Unit Seventeen by csgirla

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									Unit Seventeen
Public Relations

Unit Objectives (单元目标)
After reading this unit, you should  understand the definition and skills of sight interpreting.  find ways to improve your interpreting skills and performance.
 

master the basic words and expressions about public relations. know some cultural background knowledge about public relations.

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Preparing
I. Interpreting Skills (口译技能)
Read the following presentation about sight interpreting and try to understand how to do sight interpretation. Then complete the following task: Try to read out the following passage in English: 我们在中国的年头比较多, 熟悉中国市场和我们的中国贸易伙伴的心理, 我们有 个良好开端的基础。 健康的贸易伙伴关系是建立成功的合资企业的基础。 我们十 分重视不断发展与我们中国贸易伙伴之间的良好个人关系和相互理解。 我们要和 我们的中国同行沟通思想,使他们了解我们是真诚认真地想把合资企业搞成功。

Coordinating Training(I): Sight Interpreting (视译练习)

What is Sight Interpreting? Sight interpretation consists of reading a source-language text aloud in the target language. Sight interpreting is basically similar to simultaneous interpreting in approach on the part of interpreter. It is simultaneous interpreting with the source text. It is a combination of simultaneous interpreting with sight translation. It occurs frequently in international conferences. In doing sight interpretation, the interpreter has a written text to be interpreted into the target language while the original speaker is reading the same text. Three Points of Attention in Sight Interpreting 1. Properly Chopping the Sentences into Sense Groups While doing sight interpreting, the interpreter has to master the skills of properly chopping (分割) the original speech into sense groups for delivery in the target language. In practice, the crucial step of chopping the original speech into sense groups is usually taken by means of marking the end of each sense group with a slash (/) or double-slash (//) to indicate the end of a sentence. This step will markedly facilitate their sight-interpretation as well as their future job of simultaneous interpreting. 2. Resisting the Temptation of Seeking Perfection The interpreter-trainee should always keep in mind the actual working situation in which an interpreter operates at the meeting. At the meeting, their input is what the speaker is speaking in the SL. Therefore, the interpreter-trainee, who has been supplied with an advance copy of a text, must resist the temptation of seeking perfection as they would do in written translation. The actual working situation of interpreting simply does not allow the interpreter to do so. 3. Checking the Output of Sight Interpretation To learn sight-interpretation, the interpreter-trainee is advised to have their own output of sight-interpretation recorded and then play back the recorded output, for them to check against the text, sentence by sentence. In this way, they will be able to see their strong and weak points and to gain some practical experience each time.
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Two Skills of Sight Interpretation 1. Linearity (顺句驱动) Linearity is a very common skill in sight interpreting. It means the interpreter closely follows the source-language structure and lexical choices in interpreting. Such a skill helps the interpreter to follow the speaker closely and keep pace with the speaker’s utterance. Both Chinese and English sentences follow the same pattern of “Subject-Verb-Object” (SVO), which helps the interpreter to apply the tactic of linearity in sight interpreting. For example, when interpreting “China is a developing country with a population of over 1.3 billion, of whom over 300 million are children under the age of 16, making up about one fifth of the total number of Children in the world.”, the interpreter may resort to the tactic of linearity and interpret it into “中国是一个发展中 国家。人口 13 亿。其中,超过 3 亿是儿童,年龄不足 16 岁,占世界儿童总数的 1/5。” However, it is also risky to follow the source-language structure and lexical choices in interpreting. Linearity sometimes drives the interpreters into a trap (陷阱) target sentences are wrongly rendered that and difficult to complete. More often than not, they get stuck in the process, as the two languages are not always in syntactic and grammatical symmetry(对称). 2. Anticipation(预测) Due to the syntactic and grammatical difference between Chinese and English, the interpreters often get stuck and have to delay response waiting for more information or go back to correct the mistakes and reformulate their interpretation, which will certainly waste time and impair the quality of the interpreting. However, if the interpreters are able to anticipate what is going to be uttered in the source text, they may save time to find an appropriate structure or a right word in the target language so that the interpreted text could be properly arranged and the rendering could proceed smoothly, and so could the interpreted text be better understood. Anticipation in interpreting means that the interpreters are able to predict the potential information in the source language and interpret it into the target language before the actual utterance of the original speech so that the rendering could go smoothly and the target text could be better comprehended. In every language, words follow each other not at random, but with certain rules and collocations. For example, in English, an object must follow a transitive verb. There are also a lot of fixed collocations in Chinese, such as “只要…就…”, “只有…才能…”and so on. Given the knowledge of syntactic structures and words collocation, the interpreters are sometimes able to anticipate the latter part of a certain sentence when they hear or read the former part of the sentence. For example, when hearing “I’d like to extend, on behalf of the municipal government and all the citizens, ….”, it is possible to anticipate that the following part of the sentence must be something like “our heart-felt gratitude” or “our sincere thanks”. Such anticipations are surely of great help in interpreting. If applied properly, such linguistic anticipation will surely make the rendering smoother.

