements for this card are positive identification of an applicant (i.e. birth certificate, passport), a possible fee (ranging up to $15), and an age limit in some states.

4.8. Drinking and Driving The legal minimum age to purchase or consume alcoholic beverages is 21 years in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. In most liquor stores, restaurants, bars, night clubs, and other establishments which sell alcoholic beverages, it is common practice for the establishment to require the consumer to show an identification card (usually a driver's license) which has the card holder's picture and date of birth. Laws to curb the incidence of drinking and driving have become more strict throughout the United States. Under no circumstances should you drive if you have been drinking. The penalties for being caught driving while intoxicated (DWI) or driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) include fines, jail sentences and/or loss of driving privileges.

4.9. Safety Belt Use Laws As of July 1988, more than 30 states enforce a "Safety Belt Use" law. This law requires the driver and front seat passengers to wear safety belts at all times when riding in a vehicle.

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4.10. Child Passenger Protection Laws In every state and the District of Columbia, the law requires children to be placed in safety seats when riding in a vehicle. However, the age limit of children to which this law applies varies. Contact your state motor vehicle department regarding the Child Passenger Protection Laws in your state. The penalty for violating this law is a fine of up to $500. Safety seats can be purchased at local children's stores and some department stores. It may be possible to rent a safety seat through a local hospital or a community resource group.

4.11. Other Driving Considerations In order to become familiar with traffic and motor vehicle laws, you should obtain a copy of a handbook outlining these regulations. Contact either your state motor vehicle department or an automobile association. One suggestion is the "AAA Digest of Motor Laws", from the nearest office of the American Automobile Association, that provides you considerable benefits. Be aware that hitchhiking is illegal in many areas of the United States. It is not considered to be a safe form of transportation.

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5. DEPENDENTS

5.1. Your Spouse For those who are interested, a good number of social, cultural, and educational activities are available in all university towns in the U.S. These include: - classes in English as a Second Language, either provided by the university or in nearby community colleges or adult education programs; - academic courses offered by the same institutions, which may either be audited or taken for credit; - "recreational" courses (e.g. arts, cooking, auto mechanics, sewing, crafts, dancing and fitness) offered by local schools and community organizations; - opportunities for volunteer work at local libraries, hospitals, day care centers, social agencies, schools, etc., in which many Americans participate; - social or special interest groups, e.g., gardening, bridge, hiking, sport teams, bird watching clubs. Local newspapers and public libraries are good sources of information on all these activities, but you should also consult your colleagues at the university and their spouses.

5.2. Your Children Day care centers, and nursery schools, most of which charge a fee, are available for children of pre-school age. Costs in large cities are often quite high. Day care provides care for children of working parents, usually for the entire work day; nursery schools provide supervised play and some educational experiences for, perhaps, three hours each weekday. Of course, it is also possible to engage babysitter to care for very young children in your home. Neighbors and faculty colleagues are the best sources of information in locating an appropriate person. Regulations in some locales require that care providers, including all-day babysitters, be licensed by the city, state or country. At age 5, many children attend kindergarten within the free public school system where they continue their education through grade 12; some school systems also offer pre-kindergarten (pre-K) for 4-year old. Education in the United States is compulsory for all children from age 6 to either 16 or 18, depending on the state of residence. Although most parents choose to enroll their offspring in public schools, private and parochial (religious) schools, both day and boarding, are also available at all levels.

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Children are assigned to specific public schools based on where they reside by the local board of education, and Americans often choose their housing based on the educational reputation of the local schools. After you have arrived to the U.S. and have completed your housing arrangements, you should contact the local board to enquire as to enrollment procedures and special services your children require, such as English language training, facilities for the disabled, and curricular modifications, to keep them abreast of their schoolwork at home. Whatever schooling you choose for your children, however you will need proof of their age (a copy of the birth certificate or other official document) if they are entering school for the first time, transcripts of earlier schooling, and up-to-date immunization, medical and dental records (to avoid having to repeat expensive tests and/or vaccinations and inoculations).

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APPENDIX A
USEFUL ITEMS TO BRING [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] address book camera and film can opener clothes that do not wrinkle or show dirt combination (bike) lock comfortable shoes; flip-flops for public showers credit cards daypack for short trips dental floss and favorite soap extra passport-size photos for passes and ID cards first aid kit and sewing kit flashlight and batteries and pocket calculator hang-around-the neck money belt laundry detergent more underwear and socks, fewer other clothes phone numbers (phone card) pictures of family, friends small gifts for local people who help you sleeping bag for hostels small battery powered alarm clock sunglasses 53

[] [] [] []

travel guide books travellers checks walkman, extra batteries, and favorite tapes ziplock plastic bags (to keep things dry)

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APPENDIX B

BEFORE YOU GO

Make two photocopies of the following:

[] [] [] [] [] []

the entire contents of your wallet; your passport; medical prescription (including generic drug names); all travel tickets; other identification cards and documents; travellers' check numbers.

Leave one copy with someone in Hungary and carry the other separately from your money belt. Make reduced, but legible, copies to decrease the amount of paper you have to carry.

