D. Brent Arnold 05 December 2007 The American Presidency The 1992 Presidential Election In early 1991, President George Herbert Walker Bush was anticipating a second term in office. Few believed that he could be beaten. His victory in Desert Storm and an 89% approval rating was seen by many as a guarantee to another Republican four years. Possible Democratic frontrunners, such as New York Governor Mario Cuomo and Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell, gave press conferences not to announce they were running for president, but instead to announce that they had chosen not to run (Denton 44). With the Democratic “A-team” choosing not to run it was up to the “Bteam” and an unlikely third party candidate to run against Bush (Pika 32). Towards the end of the year, the United States began to experience an economic downturn. The incumbent president’s approval rating began to decline and the challengers to the incumbent president began to see a possible light at the end of the presidential tunnel (Pika 32-33). The Primary Candidates While the democratic leaders had decided not to join the race, the “Bteam”, as referred to by democratic primary candidate Bill Clinton (Pika 32), Arnold 2 was ready to challenge George Bush for the 1992 presidency. Four specific democratic primary candidates took an early lead in the polls (Pika 46): Jerry Brown, the former governor of California; Tom Harkings, a United States senator from Iowa; Paul Tsongas, a former United States senator from Massachusetts; Bill Clinton, the five term governor of Arkansas. Jerry Brown served as the Secretary of State of California in 1970 and was elected to governor in 1974, he served for eight years (Jerry). Brown had the ability to attract working class democrats with his “antipolitics” views. Unlike the other democratic primary candidates, Brown only accepted campaign contributions from individuals, refusing to accept corporate and lobbyist financial support. In addition, he did not accept donations of over one hundred dollars. This disapproval of traditional politics made many democrats view Brown as too radical (Pika 46). Tom Harkin spent seventeen years in the United States House and Senate as a delegate from Iowa. Harkin’s main strength was his political background. He was a traditional democrat and supported a liberal agenda. As a congressional member from Iowa, he was heavily favored for victory in the Iowa democratic caucus. However, on a broader scale, Harkin lacked the appeal of other, more centrist, primary candidates (Pika 46). Paul Tsongas was the early favorite of the democratic candidates. He was a former United States senator from Massachusetts where he had served ten years. Like Harkin, Tsongas was a traditional democrat who Arnold 3 supported a liberal agenda. Tsongas ran on a economy based platform. He promised cuts in capital-gains taxes and relaxed anti-trust laws. Tsongas was the first candidate to raise over half a million dollars by June (Pika 47). Tsongas’ main weakness in the primaries was his health. Tsongas had recently recovered from cancer prior to entering the race (Selecting 215), despite his daily trip to the YMCA to do laps in the pool (in order to demonstrate he was in good health), many feared that he could suffer a relapse (Denton 48). Bill Clinton grew up in Arkansas. He graduated from Georgetown University and was a 1968 Rhodes Scholar. He received a law degree from Yale in 1973. He served as Arkansas’ Attorney General in 1976, and won the governorship in 1978. Clinton served five terms as governor of Arkansas (Biography). Clinton championed himself as a new age democrat. He supported abortion, but with limits and regulations. He advocated welfare and health care reforms. And he emphasized the economy as the main focus of his campaign. Clinton possessed many strengths. He was a master of speech, his oratory skills were well above that of the other primary candidates. He was a moderate democrat, his centrist views appealed to a broad audience of both democrats and moderate republicans (Pika 46). Despite his many strengths, Clinton faced numerous trials and tribulations throughout the primaries. First and foremost were negative character allegations. Clinton was accused of draft dodging during the Vietnam conflict Arnold 4 and of sexual misconduct and adultery. Being from a smaller state, he did not have as much experience governing as other primary candidates from states of more electoral importance (Pika 46). Among some of the democratic base, he was seen by many as not liberal enough. However, he was seen as elect-able. His platform broke away from traditional democrat agendas and targeted the working class American. Instead of cuts in the capital gains tax, Clinton focuses on healthcare for the poor. He won over the support of labor unions. His support of reproductive rights won the women voters. He also was able rally the African American vote and that of senior citizens (Pika 46). The Democratic Primaries As predicted, Harkin easily won the democratic caucus in his home state of Iowa with a 76.4% majority (Selecting 216). He also won the following New Hampshire primary but by a much smaller margin. Harkin received 33.2% of the New Hampshire vote followed closely by Bill Clinton who received 24.7% (Selecting 216). Clinton used this close race to portray himself as the underdog coming back to seize victory. Harkin never again achieved the success he did in Iowa and New Hampshire. Clinton then began attacking Tsongas’ economic plan pointing out the downsides and negative effects to the middle class. He referred to Tsongas’ plan as having all the bad but none of the good (Denton 58). This tactic rallied support for