James Parise Chapter 23 Section 4 Alexander 1: Napoleon's ally. Was invaded by Napoleon because Russia refused to sell grain to Britain. Frederick William III: Led his troops in a triumphant parade through the French capital with Alexander I. Louis XVIII: Duke Wellington: Blockade: Forcible closing of ports. Napoleon set one up to prevent all trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations. It was not effective because it was not tight enough. It weakened the trade, didn't destroy it. The british stopped ships and had them searched and taxed. Continental System: Naploeon's idea of making a blockade to make continental Europe more self sufficient. War of 1812: The U.S declared war on Britain because American ships were being stopped by the British navy. Lasted 2 years. Guerillas: Bands of Spanish peasant fighters. Struck French armies in Spain. Not an army that Napoleon could defeat in open battle. They did ambushes. Peninsular war: Napoleon invaded Spain and had the Spanish King removed and replaced with his brother Joseph. British sent troops to aid the Spanish. Napoleon lost 300,000 men. Grand Army: Napoleon's army of 420,000 that marched into Russia. Most of the army eventually died from weather conditions, hunger, and defeat. Scortched-earth policy: Burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing for the enemy to eat. Battle of Borodino: September 7, 1812. Russians fell back, allowing Napoleon to move on Moscow. Leipzig: Elba: 100 Days: Napoleon's last bid for power. Waterloo: Village in Belgium. Napoleon attacked. The British defended its ground all day. The British and Prussian forces attacked the French. Napoleon lost. St. Helena: British shipped Napoleon there. He lived in lonely exile for 6 years. Napoleon gave up his throne in 1814. Chapter 23 Section 5 Klemens von Metternich: Minister of Austria. Distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Revolution. Wanted to keep things the way that they were. He had 3 goals. 1st wanted to prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries. 2nd he wanted to restore a balance of power. 3rd he wanted to restore Europe's royal families to the thrones they had before Napoleon's conquest. Francis I: Congress of Vienna: A series of meetings in Vienna. Set up policies to achieve this goal. Lasted 8 months. Was a political triumph. The settlements they agreed upon were fair enough that no country was left bearing a grudge. Created a time of peace in Europe. Great Powers: Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France. Made decisions in the Congress of Vienna. Balance of Power: The leaders of Europe wanted to weaken France, but not leave it powerless. They wanted a balance of power among countries. Legitimacy: affirmed by the the Great Powers. Agreeing that as many as possible of the rulers whom Napoleon had driven from their thrones be restored to power. Holy Alliance: Czar Alexander I, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and King Frederick William III of Prussia signed this. Pledged to base their relations with other nations on Christian principles in order to combat the forces of revolution. Concert of Europe: Series of alliances devised by Metternich. Ensured that nations would help one another if any revolutions broke out. Containment of France---Congress took these steps to make the weak countries around France stronger: – The former Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic were united to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands. – A group of 39 German states were loosely joined as the newly created German Confederation dominated by Austria. – Switzerland was recognized as an independent nation. – The Kingdom of Sardinia in Italy was strengthened by the addition of Genoa.