TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS (7) -GRADE EIGHT- TIME LIMIT: 195MIN PartⅠ LISTENING COMPREHENSION (35 MIN.) SECTION A MINI-LECTURE In this section, you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture once only. While listening, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Use the blank sheet for note-taking. Now listen to the mini-lecture. In Sections B and C, you will hear everything once only. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your answer sheet. SECTION B CONVERSATION Questions 1 to 5 are based on a conversation between an American man and a British man. At the end of the conversation you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview. 1. How old is the minivan the Lady is looking at? A. One year old. B. Three years old. C. Five years old. D. Seven years old. 2. What is the vehicle‘s mileage? A. 55,000 miles. B. 65,000 miles. C. 75,000 miles. D. 85,000 miles. 3. What is the problem with the minivan‘s door? A. It has several scratches in it. B. It will not open properly. C. It is missing the door handle. D. It has no seats covers. 4. What is one thing the extended warranty would NOT cover on the vehicle according to the conversation? A. A faulty oil pump. B. A malfunctioning gage. C. A worn out brake drum. D. An engine. 5. If the manager lowered the price as the salesman suggests, what would the final price be? A. 15,475. B. 15,575. C. 15,675. D. 15,775. SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST Question 6 and 7 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news. 6. What news event is reported? A. A bomb threat at a hospital. B. A flood at a school. C. A fire at an apartment building. D. A severe drought famine in a village. 7. How did the dog help rescue the baby? A. It helped rescue this baby by attracting people‘s attention by barking. B. It helped rescue this baby by pulling the body to safety. C. It helped rescue this baby by comforting the baby until help came. D. It helped rescue this baby by waking up the baby by ringing the bell. Questions 8 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news. 8. What made this eclipse so unique? A. Its location for viewing in the world. B. Its timing on the calendar. C. Its movement across the sky. D. Its beautiful scene. 9. Which statement was NOT mentioned about viewing an eclipse? A. Sunglasses block out only a limited amount of the sun‘s ultraviolet rays that can damage the eye. B. Sunglasses can only filter harmful rays during total solar eclipses at their greatest magnitude. C. Sunglasses tend to cause the center of the eye to enlarge allowing in more intense light. D. Sunglasses should be used when any part of the sun is visible. 10. What is one fact we do not learn from the final commentary of the video? A. People who can record the next eclipse. B. The date of an upcoming solar eclipse. C. How to record an eclipse for your posterity. D. Where the next Christmas eclipse will occur. Part Ⅱ READING COMPREHENSION (30 MIN.) In this section there are several reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your answer sheet. TEXT A We hear it a lot the news these days. ―Recycle newspapers and save a tree. Collect bottles and cans so they can be reused in the manufacturing of new products.‖ Protecting our delicate environment seems to be on the agenda of politicians, government leaders, and citizens in many parts of the world to show support for mother nature. The concept of green consumerism has gained momentum more and more over the last decade, and the public feels moved to pitch in and help. However, three essential keys needed to power this movement include a more informed public, the development of improved technology，and a greater demand for recycled materials. Let‘s use paper as an example. The first step is to raise public awareness about the recycling process， explain the kinds of materials that can be recycled， provide ways on how to properly and dispose of them. Local governments should educate the public on how to properly sort reusable materials from those， waxed paper， like carbon paper， plastic laminated material such as fast food wrappers，that can‘t be recycled very easily. Then，a system of collecting these sorted materials needs to be established. Public interest might be there，but may soon wane if recycling centers located in convenient locations are not available. Sometimes we become complacent when it comes to recycling，but when you speak in terms of actually facts and figures that everyone can understand，people become more cognizant of the problem. I remember reading one time that the energy saved from one recycled can provide enough power to operate a television set for three hours. Give the public information they can grasp in real terms, and then you will increase your chances of gaining followers. Second，technological progress has been made on many fronts，but governmental agencies need to step up their support for companies involved in recycling by providing tax incentives，low—cost loans，or even grants to upgrade equipment and to encourage further research. One breakthrough has been the development of a new manufacturing process that uses enzymes to help remove ink from paper in more energy efficient and environmentally safe methods. Recycling paper materials can be expensive in both monetary and environmental terms. The difficulty in removing print from paper，the amount of energy expended during the process, and