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APPENDIX C FINAL STAGE CHECKLIST
PREPARING TO TRAVEL [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] Passport (obtained for each family member - that will remain valid) Visa Travel and arrival itinerary left at the office and with family Change of address (forms sent to banks, insurance company, etc.) Driver's license that will not expire, or International driver's license Take your check supply Get traveller's checks Official copies of marriage/birth certificates, diplomas/degrees or transcripts for and family members who may wish to study or work Cancel subscriptions to newspapers and magazines, etc.

self

PACKING [] [] [] [] [] [] Check with airlines about weight allowances versus allowance by size of suitcases Buy supplies for future needs (medications, optical supplies) Pack and ship printed educational materials Inoculations, immunizations for self and family including boosters for adults (who often forget) Insurance (pay premiums for or obtain (a) life, (b) health, (c) personal/household effects for permanent residence, (d) personal liability) Purchase separate health insurance for spouse and children

MISCELLANEOUS [] [] [] [] [] Some additional photos of each family member Note serial number/model in passport of camera/other equipment Select items to be part of carry-on baggage in event of layovers Enroll children in school Know regulations on use of American flag carriers, generally and for unplanned and personal stopovers

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APPENDIX D
USEFUL INFORMATION TO KEEP ON HAND WHILE ABROAD

Passport Number:_______________________________________

In an emergency contact: Name:__________________________________________________ Relationship:__________________________________________ Address:_______________________________________________ Phone Number:__________________________________________ Emergency Medical Information: Medical Insurance Company:_____________________________ Medical Insurance Policy Number(s):____________________ Blood Type:____________________________________________ Allergies:_____________________________________________ Other Critical Medical Information:____________________ _______________________________________________________ Other Important Information: Credit Card Numbers:___________________________________ Credit Card Company Emergency Numbers:_________________ Driver's License Number:_______________________________ Other:_________________________________________________

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APPENDIX E
TIME ZONES

The continental United States is divided into four time zones as shown on the map below. The relative times for the outlying states and territories are indicated in the insets. Eastern Standard Time is five hours earlier than Greenwich Mean Time. Most states observe Daylight Saving Time during the summer months. This means that clocks are advanced one hour on a given date in April and restored to standard time in October. (They "spring forward" in the spring, "fall back" in the fall.) Exceptions to this rule are most of Indiana, all of Arizona, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and American Samoa. Arrival and departure times of planes and trains are given in the current time of the arrival or departure point.

Time zones in the conterminous United States: A B C D Pacific Time Mountain Time Central Time Eastern Time 58

APPENDIX F
CLIMATE

You will find Americans pay a great deal of attention to the weather. Radio and television stations regularly broadcast forecasts, and one can phone the weather bureau for recorded, up-to-the-minute report. Because of its size and geographical diversity, the climate in different parts of the United States varies widely. There are seven climatic zones in continental U.S. as indicated on the chart below, and average temperatures in the coldest and warmest portions of each region are given in the chart. Winter brings frequent snowfalls in the Northern states, while the South remains temperate throughout the year, and the Southwest arid as well. Alaska has a cold climate with short summers; Hawaii and Puerto Rico enjoy moderate temperatures with little seasonal change. To a certain extent, Americans are insulated from weather extremes. Homes, offices, cars and buses are routinely air-conditioned in the warmer parts of the country, and central heating is the rule everywhere. Indoor temperatures are thus maintained at 20-22 C (68-72 F).

Average Temperatures Northeast Region: Winter Spring Summer Fall -11 to 4 C 2 to 11 C 18 to 29 C 7 to 16 C (12 to 40 F) (35 to 52 F) (65 to 85 F) (45 to 75 F)

North Central Region: Winter -12 to 2 C Spring 3 to 14 C Summer 20 to 27 C Fall 6 to 14 C Northwest Region: Winter -9 to 7 C Spring 4 to 10 C Summer 16 to 22 C Fall 4 to 11 C

(10 to 35 F) (38 to 58 F) (68 to 80 F) (42 to 58 F)

(15 to 45 F) (40 to 50 F) (60 to 72 F) (40 to 52 F) 59

Midwest Region: Winter -9 to 3 C Spring 4 to 13 C Summer 18 to 26 C Fall 6 to 14 C Southeast Region: Winter 4 to 20 C Spring 13 to 24 C Summer 24 to 29 C Fall 14 to 24 C South Central Region: Winter 3 to 13 C Spring 14 to 23 C Summer 27 to 31 C Fall 14 to 22 C Southwest Region: Winter -1 to 13 C Spring 4 to 22 C Summer 16 to 23 C Fall 7 to 24 C

(15 to 37 F) (40 to 55 F) (65 to 78 F) (43 to 58 F)

(40 to 68 F) (55 to 75 F) (75 to 85 F) (58 to 75 F)

(37 to 55 F) (58 to 73 F) (80 to 88 F) (58 to 72 F)

(30 to 55 F) (40 to 72 F) (60 to 92 F) (45 to 75 F)

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APPENDIX G
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The United States is moving slowly, very slowly, toward adoption of the metric system. Few Americans, however, yet speak of weights and measures in metric terms. Temperature is the principal exception; nowadays, temperature is frequently quoted in both Fahrenheit and Centigrade.