Clinton Arnold 5 who went on to win thirty-one state primaries. Tsongas, despite being a favorite in the first months of the campaigning only won four states before suspending his campaign, setting the stage for a Clinton victory. Jerry Brown won only two states. William Jefferson Clinton was overwhelmingly selected at the democratic presidential candidate (Selecting 216). The Republican Candidates In addition to the democratic threat to the White House, republican incumbent George H. W. Bush faced a rival in his own party. Patrick Buchanan was a former speech writer for Nixon and a conservative television commentator. He was a strong social conservative and was supported by many religious conservatives who believed that President Bush was too lax on social issues. In addition, the economic downturn during the months leading to the primaries led many Republicans to reconsider their support of George H. W. Bush. Buchanan was able to garnish support from the working class Republicans who were worst off during Bush’s presidency than prior to it (Pika 48). However, Buchanan failed to establish a financial base of support prior to entering the presidential primary race. His campaign lacked organizational structure. Buchanan was “his own strategist, speechwriter, direct-mail writer, and fund-raiser” (Denton 46). In debates against Bush, Buchanan “charged that Bush betrayed the conservative faith” (Selecting 217). Arnold 6 The incumbent George Herbert Walker Bush’s main strength over Buchanan was his experience and broad appeal. Besides being the incumbent president, Bush had previously served as vice-president under Reagan. He came from a politically connected family and had served in the Navy during the Second World War (Pika 48). The Republican Primaries Despite his organizational downfalls, overly right-winged views and that he was running against an incumbent in his own party, Patrick Buchanan did rather well in the primaries. Buchanan exploited the dislike of Bush among republican social conservative. Buchanan decided to not target Bush until the New Hampshire primaries, ignoring the Iowa caucus (Denton 47). During the New Hampshire primary, the challenger received 37% of the vote. The fact that Buchanan received such a large percentage was a slap in the face towards George Bush. Buchanan then went on to receive 36% of the vote in Georgia and 30% in both Maryland and Colorado (Selecting 216). While Buchanan did not win a single primary, he demonstrated the growing split among the Republican Party between the Republican base and the social and religious conservatives. The Third Candidate Arnold 7 The 1992 election is unique in the fact that a third party candidate played such an essential role in the selection of the president. Dissatisfied with the Republican Party, Ross Perot entered the presidential race as an independent. Perot was a self-made billionaire from Texas. He had served in the Navy during the Korean War and was both a successful businessman and consultant. Perot worked as a sales representative for IBM before leaving to start a competing business (Aaseng 130). In 1979, employees of his business were taken hostage in Iran. Perot, drawing from his time in the United States Navy, successfully organized a rescue operation and saved the workers lives (Aaseng 133). The Vice-President Selections For his vice-presidential running mate, Bill Clinton chose fellow Democratic Leadership Committee member Al Gore. The Democratic Leadership Committee was co-founded by Clinton to spread new age moderate views throughout the Democratic Party. "The running mate I have chosen is a leader of great strength, integrity and stature, a father who like me loves his children and shares my hunger to turn this economy around, to change our country and to do it so that we don't raise the first generation of children to do worse than their parents," candidate Clinton said to a crowd of supporters at his residence after the announcement of Al Gore as his running mate. Gore had much in common with Clinton. Besides their DLC Arnold 8 membership, both were relatively young, from the south, and supported the same economic reforms. Gore was an unusual pick because vice-presidents traditionally come from a different part of the country. However, Gore balanced the ticket in another way. Gore’s reputation as a great thinker and his military service helped to offset some of Clinton’s negative aspects, specifically his reputation for being too moderate and the allegations of draft dodging (Ifill, 10 July 1992). The incumbent, George H. W. Bush, once again chose vice-presidential incumbent Dan Quayle as his running mate. Ross Perot selected James Stockdale as his running mate on the Reform ticket. Stockdale was a prisoner of war during the Vietnam conflict. He received the Congressional Medal of Honor, has published numerous books, and has been awarded eleven honorary doctorates from universities across the globe (Goss). The Democratic Platform and Convention The 1992 Democratic platform mirrored the “new democrat” views representative of the Democratic Leadership Committee. The new platform was meant to appeal to the working middle class. It was reminiscent of the 1988 Republican platform. The four main planks of the 1992 Democratic platform focused on crime, welfare, affirmative actions and foreign policy Arnold 9 (Schantz 83) along with equal rights for homosexuals (Rosenbaum, 14 November 2007). The Clinton campaign organized and produced the Democratic convention as if it were a rock concert. Everything was choreographed and every minute detail was planned. Anyone who did not support Clinton, despite their position within the Democratic Party, was not allowed