caustic waste that is sometimes produced are costs that companies incur that are then passed onto the consumer. The final key is to increase demand for the growing surplus of resources waiting to be recycled. This problem has appeared in various regions of the world where the technology to process the used materials lags far behind the amount being collected for recycling. There may be a great outpouring of support；yet the great stumbling block to implementing the second stage of this plan could be thwarted by the corporate sector's inability to find commercial enterprises interested in using recycled goods especially when the cost of exceeds those of virgin materials. Recycling is a crucial link protecting our planet. The three keys mentioned are important to achieving this end. 11.What would be the best title for this passage? A. Important Keys to Recycling Paper B. Technological Advances Improve Recycling C. Steps to Improving Recycling D. Best Ways to Protect Our Environment 12.According to the article，paper materials that are difficult to recycle include_______. A. copy paper B. document shred C. food wrappers D. bottles and cans 13. In some cases, recycling could be hazardous to the environment if special precautions are not taken because ______. A. industrial emissions are sometimes created in the process B. chemical waste is sometimes produced as a result C. a great deal of energy is expended to create new products D. there are a lot of bacteria in waste things 14. According to the passage, the demand for recyclable materials in the manufacturing of new products is sometimes sluggish because ______. A. some governments are unwilling to support expensive recycling methods B. there is a lack of advanced technology to process the materials C. businesses do not invest enough money into research D. people don‘t like waste things 15. Which is NOT one of the main keys to recycling as mentioned in the passage? A. Government regulation of waste. B. a more informed public. C. Better technology. D. More demand for recycled materials. TEXT B In the US, poll after poll has shown a majority in favor of animal experimentation, even without statements about its value. Why is opinion in Britain so different? I think that there are two reasons. The first is the success of antivivisection campaigners in lampooning animal research as outdated, intentionally cruel, ―bad‖ science，which achieves nothing. All drugs and procedures developed with the help of animal tests are said to be dangerous. The occasional failure of animal testing to identify a dangerous drug is developed as an argument for abandoning safety tests involving animals altogether—with no mention of the terrible human suffering that this would cause. They say that alternative” “ methods already exist for all animal experiments， the fact is but that the law specifically forbids animal use if there is any alternative. The second reason is that scientists and doctors have failed to oppose such misrepresentation. In the early 1990s, animal rights campaigning in the US was met with much more forthright defense，not only by the major scientific societies, funding agencies and medical organizations，but also by the US government. To be positive， there are many encouraging features of the New Scientist poll. Interestingly， the public seems to employ the same kind of utilitarian philosophy that underpins the law in Britain— weighing potential benefits against the species involved (thus，monkeys are more“valuable”than mice) and the likelihood of suffering. Clearly，people in Britain do not recognize the essential link between animal research and testing and the medical treatments that they receive. Only 18 percent of those who had-taken (or had a close family member who had taken) a drug prescribed for a serious illness realized that the drug had been tested on animals，as all drugs are. Obviously，a large majority of those surveyed believe that they can happily benefit from medical treatment without taking advantage of animal research. No wonder so many people oppose it when asked the straight yes／no question. The views of the public must be respected. But this poll tells us that，while they are open to persuasion, their reaction is based on misunderstanding. The responsibility for providing honest evidence for the public lies not just with those who use animals in their research，but with other scientists who depend on that work. It lies with the doctors who benefit from animal research， with the pharmaceuticals and biotech industries. and the medical charities and funding agencies whose work would be crippled without it. But most of a11，responsibility rests with government，which should cultivate serious and transparent debate between those of different opinion, and provide the public—especially young people—with the honest evidence they need and deserve. 16. In the first sentence of Paragraph 3, ―such misrepresentation‖ refers to _______. A. the idea that other methods can be substituted for animal research B. the claim that animal experiment is intentionally cruel C. the belief that all drugs developed with animal tests are dangerous D. the fact that scientists and medical organizations support animal experimentation 17. In the author's opinion, why do more people in Britain oppose animal experiments? A. Because they are kinder than those in the United States. B. Because they don‘t know the benefits resulting from animal tests. C. Because most of the medicines don‘t need animal experiments to work well. D. Because some scientists use rare species for their medical experimentation. 