Temperature: Fahrenheit (F) 23 32 (freezing) 41 50 59 68 77 86 95 104 V 212 (boiling) (F=9/5 C+32) Weight: Avoirdupois 0.035 ounces 1.0 ounce (1 oz.) 16 oz.=1 pound (1 lb.) 2.2 lbs. 14 lbs.=1 stone (1 st.) 2,000 lbs.=1 ton (1 t.) Metric 1.0 gram (1 g.) 28.35 gram 453.59 gram 1.0 kilogram (1 kg.) 6.35 kg. 907.18 kg. Centigrade (C) -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 V 100

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Distance: U.S. Measure 0.39 inches 1.0 inch (1 in. or 1") 12 in.=1 foot (1 ft. or 1') 36 in.=3 ft.=1 yard 9.4 in.=3.28 ft.=1.09 yds 0.625 miles 5,280 ft.=1 mile (1 mi.) 100 mi. Metric 1.0 centimeter 2.54 cm 30.48 cm 91.44 cm 1.00 m (1 m.) 1.00 kilometer 1.609 km 160 km

Area: 4,840 square yards=1 acre 2.471 acres 640 acres=1 square mile 0.405 hectares 1.0 hectare (1 ha.) 2,590 square km.

Volume: 100 g = 0.5 cup sugar 100 g = 6.5 tbsp butter 100 g = 1.25 cup flour 1 dl = 0.5 cup milk 4 tbsp = 0.25 cup 4 tsp = 1 tbsp 1 cup = 8 fl.oz = 2.36 dl 1 dkg = 0.35 oz 1 kg = 2.2 lb 1 dl = 3.5 fl.oz 1 l = 1.8 pint 1 oz = 28.4 g 1 lb = 0.45 kg 1 gal = 3.8 l 1 fl.oz = 29.6 ml

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APPENDIX H
COMPARABLE CLOTHING SIZES

Women's Blouses/Dresses/Coats U.S. 32 34 36 38 40 42 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 18 20 Shoes U.S. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Metric 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 U.S. 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 Metric 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 U.S. 14 14 1/2 15 15 1/2 16 16 1/2 17

Men's Shirts Metric 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Suits/Coats Metric 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 Shoes U.S. 6 7 8 9 10 11 Metric 39 40 41 42 43 44

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APPENDIX I
HOLIDAYS

Official holiday: schools, offices, banks, post offices, and stores are closed. New Year's January 1 (U.S., Hungary)

Official holiday

New Year's Eve, December 31, is more important to Americans than New Year's Day itself. Everyone gathers with friends and family to "ring out the old and ring in the new", an expression that reflects the old custom of ringing church bells to greet the new year. Martin Luther King Jr.'s Birthday Third Monday in January (U.S.)

Official holiday

Martin Luther King Jr., a distinguished African-American, organized and led the civil rights movement in the U.S. during the 1960's. During the 1963 march on Washington, he delivered the stirring and memorable "I have a dream" speech to a quarter million people gathered around the Lincoln Memorial. Lincoln's Birthday February 12 (U.S.) Official holiday in many states, often celebrated in conjunction with Washington's Birthday or President's Day. Lincoln was President during the Civil War (1861-1865), a period that has had a profound effect on the history of the nation. He said, "a house divided against itself cannot stand" and acted to free the slaves and bring the seceded states back into the Union. Valentines Day February 14 (U.S., Hungary)

Non-official holiday

A lovers' holiday celebrated by sending cards and giving candy in heart-shaped boxes.

Washington's Birthday Third Monday in February (U.S.)

Official holiday

Commemorates the birthday of George Washington, commander-in-chief of the Revolutionary army that freed America from the colonial rule of England, and first President of the United States.

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Revolution Day March 15 (Hungary)

Official holiday

The date when the 1848 uprising against Austria began. In 1848-49 Lajos Kossuth led a bid for independence which was successful at the beginning though finally defeated. As a long term result with the so-called Compromise of 1867 Hungary obtained a degree of independence from Austria which was followed by an industrial, financial and building boom. Saint Patrick's Day March 17 (U.S.)

Non-official holiday

Saint Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, and this holiday was brought to America by Irish immigrants. People celebrate this day by wearing something green and getting together with friends to party and sing Irish folk songs. April Fool's Day April 1 (U.S., Hungary)

Non-official holiday

As in many other countries, this day is marked by the custom of playing practical jokes on one's friends and colleagues. Passover Eight days, usually in April

Non-official holiday

The Jewish holiday of Passover commemorates the liberation of the ancient Hebrews from slavery in Egypt in 1200 B.C. A highlight of the festival is the Seder, a ceremonial dinner attended by family and friends, during which the memory of the exodus is recounted through readings, singing and the consumption of symbolic foods. Unleavened bread or matzah is eaten during this time. Easter Sunday and Monday in Spring

Official holiday in Hungary Non-official holiday in the U.S.

A religious holiday for Christians who believe that Christ rose from the dead on this day. Many folk traditions are now connected with Easter, including the decoration of brightly colored eggs and giving baskets of candy to children. Labor Day May 1 (Hungary)

Official holiday

This holiday was established in recognition of the international labor movements.

