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Unit Four Honesty (Book Four)

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					Book Four

Unit Four Honesty
The first two periods: I Introductory Questions: 1. How do you value honesty? Do you think honesty is the most important personality? 2. Do you always be honest? Or have you ever lied to someone? Why?

II Preparation 1. Read this passage to your students and ask them to discuss what the carpenter has done wrong? Difficult words: paycheck 付薪水的支票,薪水 leisurely 悠闲地 resort to 采取(某种手段) shoddy 劣质地,以次充好的 workmanship 手艺,技巧 Passage: An elderly carpenter was ready to retire. He told his employer that he would miss the paycheck, but he needed a leisurely life. The employer was sorry to see his good worker go and asked if he could build just one more house as a personal favor. The carpenter said yes, but in time it was easy to see that his heart was not in his work. He resorted to shoddy workmanship and used inferior materials. It was an unfortunate way to end his career. When the carpenter finished his work, the employer came to inspect the house. He asked the carpenter if he had tried his best. Instead of telling the truth, the carpenter said yes. The employer then handed the front-door key to the carpenter. “This is you house,” he said, “my gift to you.” Sample: First of all, it was wrong of him to resort to shoddy workmanship. As long as he was still a worker, he should do a good job. Secondly, he lied to his employer. 2. To lie or not to lie? (Open) 3. What would you do? (open) One of your classmates asks for help during a test and you know if he/she fails this test, he/she won’t be able to graduate.

III New Words 1. Read the new words to students and check their pronunciation. 2. Key words and expressions
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abdicate v. (formal) fail to fulfil or undertake (a responsibility or duty)放弃(责任、义务) Der. abdication n. 退位,让位 abdicator n. 放弃者,让位者 Col. abdicate from 从…中退出 abdicate one responsibility for 因为...而放弃责任 abdicate the office 辞职 bud v. 1) 发芽,长出花蕾 The rose will bud next month.玫瑰花将于下月长出花蕾。 2) 萌发 n. 芽,苞,蓓蕾 Col. in the bud 长出花蕾,未成熟或处在发展的状态 code n. 1) 准则,规范 a code of behavior 行为规范 2) 密码,代码 v. (= encode) translate into a code 译成密码 Ant. decode 译解密码 conceptual a. 概念的,观念的  concept n. frustrating a. annoying, discouraging frustrate v. 挫败,使感到灰心 frustration n. 挫败 frustrated a. 失败的,落空的 Col. It is frustrating to do find sth. frustrating inconsistency n. 不一致,前后矛盾  consistent a. 一致的 consistency n. 一致性 inconsistent a. 不 一致的 inconsistently ad. irresistible a. 非常诱人的,无法拒绝的,无法抗拒的 resist v. resistible a.可抵抗的 Ant. resistant a. 抵抗的,有抵抗力的 outspoken a. 坦率的,直言不讳的 Col. be outspoken in one’s remarks 直言不讳 outrage v. 引起…的义愤 It is often used in passive voice. E.g. People were outraged at the idea of the murderer being released. peek v. 偷看,窥视 Col. peek inside the box

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peek into the room Related words: peer (at, through) 凝视,盯着看 peep (in, at, into, through)窥视,偷看 glance (at, down, over)扫视,一瞥 glimpse (at) 一瞥,一看 precaution n. 预防,预备,预防措施 Der. precautious a. 有防备的,戒备的 precautionary a. 预防的 Col take precautions against sth.采取预防某事的措施 e.g. In winter, people should take ~ against fire because of the dry weather. 冬天因为天气 干燥,人们应该采取防火措施。 take the precaution of doing 采取预防措施做… e.g. He took the ~ of locking the door when he went out. 当他外出的时候谨慎地锁上门 presumably ad. probably 大概,可能,据推测 presumable a. 可假定的 presume v. 假定,假设 He will ~ resign in view of the complete failure of the research project.由于计划完全失败, 他很可能会辞职。 prospect n. 前景,前途 Der. prospective a. 将来的,有希望的 Col. have good ~s 有美好的前途 open up ~s for 为…开辟前景 watch v. pay attention to or be aware of Watch your language in front of ladies, young man. -wide combines with nouns to form adjectives or adverbs which indicate that something exists or happens throughout the place or area that the noun refers to. E.g. campus-wide, Europe-wide, industrywide, country-wide detach v. separate or remove something from something else that it is connected to Col. detach sth. from sth. e.g. The parcel couldn’t be delivered because the label became detached from it in the post. attach v. fasten, join, or connect Col. attach sth. to sth. e.g. attach a photo to the application form cut down on 减少 e.g. you should cut down on smoking. related phrases: cut down 砍倒