18. According to the author how to correct the situation? A. Only some animals should be used for research. B. Scientists and doctors should respect the views of the public. C. The benefits of animal tests should be made widely known. D. The debate on animal tests be put to s serious public poll. 19. What is the author‘s attitude towards animal research? A. Negative. B. Questioning. C. Neutral. D. Positive. 20. The passage is mainly concerned with ______. A. supporting a position B. refuting some arguments C. describing a case D. presenting a new perspective TEXT C Material culture refers t0 the touchable，material ―things‖一 physical objects that can be seen， held, felt, used—that a culture produces. Examining a culture‘s tools and technology can tell us about the group‘s history and way of life. Similarly, research into the material culture of music can help us to understand the music—culture. The most vivid body of“things”in it，of course， are musical instruments. We cannot hear for ourselves the actual sound of any musical performance before the 1870s when the phonograph(留声机) was invented. so we rely on instruments for important information about music‘ cultures in the remote past and their development. Here we have two kinds of evidence: instruments well preserved and instruments pictured in art. Through the study of instruments， well as paintings， as written documents， so and on，we can explore the movement of music from the Near East to China over a thousand years ago，or we can outline the spread of Near Eastern influence to Europe that resulted in the development of most of the instruments in the symphony orchestra. Sheet music or printed music，too，is material culture. Scholars once defined folk music-cultures as those in which people learn and sing music by ear rather than from print，but research shows mutual influence among oral and written sources during the past few centuries in Europe，Britain，and America. Printed versions limit variety because they tend to standardize any song，yet they stimulate people to create new and different songs. Besides, the ability to read music notation (乐谱) has a far-reaching effect on musicians and，when it becomes widespread， on the music—culture as a whole. One more important part of music‘s material culture should be singled out：the influence of the electronic media—radio， record player， tape recorder， television， videocassette recorder， and with the future promising talking and singing computers and other developments. This is all part of the“information revolution". a twentieth—century phenomenon as important as the industrial revolution was in the nineteenth. These electI.0nic media are not just limited to modern nations， they have affected music—cultures all over the globe. 21. Research into the material culture of a nation is of great importance because _______. A. it helps produce new cultural tools and technology B. it can reflect the development of the nation C. it helps understand the nation‘s past and present D. it can demonstrate the nation‘s civilization 22. It can be learned from the passage that A. the existence of the symphony was attributed to the spread of Near Eastern and Chinese music B. Near Eastern music had an influence on the development of the instruments in the symphony orchestra C. the development of the symphony shows the mutual influence of Eastern and Western music D. the musical instruments in the symphony orchestra were developed on the basis of Near Eastern music 23. According to the author，music notation is important because A. it has a great effect on the music—culture as more and more people are able to read it B. it tends to standardize folk songs when it is used by folk musicians C. it is the printed version of standardized folk music D. it encourages people to popularize printed versions of songs 24. It can be concluded from the passage that the introduction of electronic media into the world of music A. has brought about an information revolution B. has speeded up the advent of a new generation of computers C. has given rise to new forms of music culture D. has led to the transformation of traditional musical instruments 25. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage? A. Musical instruments developed through the years will sooner or later be replaced by computers B. Music cannot be passed on to future generations unless it is recorded. C. Folk songs cannot be spread far unless they are printed on music sheets. D. The development of music culture is highly dependent on its material aspect Text D The Cultural Revival in the Byzantine Empire Between the eighth and eleventh centuries A.D.