II. Phrase Interpreting (短语口译)
Work on the following words and phrases. Interpret them into Chinese and English respectively.

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A.

English to Chinese
1.recommendation 3.place emphasis on 5.gain goodwill of the public 7.one’s prospective business contact 9. hygiene factors 2.take action 4.press briefing 6. the favor of enterprises giants 8.corporate culture 10.shared sense of purpose

B.

Chinese to English
1.中介服务 3.以人为本 5.奉献精神 7.移居海外的人 9.建立睦邻互信伙伴关系 2.采用大胆的做法 4.商务沟通方式 6.工作观念 8.使命精神 10.双边和多边

III. Sentence Interpreting (句子口译)
Work on the following sentences. Interpret them into Chinese and English respectively.

A.
1.

English to Chinese
A good public relation plays a vital role in the success of most companies and that role applies to more than just the marketing of goods and services.

2.

To build and maintain good reputations, many businesses place heavy emphasis on the coverage they receive in the media.

3.

The communication between an organization and its public ranges from a simple news release to a sophisticated campaign featuring films, speeches and television appearances.

4. 5.

Our public relations work consists of two main activities, research and communication. Communication between our company and the public is the most important part of our public relations campaign.

B.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Chinese to English
共关系的主要目标是创建并保持相互理解。 公共关系与一个机构的内部和外部的交流息息相关。 对我们公司而言,公共关系是我们促销中成长最快的元素。 我们公司把公共关系和在主流报纸中的广告结合起来。
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5.

对我们而言,任何有效的公共关系活动的基础是有益于公众。

Performing
I. Decoding--Notes Taking (笔记记录)
Listen to the recordings of Text A. Try to catch the main ideas of the speech. Note down the key points while you are listening. Then tell the main ideas of the speech with the help of your notes.

II. Memorizing--Story Retelling (故事复述)
Listen to the recordings of Text A again. Try to catch more details and improve your notes. Then retell the speech in your own words with the help of your notes.

III. Encoding--Message Reconstructing (信息重组)
Listen to the recordings of Text A paragraph by paragraph. Take notes when necessary and start interpreting during the pauses.

Text A
East Asiatic 公司,在中国人们称之为宝隆洋行,简称宝隆。 宝隆从 1900 年起就在中国做生意, 同中国合作有 90 多年的历史了,我们对此感到骄傲。 我们在中国的年头比较多, 熟悉中国市场和我们的中国贸易伙伴的心理, 我们有个良好开端的基 础。 健康的贸易伙伴关系是建立成功的合资企业的基础。 我们十分重视不断发展与我们中国贸易 伙伴之间的良好个人关系和相互理解。 我们要和我们的中国同行沟通思想, 使他们了解我们是真 诚认真地想把合资企业搞成功。 合资企业成功, 双方都能得益, 合资企业在经营管理上出了问题, 双方都会受到损失。 总而言之, 我们坚持不懈的向我们的合伙人解释,宝隆参加合伙是为了‘互利’ 。可以想象,我们也希望我 们的中国朋友采取同样的态度,这就是为什么我们选择在中国贸易伙伴方面采取极为慎重的态 度。我还有借此机会提一提:在我们现有的五个合资项目中,我们和中国合伙人之间的关系都是 很愉快的。 我们建立合资企业就要专心致志地把它搞成功。对我们来说,关键词是‘专心致志’ 。我们期望 我们的中国合伙人也能对合资企业‘专心致志’ 。

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IV. Coordinating—Field Interpreting (现场口译)
Listen to the recordings of Text B. Take some notes when necessary and interpret the text with the aids of the notes.