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get/have a handle on (informal)理解,明白 e.g. without knowing the background information, you may not get a handle on the article.如果不知道背景知识,你不可能理解这篇文章。 What if 如果…该怎么办 e.g. What if they cut off our financial aid?如果他们切断我们的财政援助 怎么办? 3. Vocabulary Exercises on P153.

The second two periods: I Pre-Reading discussion on P147. Sample: The woman means she won’t eat if she has to buy the food with her own money. She thinks she is behaving like a workaholic(专心工作的人). I think what she does serves two purposes: one is that she can go on a diet and lose weight; the other is that she can save some money on food. I think this is a form of cheating. II Reading activities: 1. Ask Ss to read the passage and finish the exercise of Organization of the passage on P149. 2. Difficult sentences: 1) It is a picture of cheating among top students … and of a problem that is more likely to get worse than to get better. (l8-11) Exp. 主句为 It is a picture,后面的四个有 of 引导的介词结构修饰 picture,其中,第一个 that 从句 修饰 habit,who 从句修饰 parents,第二个 that 从句修饰 problem. top students 优等生,take root in 生根于,扎根于, care about 关心,be likely to do 有可能做 2) It is there, they say…wrong to overcome the urge to cheat. (l 15-17) Para. Home is the place where parents should help to cultivate children’s self-respect, therefore, they don’t think occasional failure will threaten their future and parents should teach them what’s right and wrong to overcome the impulse to cheat. Tran. 父母应该在家里帮助孩子培养足够的自尊心,使他们不至于将偶尔的失败看成威胁其前 途的事情,还要教孩子分辨是非,从而使他们能战胜作弊的欲望。 Exp.本句的主要结构是强调结构 it is there that…,而 they say 是插入语 , self-esteem:自尊(心) make sth. sth.把…看作是… unthreatening 不危险的,其反义词是 threatening,a sense of right and wrong 对是非的判断力, urge n. 强烈欲望,迫切要求 have an urge to do 迫切要做某事 3) Perhaps most troubling, teachers and psychologists say…who are the worst offenders. (l26-28)

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Para. Teachers and psychologists say that what is most troubling is perhaps that the most talented students who could get good grades without cheating are often the worst cheaters. Tran. 教师和心理学家说,也许非常令人担忧的事,最严重的作弊者往往是那些不作弊也能获 得好成绩的最有天赋的学生。 Exp. 句子主干的正常语序应为 That it is often the most gifted students…who are the worst offenders is perhaps most troubling. 其中,主语用了 it is …who …的强调结构,而 teachers and psychologists say 是插入语, 4) Parents have got to make their children feel that if they don’t do well on a test it’s not the end of the world, but just an indication that more work needs to be done. (l76-78) Para. The parents must let their children know that if they don’t get food grades on a test, it is not the end of the world, but just to show that they should work more harder. Tran. 父母必须让孩子们认识到,如果他们考的成绩不理想,并不意味着世界末日的来临,而 只是表明他们仍需要更努力地学习 Exp. have got to: (informal) must, be compelled or obliged 必须 I’ve got to let her know how I feel about her.我一定要让她知道我对她的感情。 indication n. 指示,迹象,暗示(indicate v. 指示,显示) There are various indications that… 种种迹象表明… the end of the world 世界末日 3. Understanding difficult sentences on P151. III Post-reading discussion (1) What’s your opinion on cheating on exams? (2) Do Chinese parents teach their children to develop enough self-esteem to make occasional failure an unthreatening prospect and enough of a sense of right and wrong to overcome the urge to cheat? IV Summary Sample: The passage discusses the cheating phenomenon at American school, analyzes the reasons