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Mother's Day First Sunday in May (U.S., Hungary)

Non-official holiday

On this day Americans and Hungarians honor their mothers by sending them flowers, buying small gifts, and taking them out to eat so that they do not have to do any work around the house. Father's Day Third Sunday in June (U.S.) Fathers are honored on this day. Children give them cards and gifts. Memorial Day Last Monday in May (U.S.)

Non-official holiday

Official holiday

Memorial Day is the day on which Americans remember those who died in the service of their country. Many families visit graves and decorate them with flowers, and the day is also marked with patriotic parades. This day is considered the beginning of the summer section. Independence Day July 4 (U.S.)

Official holiday

Independence Day is the U.S. National Day. It commemorates the day the Declaration of Independence was signed in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776. This holiday is celebrated all over the country with picnics, political speeches, and community get-togethers that culminate in fireworks displays. St. Steven's Day August 20 (Hungary)

Official holiday

St. Steven's day is the National Day of Hungary. At Christmas in the year 1000 King Stephen (István) was crowned at Esztergom on the Danube Bend. Stephen is revered as the founder of the Hungarian state since he unified the country and encouraged the Christianization of the Magyars thus taking Hungary into the main stream of European culture. This holiday is celebrated all over the country with political speeches, community get-togethers and fireworks (the greatest is in Budapest). Labor Day First Monday in September (U.S.)

Official holiday

This holiday was established in recognition of the labor movement's contribution to the productivity of the country. This day is the last holiday of the summer season and is celebrated with picnics and other outings.

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Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur Three days in September and October

Non-official holidays

The holidays of Rosh Hashanah (New Year) and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) and the tenday interval between them comprise the most sacred period in the Jewish calendar. This entire period, known as the High Holy Days, combines the welcoming of the New Year with reflective examination of the course of one's own life during the past year. Rosh Hashanah is characterized by prayer, family feasts and the sending of New Year's greetings. Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish year, is a time of fasting and prayer. Columbus Day Second Monday in October

Official holiday in many states

By popular tradition, Columbus "discovered" America in 1492, although the continent was already populated by native Americans and had been visited earlier by other seafarers. The holiday, originally and still occasionally celebrated on October 12, is chiefly observed by Americans of Italian descent with parades and festivals. In the Northeast, the long weekend is the high point of the season for viewing the brilliantly colored fall leaves. Republic Day October 23 (Hungary)

Official holiday

In 1956 an uprising started against foreign communist rule. A heroic struggle was finally defeated by the Russian army. The fact is that everything began to change in Hungary after 1956. In 1989 on the very same day the Republic of Hungary was declared. Halloween October 31 (U.S.)

Non-official holiday

This was originally a religious holiday, but its religious character has been lost in the United States, and it is now celebrated mostly as a children's day. Traditions include carving out pumpkins with funny faces as well as dressing up in costumes and going around the neighborhood to receive treats of candy, fruit and cookies. When they knock on the door, children say "trick or treat", meaning, "if you do not give me a treat, I will trick you". Adults often use the occasion for costume parties as well. Veterans' Day November 11 (U.S.)

Official holiday in many states

Originally established to commemorate Armistice Day of the First World War and celebrated on November 11, a date still observed in some areas, the holiday was changed after World War II to serve as an occasion to pay tribute to veterans of all wars. It is marked by parades, speeches and the laying of wreaths at military cemeteries and war memorials.

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Thanksgiving Day Fourth Thursday in November (U.S.)

Official holiday

The first Thanksgiving Day was observed by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1621 to give thanks to the bountiful harvest and their triumph of survival over the wilderness. Now it is a time when Americans give thanks for the good life they enjoy and celebrate by getting together with family and friends to eat traditional foods such as turkey, cranberry sauce, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin pie. Christmas December 25 (U.S., Hungary) December 26 (Hungary)

Official holiday Official holiday

Many people regard this as the most celebrated holiday of the year, with the holiday season extending from a few days before Christmas to New Year's Day. Although its origins are religious in nature, people of other traditions frequently join in the secular festivities. Family members travel great distances to be together for this day on which gifts are exchanged and a tradition dinner is shared. Chanukah Eight days, usually in December

Non-official holiday

This Jewish holiday commemorates the successful uprising of a small band of Jews known as Maccabees against their Hellenistic Syrian conqueror in 164 B.C. As part of the reconsecration of the Temple in Jerusalem, the victors lit a menorah or candelabrum with a small flask of holy oil that miraculously burned for eight days. Chanukah thus came to be known as the Festival of Lights and is celebrated today by the lighting of a menorah for eight days. It is a time of conviviality, gatherings with family and friends, and gift-giving.