Text B
Situation: In this conversation, Zhang Haojian, head of Customer Relations for a large department store, is discussing some customer issues with Howard Mendell, a staff member. Zhang: 我把你叫进来是因为最近我听到不少顾客对我们工作的抱怨, 甚至有一些是从我们最忠 实的顾客那里传来的。Howard,你是怎么看的? Howard: We’ve had a lot of problems with certain items from a new manufacturer. We’ve handled it according to the store policy of giving a refund or an exchange. Feedback from our staff indicates some customers think our quality control is lax. Zhang: 从顾客的立场来想,顾客是没有错的。当然这也不是我们的错。问题是,接下来我们在 做了什么了吗? Howard: We’ve contacted Purchasing, and they’re dealing with the manufacturer right now. Zhang: 那还不够!既然我们已经听到那么多的不满,我们就必须立即把那些商品撤出货架,直 到供应商确保其商品合格才能上架。 Howard: All right. I’ll talk to the department manager about it. Shouldn’t be a problem, but it’ll probably take them a day or two to restock the empty space. Zhang: 那很好。 企业能否长期处于不败之地, 很大程度上取决于他们是否已培养起一个稳定而 可信赖的客户群。而要做到一点的最佳方法是要以正确的方式对待客户。 Howard: We will do whatever we can to retain our customers. Zhang: 我们必须积极主动地与购买了那些不合格商品的顾客取得联系, 并寄一张下次购物使用 的优惠券。 我们还必须取得和新顾客之间的情感联系, 以确保他们对我们客服工作满意。 Howard: I’ll get on it right away. Zhang: 好的。谢谢你,Howard.

Packaging
I. Interpreting and Assessment (口译与评估)
Work in groups. Listen to the recordings of Text C. Take some notes while listening . Interpret the text with the help of your notes. The other members are expected to evaluate the interpreters’ performance with the peer’s assessment form.

Text C
Like other oil companies, BP confronts such difficult issues as the conflict between energy and environment. We take actions beyond what is expected of an oil company. We engage an extremely
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diverse employment in our commitment to environment and unite staff under a single, global brand. For BP, sustainable development means the capacity to endure as a group, by renewing assets, creating and delivering products and services that meet the evolving needs of society, delivering returns to our shareholders, attracting successive generations of employees, contributing to a flourishing environment and retaining the trust and support of our customers and the communities in which we operate. By using our group standards to spread best practice, we not only manage risks but also generate benefits for society. Our products support mobility and progress. We help employees develop their capabilities, earn returns for shareholders and provide income for suppliers. Being responsible means running a successful, sustainable business. Over and above our business benefits, we work with others to address concerns that relate to our work, using our skills and resources in an effort to make a difference. A good example is climate change; another is our determination to make a more focused contribution towards social and economic development.

Peer's Assessment Form
1. Delivery 1.1 Is the articulation or intonation unnatural? 1.2 Are there any irritating outburst or exaggerated fillers? 1.3 Are there any excessive repairs or unfinished sentences? 1.4 Is the voice unpleasant or unconvincing? 2. Language 2.1 Are there any irritating mispronunciations? 2.2 Are there any irritating grammatical mistakes? 2.3 Are there any unidiomatic expressions? Coherence 3.1 Are there any abrupt beginnings or endings? 3.2 Is the performance incoherent? 3.3 Is the message implausible or illogical? Loyalty 4.1 Are there any significant omissions? 4.2 Are there any unjustified changes? 4.3 Are there any unjustified additions? A □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ B □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ C □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ D □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

3.

4.