，the Byzantine Empire staged an almost unparalleled economic and cultural revival. a recovery that is all the more striking because it followed a long period of severe internal decline. By the early eighth century，the empire had lost roughly two—thirds of the territory it had possessed in the year 600，and its remaining area was being raided by Arabs and Bulgarians，who at times threatened to take Constantinople and extinguished the empire altogether. The wealth of the state and its subjects was greatly diminished, and artistic and literary production had virtually ceased. By the early eleventh century, however the empire had regained almost half of its lost possessions，its new frontiers were secure, and its influence extended far beyond its borders. The economy had recovered， treasury was full， the and art and scholarship had advanced. T0 consider the Byzantine military， cultural， economic advances as differentiated aspects and of a single phenomenon is reasonable. After all，these three forms of progress have gone together in a number of states and civilizations. Rome under Augustus and fifth—century Athens provide the most obvious examples in antiquity. Moreover, an examination of the apparent sequential connections among military, economic， and cultural forms of progress might help explain the dynamics of historical change. The common explanation of these apparent connections in the case of Byzantine would run like this：when the empire had turned back enemy raids on its own territory and had begun to raid and conquer enemy territory, Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and literature. Therefore，Byzantine resources naturally expanded and more money became available to patronize art and literature. Therefore，Byzantine military achievements led to economic advances，which in turn led to cultural revival. No doubt this hypothetical pattern did apply at times during the course of the recovery. Yet it is not clear that military advances invariably came first. Economic advances second，and intellectual advances third. In the 860‘s the Byzantine Empire began to recover from Arab incursions so that by 872 the military balance with the Abbasid Caliphate had been permanently altered in the empire’ favor. The beginning of the empire’ economic revival， s s however， be can placed between 810 and 830.Finally， Byzantine revival of learning appears to have begun even the earlier. A number of notable scholars and writers appeared by 788 and，by the last decade of the eighth century，a cultural revival was in full bloom，a revival that lasted until the fall of Constantinople in 1453.Thus the commonly expected order of military revival followed by economic and then by cultural recovery was reversed in Byzantium. In fact，the revival of Byzantine learning may itself have influenced the subsequent economic and military expansion. 26. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage? A. The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed. B. The economic，cultural，and military revival in the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in August Rome and fifth—century Athens. C. The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival，the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress. D. The eighth—century revival of Byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon，and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered. 27. Which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the Byzantine revival began? A. The Byzantine military revival of the 860’s led to economic and cultural advances. B. The Byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1 453. C. The Byzantine economic recovery began in the 900’s. D. The revival of Byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighty century. 28. According to the author, ―The common explanation‖ (first sentence in third paragraph)of connections between economic，military，and cultural development is _______. A. revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the Byzantine Empire B. reasonable，but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress C. not applicable to the Byzantine revival as a whole，but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival D. essentially not helpful，because military，economic，and cultural advances are part of a single phenomenon Text E Learning for Its Own Sake For me, scientific knowledge is divided into mathematical sciences, natural sciences or sciences dealing with the natural world (physical and biological sciences) , and sciences dealing with mankind (psychology，sociology, all the sciences of cultural achievements，every kind of historical knowledge) . Apart from these sciences is philosophy.about which we will take shortly.In the first place，all this is pure or theoretical knowledge，sought only for the purpose of understanding，in order to fulfill the need to understand that is intrinsic and consubstantial to man.What distinguishes man from animal is that he knows and needs to know.If man did not know that the world existed，and that the world was of a certain kind，that he was in the world and that he himself was of a certain kind，he wouldn‘t be a man.The technical aspects of applications of knowledge are equally necessary for man and are of the greatest importance，because they also contribute to defining him as man and permit him to pursue a life increasingly more truly human. But even while enjoying the results of technical and the results of technical progress， must he defend the primacy and autonomy of pure knowledge. Knowledge sought directly for its practical applications will have immediate and foreseeable success，but not the kind of important result whose revolutionary scope IS in large part unforeseen，except by the imagination of the Utopians.Let me recall a well—known example. If the Greek mathematicians had not applied themselves to the investigation of conic sections，zealously and without the least suspicion that it might someday be useful，it would not have been possible centuries later to navigate far from shore.The first men to study the nature of electricity could not imagine that their experiments, carried on because of mere intellectual curiosity，would eventually lead to modern electrical technology，without which we can scarcely conceive of contemporary life.Pure knowledge is valuable for its own sake, because the human spirit cannot resign itself to ignorance.But，in addition，it is the foundation for practical results that would not have been reached if this knowledge had not been sought disinterestedly. 