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APPENDIX J GLOSSARY OF EDUCATION TERMS AND ACRONYMS
Academic Advisor Faculty or staff member who aids students in arranging coursework to satisfy requirements of individual situations and of institutional rules. Academic Probation A status resulting from unsatisfactory academic work; a warning that the student must improve performance or be dismissed after a specific period of time. Academic Year The period of formal academic instruction, usually extending from late August or September to May or June. It is divided into terms of various lengths, depending on the institution: early-start semesters (two terms running from late August to Mid May); traditional semesters (two terms running from late September to early June); trimesters (three terms usually running from September to December, January to April, May to August); or quarters (four 12week terms throughout the calendar years). Accreditation The process of periodically evaluating a college, university or division by a nonprofit, non-governmental group, including self-examination and on-site investigation by professional teams. The accredited institutions all receive the same "ranking", and the vast majority that are evaluated get accredited. Achievement Test A standardized examination of knowledge in a specific subject (e.g. history, biology) used by institutions for placement and admission. Admission Permission to enroll in a college or a university. American College Testing Program (ACT) One of two major private testing agencies in the United States that offers a series of examinations used for college admissions and course placement that measure a student's skills in English, mathematics, social studies, and natural sciences. Assistantship A study grant of financial aid to a graduate student that is offered in return for certain services in teaching or laboratory supervision (as teaching assistant) or services in research (as a research assistant). Associate Degree The certificate or diploma awarded, usually by a community college or junior college, after two academic years of college work.

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Audit Permits a student to take a class without receiving a grade or any credit. Requirements and fees are sometimes the same as those for credit status. Bachelor's Degree (B.A. and B.S.) Undergraduate degrees attained after four or five years of study in the liberal arts and sciences. Degree requirements vary by institution. Carnegie Unit A measurement of classroom attendance at the secondary-school level. One unit represents one hour per day each academic year, or between 180 and 190 hours of classroom contact. Catalogue An official publication of an institution noting its admissions procedure, faculty, and administration, courses, degree requirements, costs, financial aid, academic year, etc. College An institution of higher learning either offering a course of general studies for a bachelor's degree, or offering instruction in professional, vocational or technical fields. Community College A publicly supported, two-year college offering both transfer and terminal post-secondary courses. Appropriate course work may satisfy the first two years of a bachelor's degree and preprofessional program requirements. Competitive Admissions The policy of granting admission only to students who meet certain criteria in high school grades and test scores, as established by the quality of the applicant group. Less qualified candidates are not admitted due to space limitations. Conditional Admission Admission granted to students who do not meet all admission criteria; students may be placed on probation for a specific period of time until ability to do acceptable work is demonstrated. Consortium A group of autonomous institutions among which there are agreements to act jointly in regard to common interests such as research, management of facilities, educational programs, sharing of library facilities, etc. Continuing Education A special educational program, usually part-time, for older students that is offered at most public and some private colleges and universities. Contract An agreement with a person or organization that services will be provided in exchange for payment. Contractor (also known as programming agency, placement agency or sponsor) An organization that operates under contract with a founder to design and supervise education and training programs. Core Curriculum A group of courses in varied subject areas, designated by a college as one of the requirements for a specified degree. Same as "required courses". 70

Counties Governmental units usually including more than one city or town that is run by elected officials and offers certain services (police, medical, road building and maintenance). The state of Michigan, for example, is made up of more than 80 countries. Credit Hours (points) Values assigned to college and university courses. Most institutions require about 120 for the undergraduate degree, 30 in graduate work for the master's and about 60 for the doctorate. Dissertation Thesis written on an original topic or research, usually presented as one of the final requirements for a doctoral degree. Doctorate (Ph.D., Ed.D., E.D.) The most advanced academic degree offered in the United States. Dropout A student who leaves before completing his or her course of study with no intention of returning; usually refers to secondary or primary school students. Early Admission A process whereby some highly qualified secondary school students are admitted to colleges and universities and begin their studies before completing secondary school. (Also referred to as early enrollment.) Early Decision A process whereby a college or university reserves a place in the first-year class to a well-qualified applicant well before the time of enrollment (usually the preceding fall), and the applicant agrees to accept the invitation to enroll. Educational Testing Service A private, testing agency that administers entrance examination programs to undergraduates (the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT and achievement tests), and for graduate students, The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), the Test of Written English (TWE), the Test of Spoken English (TSE), the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Program for teaching English to those whose native language is not English. English as an International Language (EIL) Program that recognizes the special demands on non-native English speakers and uses English as the medium of communication. English as a Second Language (ESL) Program for teaching English to those who plan to stay in an English-speaking country. English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Program for teaching English in a school setting or for newly-arrived students or adults. Enrollment Registering for and attending classes. 71

Enrollment Deposit A fee, usually $50 to $300, paid by the student several months in advance of enrollment to ensure a place in the class. (Also called pre-enrollment deposit.) Escort Interpreting Informal interpreting that responds to demands of each situation. Exchange of Scholars Programs involving scientists, professors, researchers; may include their teaching or conducting research with colleagues in host country. Foreign Student Advisor Faculty of staff member who aids international students in adjusting and understanding new academic and social environment. Freshman A student enrolled in the first year of high school, college, or university. Founder (Also known as donor or sponsor) An organization, institution, U.S. government agency, or foreign government that provides primary funding and/or management for international students in educational and training programs. Founders include corporations, developments banks, service clubs, international agencies and foundations. General Equivalency Diploma (GED) A widely accepted school-equivalency certificate administered by the American Council on Education for students who left high school before completing diploma requirements. It is obtained by successfully completing prescribed courses and an examination, and is used for admission or employment. Grade-point Average (GPA) A student's academic average that is determined by assigning a value (e.g. A=4, B=3. etc.) to the student's letter grades and then computing his/her average. Graduate Student A student who is enrolled in a program leading to the academic master's and doctor's degrees. Grant Money given to an individual or organization in recognition of the importance of his/her work; the grant may be designated for a particular purpose. High School (secondary school) Diploma The certificate awarded at the completion of high school. The high school diploma, by itself, does not guarantee admission to most colleges and universities in the United States. Honor Points The qualitative value given to earned grades in order to create a grade-point average. Values are usually given as follows: A=4 honor points, B=3, C=2, D=1, and E=0. For example, 6 hours of A, 4 hours of B, 2 hours of C, 3 hours of D, and 2 hours of E would yield 43 honor points (6*4+4*3+2*2+3*1+2*0=43). Therefore, the GPA would be 43/17=2.53.