II. Feedback and Comments (反馈与评论)
After you finish the interpretation, tell your classmates and teacher how you feel about your performance. Then the teacher will make an overall comment on your performance and give you some suggestion.

Aims of this Unit

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Student’s Feedback

Teacher’s Comments

The candidate has met the standard, knowledge and skill requirements. Candidates: _____________________ Assessor: ______________________ Date ______________________ Date ______________________

Supplementary Exercises (补充练习) Task I Simulation Exercises (模拟练习)
Role-play the following situations with your partners, acting as the Chinese speaker, English speaker and the interpreter respectively. One group will be invited to perform in class.

Situation A One of the students acts as the manager of a Chinese company, another student acts as a visitor from a famous company in Liverpool. Two of you are exchanging some experience of the public relations of your own company. Make a dialogue, and the third student tries to be the interpreter.

Situation B Work in groups. Log on internet to find the public relations policy of one of the famous company you are familiar with. Then one of the students makes a public speech on TV. Another student tries to be the interpreter, the others will play the reporters’ role.

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Task 2

Vocabulary Development (词汇扩展)
Read the following words and expressions. Try to keep them in mind and find more to enrich your language bank.

A.

ful Words & Expressions
positive recommendation take action place emphasis on press briefing lobbying publicity service station gain goodwill of the public sponsor the favor of enterprises giants the nature of an industry total promotion budget advertising film in roll logo inconspicuous ranking list the recognition rate huge outlet one’s prospective business contact corporate culture hygiene factors shared sense of purpose motivator 中介服务 采用大胆的做法 以人为本 商务沟通方式 商务活动 工作成效 奉献精神 工作观念 管理模式 移居海外的人 个体取向 集体主义 积极的 建议、劝告 采取行动 注重 媒体简报 游说 公开 服务站 获得公众的好感 赞助商 巨型企业的青睐 一个行业的特征 总促销宣传的预算 广告片 滚动 商品的标识 不出名的,名不见经传的 排行榜 商标的认知度,商标的知名度 大型的卖场 将要与之打交道的人 组合文化 保健因素 目的共识 激励者 intermediate service to take bold steps human-oriented business communication style business practice the results and accomplishments of work sense of dedication work ethic the type of management expatriates individual oriented collectivism
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使命精神 西方伙伴 长期承诺 长期目标 共存 建立业务关系 建立睦邻互信伙伴关系 卓有成效的外交活动 双边和多边

delegation western counterpart long-term commitment long-term orientation coexist establish business relations orge a good-neighborly partnership of mutual trust fruitful diplomatic activities in both bilateral and multilateral contexts

B.

Sample Sentences
Sentence Sentences
            

Public Relations Describing the Problem Dealing with Complaints Promising to do Something

There’s a problem with the circuitry on some of the units. This will damage our reputation in the market place. You have failed to meet the terms of the contract. It is entirely our fault. I am sorry about this confusion. Please accept…. With our compliments. I will get this sorted out immediately. I am sending… over the attend the problem on the next flight. I shall send … to the suppliers. We can guarantee that it won’t happen again. We have three options: we can…, or we can, or….. I don’t think … are the best option. I think we have to get the best service at the best price. We always.. I never… Our campaign goes like this… I will try to explain it simple. I’ll keep it simple. Let me show you an example. Let me clarify this for you.

Discussing Options

Describing How You  Work 


Offering Explanations

   

Task 3 Cultural Salon (文化沙龙)
Read the following presentation and try to get some cultural knowledge about public relations.

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Public Relations
Public relations, commonly called PR, is an activity aimed at increasing communication and understanding between an organization or individual and one or more groups called publics. The term is also applied to the profession responsible for handling such assignments. Corporations, educational institutions, religious groups, government agencies, labor unions, politicians, and entertainers and among those who use public relations. Their publics vary form employees and stockholders to an entire community or members of the news media. The communication between an organization and its public ranges from a simple news release to a sophisticated campaign featuring films, advertisements, speeches, and television appearances. Such communication is aimed at gaining the good will of the public. The basis of any effective public relations campaign is public benefit. If an organization does not serve the needs of the public, the public will not support it. Public relations experts help an organization learn what the public wants and then establish policies that reflect concern for the public’s interests. Public relations specialist generally use three principal methods to communicate with the public: 1. Advertising, which involves the use of paid, non-personal communication through such media as billboards, mail, newspapers and other publications, radio, and TV; 2. 3. Lobbying, which is an attempt to influence the voting of legislators to support the interests of a group; Publicity and press agency, which involve promoting an organization by getting favorable coverage in the media.