29. The author points out that the Greeks who studied conic sections A. invented modern mathematical applications B. were interested in navigation C. were unaware of the value of their studies D. worked with electricity 30.It can be inferred from the passage that to the author man’s need to know is chiefly important in that it _____. A. allows the human race to progress technically B. encompasses both the physical and social sciences C. demonstrates human vulnerability D. defines man‘s essential humanity Part Ⅲ GENERAL KNOWLEDGE (10 MIN.) There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question. Mark your answers on your answer sheet. 31. Which of the following statements is not true? A. Scotland is the second largest in area，but not population，compared with England and Wales. B. Britain does not share land border with any other countries except the Republic of Ireland. C. Broadly speaking, the English summer consists of June，July and August. D. The Thames is the second largest but most important river in Britain. 32. English people refers to ______. A. British people B. Scottish people C. all white people in Britain D. people who are descents of English—speaking Anglo—Saxons 33. Which of the following statements is true.9 A. Mainland America is situated in the north of North America. B. The United States consists of 5 1 states，and two of the 5 1 states are separated from the continental United States. C. The United States is mainly situated in the northern temperate zone. D. The Mississippi River is the second largest but most important river in the United States 34. Why does America confront the mineral resources problems? A. There are few mineral resources in America. B. Excessive explorations and large consumption have exhausted many resources that are not renew— able. C. Geographic change and Climate effect. D. Terrorist has burnt it over. 35. By advancing the theory of _______, Bacon showed the new empirical attitudes toward truth about nature and bravely challenged the medieval scholasticists. A. inductive reasoning B. deductive reasoning C. education D. scientific experimentation 36. The chief force that motivated John Bunyan to write The Pilgrim's Progress was his _______. A. political commitment B. religious fervency C. artistic pursuit D. long suffering in the prison 37. The Scarlet Letter by Hawthorne is mainly concerned with _______. A. the corruption of the society B. the consequence of sin and guilt C. the wrong doing Of one generation that lives into the successive ones D. ―overreaching intellect‖ 38. ―The man put on his hat‖ is transformed into“The man put his hat on”.Then which rule is applied according to Transformational Generative Grammar? A. Deletion B. Copying C. Reordering D. None of the above 39.“Words are names or labels for things.”This view is called _______ in semantic sense. A. mentalism B. conceptual theory C. naming theory D. contextual theory 40. The pair of words“wide／narrow”are called ______. A. gradable opposites B. complementary antonyms C. co—hyponyms D. relational opposites Part Ⅳ PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION (15 MIN.) Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed. PART Ⅴ TRANSLATION (60 MIN.) SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH Translate the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE. 公款吃喝，上有禁令，下有批评。然而，禁归禁，吃归吃，再穷的地方照样在不断地吃。 而这些吃客们不知道是否想过： 他们吃掉的岂止是美味佳肴， 还有中国的希望呵！ “希望” 把 称作“工程”的，在我国历史上绝无仅有。邓小平同志亲笔为之题词，并以“一个老共严党 员”的名义为其捐款，看着那些瘦弱身体、眼巴巴渴望学习的孩子们，有识之士纷纷伸出援 助之手，但三年里仅得一亿多元，实在是杯水车薪哪！ SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE Translate the following underlined part of the text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE. My guess is that English will retain its currency in the world for the next 50 or so，but it is difficult to see it retaining it beyond then．If the Chinese could establish some reasonable way of writing their language by forming some sort of alphabeticisation，then given the exponential population growth among Chinese communities． their 1anguage would rapidly gain in importance. And let‘s not forget Spanish；some predict that there will be a Spanish majority in the United States within twenty years. So it is not impossible to conceive that another language might come to dominate besides English one day. An equally important trend will be the fragmentation of English. Many countries are now using English so much that they are starting to teach their own particular brand of the language with different forms of sentence construction, for example. They no longer want native speakers to teach English, but locals whose version of English contains the same forms as the local use of the language. This is not just true in colonial countries, it‘s happening as far apart as Germany and the Pacific Rim. It‘s a strongly democratic move and I think we will see a lot more local publishing as a result． Yet while forms of English become increasingly localized, the information explosion is also making our use of language more global. A quite new form of language is evolving on the internet. The E—mail is a new form of message: it's not a letter，not a postcard. And it has its own casual style, often without complete sentences．