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Interdisciplinary Major A concentration in two or more areas of study. (See major) International Students Americans and non-Americans who spend time in organized programs of study, travel or home-stay in another country. Junior A student enrolled in the third year of high school, college or university. Junior Colleges Two-year post-secondary institutions, usually private, that offer transfer course work that may satisfy the first two years of a bachelor's degree and preprofessional programs requirements. Liberal Arts Courses selected from among history, social sciences, literature, chemistry, English , mathematics, languages and other general disciplines, intended primarily to provide general knowledge. The program also satisfies preprofessional program requirements. Major The academic discipline or concentration in which a student takes from a quarter to a third of all of his/her undergraduate courses. A major is also known as a field of concentration. (See Interdisciplinary Major) Master's Degree An advanced degree taken after completing a B.A. or B.S., usually requiring one or two years of advanced study in a specific area. Open-door Admissions qualifications. Admission granted to all applicants regardless of academic

Participant Training Sponsored visitors who take part in educational, training, or study-tour programs. Placement Test An examination used to test a student's academic ability in a certain field so that he or she may be placed in the appropriate course in that field. In some cases, a student may be given academic credit based on the results of a placement test. Practical Training Up to 12 months of practical training in the field of study permitted after completion of academic program. Private Institutions Colleges and universities that receive little or no direct financial support from government sources. The tuition fees are often much more expensive than state- or community-supported institutions. Professional Appointment A visit arranged for a visitor with a person or organization pertinent to his/her career, home organization, or course of study.

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Professional Degrees A degree representing satisfactory academic qualifications for professional certification, for example, in the fields of law, pharmacy, business, medicine, architecture, and nursing. Proposal Response to a request for a proposal that spells out the capabilities of the vendor and an intended approach to taking care of the needs of the purchasing agency or clientele. Provost A high ranking administrator in an educational institution who is sometimes involved in curriculum matters, or who has other business responsibilities. Public Institutions Colleges and universities that receive substantial financial support from local or state government sources, and usually have lower tuition fees than private institutions. Quarter An academic period, consisting of about 12 weeks, equal in value to two-thirds of a semester. Fifteen quarter-hour credits equal 10 semester-hour credits. The calendar year under the quarter system is divided into four equal terms. Re-entry The anticipated return of a visitor to his/her own country. Registrar The administrative office in charge of keeping official student academic and attendance records and issuing official copies to other institutions and employers. (See Transcripts) Request for Proposal (RFP) A notice that an agency is "in the market for" particular services. Rolling Admissions A process whereby admission decisions are made and reported as applications are received instead of being held until a specified selection date. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) A widely used college and university entrance examination that measures verbal and mathematical aptitude through multiple choice questions. (See Educational Testing Service) Selective Admissions Policy of granting admission only to those students who present academic qualifications that suggest at least a reasonable probability of academic success. Semester An academic period usually consisting of between 14 and 18 weeks. One calendar year can be divided into two semesters and a summer session equal to one-half of a semester. Semester hour (see Credit hour) Senior A student enrolled in the fourth year of high school, college or university.

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Sojourn A visit or living experience of limited duration. Sophomore A student enrolled in the second year of high school, college or university. State University A university whose tuition fees are generally lower than private universities because it is publicly funded by the state. Study Abroad Formal or non-formal educational programs in other countries. Transcript A true copy of a student's official academic record. Trimester An academic period considered equal in value to a semester. The calendar year can be divided into three equal trimesters. Tuition Fees Course fees. Undergraduate Student A student enrolled in a program leading to a bachelor's degree. University An institution of higher learning that offers both undergraduate education (postsecondary education leading to the bachelor's degree) and graduate and professional education (post-bachelor's degree education). A university may be comprised of several different colleges and schools. Vendor The party who sells a service.