Task 4

Interpreting Practice (口译实践)
Work on the following sentences and text. Interpret them into Chinese and English respectively.

A.
1. 2. 3.

Sentence Interpreting
公司和贵公司二十多年来一直保持着良好的贸易关系。 经我们与用户联系,了解到用户对你所报的产品无需要。 像中国这样一个国家,拥有制造高质量产品所需要的一切有力条件,一旦这些高质量的产品 和欧洲经济共同体先进的销售网连接起来,就可以大大地扩大出口。 贵方这次来华访问时,我们将谈一些新交易,除此之外,也将邀请贵方目的口岸看货。 我们再次强调我们愿意进一步加强双方间的业务关系, 同时希望过去一些索赔悬案能早日友 好地得到解决。

4. 5.

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B.

Text Interpreting Text D

Mr. Zhang, Honored guests, Chinese friends, Ladies and Gentlemen, It is with great pleasure that I extend a warm welcome to the delegation from China led by Mr. Zhang. I have the honor to express this welcome on behalf of the Canadian Trade Association (CIA) which, as you are aware is the organization that represents the many firms in the sector of Canadian industry. CTA has a long history of cooperation and exchange with the Peoples Republic of China. Now, our two countries have embarked on a new adventure—an adventure as exciting in its prospects as it is important in its implications. It is a venture that will bring together two great nations. We are staging the Chinese Trade Exhibition at a time when trade relations between Canada and China have never been better. This Exhibition brings to the Canadian people and in particular to the Canadian enterprises, trade cooperation, specialists and scientists—a comprehensive display of Chinese industrial achievements. The range of exhibits, and the associated program of technical discussions, will cover Chinese latest developments in aviation, machine tools, electronics, scientific instruments, chemical plant, mining, power generation equipment, the motor industry and many other fields. I greatly value the friendship and confidence that Canada enjoys as a trading partner of China. I am certain the Exhibition will strengthen our relationship and contribute directly to the further trade expansion and to the benefit of both our countries. I now propose a toast, to the health of h4r.Zhang, to the success of the Exhibition, to our further cooperation, Cheers!

Self-assessment

(自我评价)

Go over this unit and try to make an assessment on what your have learned and performed with the following student self-assessment form.

Student Self-assessment Form
1. Interpreting Skills—Sight Interpretation 1.1 The definition of sight interpreting 1.2 Three points of attention in sight interpreting 1.3 Two skills of sight interpretation 2. Linguistic Notes about Public Relations 2.1 Useful words and expressions 2.2 Sample sentences □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □
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A □ □ □

B □ □ □

C □ □ □

D □ □ □

3.

Cultural Notes about Public Relations 3.1 What is called public relations? 3.2 To what profession is it usually applied? 3.3 How does the communication range from? 3.4 The basis of an effective public relations campaign 3.5 Three principal methods to communicate with the public □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □

4.

Phrase Interpreting about Public Relations 4.1 Chinese-English 4.2 English-Chinese

5.

Sentence Interpreting about Public Relations 5.1 Chinese-English 5.2 English-Chinese

6.

Text Interpreting about Public Relations 6.1 Text A 6.2 Text B 6.3 Text C 6.4 Text D

7.

Simulation Exercises about Public Relations 7.1 Situation A 7.2 Situation B

Points to Remember(单元要点)
  Sight interpretation consists of reading a source-language text aloud in the target language. Three Points of Attention in Sight Interpreting: Properly chopping the sentences into sense groups; Resisting the temptation of seeking perfection Checking the output of sight interpretation. Two Skills of Sight Interpretation: Linearity and Anticipation.



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