and tries to find out the solutions. Although most students think that cheating is not a big problem at their schools, actually cheating takes root in elementary school, bud in high school and flower in college. What’s more, it is a problem more likely to get worse than to get better. Psychologists say that the roots of the problem must be dealt with in the home. It is there that children must be helped to develop enough self-esteem to make occasional failure an unthreatening
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prospect and enough of a sense of right and wrong to overcome the urge to cheat. But too many parents are abdicating that responsibility. Many parents regard shoplifting as a cheat but few of them regard writing a couple of math formulas on their hand as being dishonest. To reduce the opportunity of cheating, professors are turning to open-book exams. While teachers and children psychologists say that the only way to stop students from cheating in college is to keep them developing the habit in high school.

The third two periods: I. Words dictation II Check Ss’ reading of the in-class reading material. III Learning of passage one in after-class reading 1. Key words and difficult sentences: 1) dilemma n. 左右为难的状况,窘境 e.g. Parents often faced the ~ between doing what they felt was good for the development of the child and what they could stand by way of undisciplined noise and destructiveness. 父母经常面对这样的窘境:要么做他们认为对孩子成长有益的事情,要么忍受 孩子们无拘无束的吵闹和破坏。 be in a dilemma 左右为难 2) So, too, were ten of the 13 wallets dropped in banks and post offices, as were all four of the wallets in hotel lobbies. Para. Ten of the 13 wallets dropped in banks and post offices were returned. All four of the wallets in hotel lobbies were also returned. Tran. 正如所有四个被故意丢在旅馆大厅的钱包被归还一样,被故意丢在银行和邮局的 13 个钱 包中的十个也被归还了。 Exp. as … so …像…那样,也…又如:As you treat me, so will I treat you.我将像你对待我那样对 待你。 3) The surest signs of that were the furtive looks and guilty of nearly all who pocketed the wallets. Para. Even those who put the wallet into their pockets had a conscience, for they had furtive looks and guilty glances, which were the signs of having conscience. Tran. 那些拿走钱包的人所流露出的鬼鬼祟祟的眼神和内心有愧的目光就是最明显的迹象。 Exp. 正常语序为:The furtive looks and guilty of nearly all who pocketed the wallets were the surest signs. 其中 be guilty of a crime 犯罪 the furtive looks 偷偷看的神情 2. Summary
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How honest are we on earth? In the text, they tried to find it out with a simple test ---- they visited 14 places in nine countries where they deliberately lost wallets, then they waited to see what would happen. The author analyzed the data of the result and compared the return rate in Asia, Europe and U.S., the different attitudes towards the reward, the different attitudes between male and female finders and even every possible factors which may influence the return rate. The author also analyzed the reasons that impel people to be honest. In the end, it got conclusion: most people are honest. IV Ways to stop cheating For Ss’ : ---- Ss should know that cheating will only bring them punishment, for example, the loss of the opportunity to continue their studies. ---- Ss should be helped to develop their self-confidence. For parents: ---- Parents need to know what is going on with their children at school. It their children are found to cheat on exams, they should take responsibilities to teach their children what is right and what is wrong. For teachers and school administrators: ---- More teachers are needed in the exam rooms. ---- Those who never cheat on exams should be rewarded. ---- Give Ss more help during their preparation for the exams. V Is bluffing in business necessary and ethical? Give your reasons. Being Necessary: Without it no businessman could make any money and that would hinder our economic development. It’s widely accepted that a scrupulous person can never be a successful businessman. Being unnecessary: An honest businessman will win respect and trust from his customers, which will certainly help him make money. His profits may be small at first, but small profits, if accumulated, can turn into a big fortune. Not being ethical: Most of us have been deceived by unethical sellers in the market. Those who sell fake products are really terrible. VI Writing (open)

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