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APPENDIX K COMMONLY EDUCATION USED ACRONYMS IN INTERNATIONAL

U.S. Government Organizations
AID AID/OIT USIA BFS - Agency for International Development - Agency for International Development/Office of International Training - United States Information Agency - J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board, also called FSB

USIA DIVISIONS: E - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States Information Agency (USIA) - E Bureu, Office of Academic Programs - E Bureu, Office of Academic Programs, European Programs Branch - E Bureau, Advising, Teaching and Specialized Programs Division - E Bureau, Advising and Student Services Branch - E Bureau, Specialized Programs Unit (e.g. the Humphrey program) - E Bureau, Advising, Teaching, Specialized Programs Division, Teacher Exchange Branch - United States Information Service

E/A E/AEE E/AS E/ASA E/ASU E/ASX

USIS

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Educational Associations and Organizations
AACJC AACRAO AASCU AAU ACE ACIE ACT ACTR ATESL CAFSS CB CEC CGS CIEE CIEP CIES COPA ETS IAESTE - American Association of Community and Junior Colleges - American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officer - American Association of State Colleges and Universities - Association of American Universities - American Council on Education - American Council on International Education, Division of AACJC - American College Testing Program - American Council of Teachers of Russian - Association of Teachers of English as a Second Language - Council of Advisors to Foreign Students and Scholars of NAFSA - The College Board - National Council for Evaluation of Foreign Educational Credentials - Council of Graduate Schools in the United States - Council on International Educational Exchange - Consortium of Intensive English Programs - Council for International Exchange Scholars - Council on Post-secondary Accreditation - Educational Testing Service - International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience - Institute of International Education - International Research and Exchanges Board 77

IIE IREX

ISS NACAC NAFSA

- International Student Service - National Association of College Admissions Counselors - Association of International Educators (formerly National Association for Foreign Student Affairs) - National Liaison Committee on Foreign Student Admissions - Projects in International Education Research - Partners for International Exchange and Training - Section on U.S. Students Abroad - Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages

NLC PIER PIET SECUSSA TESOL

Tests
ALIGU - A standardized test devised by the American Language Institute of Georgetown University - Foreign Medical Graduates Examination in the Medical Sciences - Graduate Management Admissions Test - Graduate Record Examination - Law School Administration Test - Law School Data Assembly Service - Scholastic Aptitude Test - Secondary Level English Proficiency Exam - Test of English as a Foreign Language - Test of Spoken English - Test of Written English - U.S. Medical License Examination - Visa Qualifying Examination 78

FMGEMS GMAT GRE LSAT LSDAS SAT SLEP TOEFL TSE TWE USMLE VQE

Working Terms
ESL (EFL) FSA TEFL TESL - English as a Second Language (English as a Foreign Language) - Foreign Student Advisor - Teaching of English as a Foreign Language - Teaching of English as a Second Language

IAP-66- Certificate of eligibility for exchange visitor (J-1) status I-20 A-B I-20 M-N I-20 ID I-94 I-102 I-506 I-538 - Certificate of eligibility of non-immigrant academic student (F-1) status - Certificate of eligibility for non-immigrant non-academic student (M-1) status - Record of schools attended by F-1/M-1 students - Arrival/Departure Record - Replacement of lost I-94 - Change of non-immigrant status - Application by non-immigrant student (F-1/M-1) for extension of stay, school transfer or permission to accept or continue employment

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APPENDIX L STATE TRAVEL INFORMATION SOURCES
ALABAMA (AL) Bureau of Publicity and Information 403 State Highway Building Montgomery, AL 36130 ALASKA (AK) Division of Tourism State of Alaska Pouch E Juneau, AK 99811 ARIZONA (AZ) Arizona State Office of Tourism 1700 W. Washington Phoenix, AZ 85007 ARKANSAS (AR) Tourism Division Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism 149 State Capitol Building Little Rock, AR 72201 CALIFORNIA (CA) Office of Tourism 1121 L Street Suite 103 Sacramento, CA 95814 COLORADO (CO) Travel Marketing Section Colorado Division of Commerce and Development 1313 Sherman Street Room 500 Denver, CO 80203 CONNECTICUT (CT) Tourism Division Connecticut Department of Commerce 210 Washington Street Hartford, CT 06106

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DELAWARE (DE) Delaware State Visitors Center Division of Economic Development 630 State College Road Dover, DE 19901 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA (DC) Washington Area Convention and Visitors Association 1129 20th Street, NW Washington, DC 20036 FLORIDA (FL) Division of Tourism Florida Department of Commerce 107 West Gaines Street Tallahassee, FL 32304 GEORGIA (GA) Tourist Division Bureau of Industry and Trade P.O.Box 1776 Atlanta, GA 30301 HAWAII (HI) Hawaii Visitors Bureau P.O.Box 8527 Honolulu, HI 96815 IDAHO (ID) Division of Tourism and Industrial Development State Capitol Building, Room 108 Boise, ID 83720 ILLINOIS (IL) Illinois Adventure Center Office of Tourism 160 N. LaSalle Chicago. IL 60601 INDIANA (IN) Tourism Development Division Indiana Department of Commerce State House Room 336 Indianapolis, IN 46204 81

IOWA (IA) Travel Development Division Iowa Development Commission 250 Jewett Building Des Moines, IA 50309 KANSAS (KS) Tourist Division Kansas Department of Economic Development 503 Kansas Avenue Topeka, KS 66603 KENTUCKY (KY) Division of Advertising and Travel Promotion Department of Public Information Capitol Annex Frankfort, KY 40601 LOUISIANA (LA) Louisiana Tourist Development Commission P.O.Box 44291 Capitol Station Baton Rouge, LA 70804 MAINE (ME) State Development Office, State House Augusta, ME 04333 MARYLAND (MD) Division of Tourism Department of Economic and Community Development 1748 Forest Drive Annapolis, MD 21401 MASSACHUSETTS (MA) Division of Tourism Massachusetts Department of Commerce and Development 100 Cambridge Street, 13th Floor Government Center Boston, MA 02202 MICHIGAN (MI) Travel Bureau Michigan Department of Commerce P.O.Box 30226 Lansing, MI 48909 82