English is especially well adapted to this style, as it can easily be shortened. So I suspect English will continue to be more advanced than other languages on the worldwide web—it will remain the language of science and technology． Part Ⅵ WRITING (45 MIN.) Nowadays the telephone plays a very important role in our life．It makes 0ur life more convenient. However，it has its disadvantages． You are to write an essay of approximately 400 words on both the positive and negative effects of the telephone on modern life．Support your ideas with reasons and examples． In the first pant of your letter you should present your thesis statement，and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details．In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion with a summary． Marks will be awarded for content，organization，grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks．\ Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR. QUESTION BOOKLET ---------答题纸部分----------（7） ANSWER SHEET ONE PartⅠ LISTENING COMPREHENSION SECTION A MINI-LECTURE Complete the gap-filling task. Some of the gaps below may require a maximum of THREE words. Make sure the word(s) you fill in is (are) both grammatically and semantically acceptable . You may refer to your notes. Clocks through Time It took human being a long time to invent diverse ways for telling time．About 3000 years ago people first made a circle with a stick in the center of it to (1) _______  _________ the passage of time by noticing various marks on the circle the shadow of the stick fell across． Since these kinds of circles that are called (2) _______ did not work without the  _________ sun，men had to find other ways to keep track of time，including a (3) ______ candle  _________ on which each stripe took about one hour to melt，a water clock which had a line with a number beside it for every hour and an (4) _______ which followed the invention of  _________ glass blowing． The first clock with a face and an hour hand was invented about 600 years ago for few people． With the gradually (5) ________use of clocks， they were beautiful—  _________ ly (6) _________, though they could not keep correct time ． Scarcely had clocks been  _________ made small enough to be carried when watches came into use． As the beginning of the style of ‗‗grandfather clocks,‖ clocks， ”which were enclosed in tall wooden boxes， (7) ________ clock was made in 1657． 1700， the In there were  _________ clocks with minute and second hands．About 200 years later，a clock is commonly used in every house and a watch is almost used by every ( 8 ) ________ gentlemen.  _________ A newly created clock that shows the time exactly is so—called ( 9 ) _______  _________ clock．Nowadays such a clock has more and more complicated functions． (10) ________ as clocks and watches are ， time means different things to differ ________ ent nations． ANSWER SHEET TWO PART II PROOFREADING & ERROR CORRECTION The following passage contains TEN errors. Each line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way: For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line. For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line. For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/’ and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line. Example When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit,  an It never buy things in finished form and hangs them on the wall.  never When a natural history museum wants an exhibition, it must often build it.  exhibit The swinging single lifestyle of the stereotype is most possible for urban， educated professional and technical people. Only they can afford the high rents and the lavish entertainment . Blue – collar and many white - collar people find few excitement in living singly in rundown apartments or crowding into a more  ________ desirable spot with several people sharing expenses． Several studies have shown that single people is not very different from mar-  ________ ried people in either social or personality characteristics．The same applies for  ________ personal happiness．Some single people，like some married people，are relatively happy with themselves and their lives．Others range from merely satisfied to quite unhappy． Even in the best of circumstances，single living has its share of problems． Most of singles for example，manage their finances quite well，but seldom make  ________ investments for future a8 married couples are more likely to do．Income tax  ________ laws，adoption and credit regulations，housing rules，or advertisements，con-  ________ stantly remind the single person whose marriage is the only socially acceptable  ________ state． Most singles either devote an inordinate amount of time and energy cultivating ________ heterosexual relationships, and experience loneliness．Most often it is both．The passing years bring a need for deep emotional relationships in that there is lasting  ________ security， even among prosperous young people． Most favor marriage in principal and _______ gradually move toward it as a personal alternative. Ironically，their determination to avoid early，hasty marriage may result in their experiencing more satisfying marital relationships later in life，as old，more mature，independent, and realistic adults.
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