MINNESOTA (MN) Tourism Division Minnesota Department of Economic Development 480 Cedar Street, Hanover Building St. Paul, MN 55101 MISSISSIPPI (MS) Travel, Tourism and Public Affairs Department Mississippi Agricultural and Industrial Board P.O.Box 849 Jackson, MS 39205 MISSOURI (MO) Missouri Division of Tourism P.O.Box 1055 Jefferson City, MO 65101 MONTANA (MT) Travel Promotion Unit Montana Department of Highways Helena, MT 59601 NEBRASKA (NE) Division of Travel and Tourism Nebraska Department of Economic Development P.O.Box 94666 Lincoln, NB 68509 NEVADA (NV) Travel-Tourism Division Nevada Department of Economic Development Capitol Complex Carson City, NV 89710 NEW HAMPSHIRE (NH) Office of Vacation Travel Division of Economic Development P.O.Box 856 Concord, NH 03301 NEW JERSEY (NJ) Office of Tourism and Promotion Department of Labor and Industry P.O.Box 400 Trenton, NJ 08625 83

NEW MEXICO (NM) Tourist Division Department of Development Bataan Memorial Building Santa Fe, NM 87503 NEW YORK (NY) Travel Bureau New York State Department of Commerce 99 Washington Avenue Albany, NY 12245 NORTH CAROLINA (NC) Travel and Tourism Division North Carolina Department of Commerce 430 N. Salisbury Street Raleigh, NC 27611 NORTH DAKOTA (ND) North Dakota Travel Division State Highway Department Bismarck, ND 58505 OHIO (OH) Ohio Office of Travel and Tourism Ohio Department of Economic and Community Development P.O.Box 1001 Columbus, OH 43216 OKLAHOMA (OK) Tourism Promotion Division Oklahoma Tourism and Recreation Department 500 Will Rogers Building Oklahoma City, OK 73105 OREGON (OR) Travel Information Section 101 Transportation Building Salem, OR 97310 PENNSYLVANIA (PA) Bureau of Travel Development Pennsylvania a Department of Commerce 431 South Office Building Harrisburg, PA 17120 84

RHODE ISLAND (RI) Tourist Promotion Division Department of Economic Development 1 Weybosset Hill Providence, RI 02903 SOUTH CAROLINA (SC) Division of Tourism South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tour Room 83, Box 71 Columbia, SC 29202 SOUTH DAKOTA (SD) Department of Economic and Tourism Development 217 Joe Foss Building Pierre, SD 57501 TENNESSEE (TN) Department of Tourist Development 505 Fesslers Lane Nashville, TN 37210 TEXAS (TX) Texas Tourist Development Box 12008, Capitol Station Austin, TX 78711 UTAH (UT) Utah Travel Council Council Hall, Capitol Hill Salt Lake City, UT 84114 VERMONT (VT) Vermont Travel Division Agency of Development and Community Affairs 61 Elm Street Montpelier, VT 05602 VIRGINIA (VA) Virginia State Travel Service 6 North Sixth Street Richmond, VA 23219

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WASHINGTON (WA) Travel Development Division Department of Commerce and Economic Development General Administration Building Olympia, WA 98504 WEST VIRGINIA (WV) Travel Development Division Est Virginia Department of Commerce 1900 Washington Street East Charleston, WV 25305 WISCONSIN (WI) Division of Tourism Department of Business Development 123 W. Washington Avenue Madison, WI 53702 WYOMING (WY) Wyoming Travel Commission I-25 at Etchepare Circle Cheyenne, WY 82002

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APPENDIX M IMPORTANT AND USEFUL ADDRESSES
USIA United States Information Agency 301 4th Street, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20547 CIES Council for International Exchange of Scholars 3007 Tilden Street, N.W. Suite 5M Washington D.C. 20008-3009 Phone: 202-686-4000 Fax: 202-362-3442 IIE Institute of International Education 809 United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017 Phone: 212-883-8200 Fax: 212-984-5452 Institute of International Education/Humphrey Program Division 1400 K Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20008 Phone: 202-326-7701 Fax: 202-326-7701

IIE

Embassy of the Republic of Hungary to the U.S. 3910 Shoemakers Street, N.W. Washington D.C. 20008 Phone: 202-362-6730 Fax: 202-686-6412 Ambassador: Dr. Géza Jeszenszky Cultural Attaché: Ms. Zsófia Trombitás Consulates of the Republic of Hungary in the U.S. 11766 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 410 227 East 52nd Street Los Angeles, California 90025 New York, NY 10022-6308 Phone: 310-473-9344, 437-3275, 914-7134 Phone: 212-752-0669 Fax: 310-479-6443 Fax: 212-755-5986 Consul: Mrs. Márta Horváthné Fekszi Consul: Mr. István Kovács

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