to speak at the convention. This tactic ensured the Democratic Party stayed united and on topic. The convention resulted in a great boost in support for Clinton and the Democratic platform. The Republican Platform and Convention Unlike the Democratic platform and convention, the creation of the Republican platform and the planning for the Republican convention was handled not by the victor’s campaign but instead by the Christian Coalition and other social conservative groups. The platform mirrored that of Patrick Buchanan’s views more than those of the candidate George H. W. Bush. The planks chosen by the Republican Party included a border between Mexico and the United States, tax credits for first-time home buyers, myriad of Christian and moral based propositions including voluntary prayer in schools, opening government buildings to church groups for bible study and other religious activities and a strong anti-abortion stance (Rosenbaum, 15 August 1992). The religious overtones of the platform were obvious from the quotes Arnold 10 of the platform designers, such as Governor Kirk Fordice of Mississippi who was quoted as saying, “The United States of America is a Christian nation … It just is a simple fact of life in the United States of America.” And went on to say, “the less we emphasize the Christian religion the further we fall into the abyss of poor character and chaos in the United States of America” (Berke). The convention echoed the religious overtones of the chosen platform. The opening speech was given by Bush’s competitor during the primaries, Pat Buchanan, who proclaimed that there was a “religious war going on in our country for the soul of America”. Buchanan then went on to verbally attack the Clinton family and to condemn the homosexual population. The media commentary following the convention called the convention “mean spirited” (Pika 65). The convention only boosted Bush’s ratings in the polls by 3% (Selecting 218). Reform Party Platform Ross Perot focused his party’s platform on the economy. He addressed the growing costs of health care and the growing national debt. He advocated election reform; specifically eliminating political action committees, holding presidential elections on weekends, and making it illegal for foreign companies or interests to contribute to election campaigns. His third plank addressed the issue of crime and recidivism; mandatory drug Arnold 11 testing and counseling for all prisoners, parolees and for those on probation and the three strike rule. The Reform platform also advocated federal financing of abortions for low-income women (Holmes, 19 October 1992). Non-Traditional Approaches to Campaigning The 1992 presidential election consisted of a myriad of new election strategies. From the use of alternative media to the creation of a so-called “war room” for rapid responses to important issues, the 1992 election was filled with new ideas, strategies and techniques. The Clinton campaign, headed by the political guru James Carville, relied heavily on the rap response capabilities of the “war room”. The “war room” allowed for the Clinton campaign to rebut opponents’ attacks as quickly as possible. The 24 hour “war room” was able to produce attack response commercials and articles within hours of Bush campaign commercials airing (Wines, 3 October 1992). These response ads would then be available to the appropriate media outlets in mere hours, reducing the negative impact that any opponents’ advertisements could stir up. In addition to the “war rooms,” Clinton and his wife appeared on numerous primetime talk shows. Clinton even played his saxophone at Arsenio Hall (Schlesinger, 439). Arnold 12 The Republican incumbent relied primarily on traditional forms of media for his campaign. He attended debates and ran commercials on cable and network channels. Perot by far spearheaded the move to non-traditional media during the 1992 presidential elections. During the general election campaigning, Perot appeared on numerous cable talk shows along with programs on both MTV (Schlesinger, 439) and CSPAN (Dennis, “An Uncertain Season”, 21). Perot even announced his candidacy on the cable talk show “Larry King Live”. Through this new approach to advertising, Perot was able to reach a mass audience, many of which would have otherwise not been involved in the political process, and effectively disseminate his message (Schlesinger, 439). Perot also introduced the “infomercial,” which were thirty minute to an hour long paid commercial spots. During these “infomercials” Perot broke down his economic plan and explained both the viability and the need for it (Denton, 120-121). Campaign Troubles Each candidate suffered different problems throughout their bid for the White House. Democratic candidate Bill Clinton faced accusations of engaging in an extra-marital affair with a former Arkansas reporter named Gennifer Flowers. Clinton adamantly denied the claims which were published in the Star tabloid magazine (Ifill, 27 January 1992). Arnold 13 George H. W. Bush faced accusations that while the vice-president under Reagan he took an active role in the selling of arms to Iran in exchange for the release of U.S. soldiers (Holmes, 4 September 1992). Perot faces the most debilitating troubles when he announced in July that he was abandoning his campaign for presidency. He later reconsidered, and in October re-entered the race saying that the reason he left was due to Republican threats against his family (Toner, 2 October 1992). Perot never recovered the voter share in the polls which he had attained prior to leaving the race. The End is Near: A Day-By-Day Campaign Analysis October 1 (Dennis, “The Homestretch”, 19) Perot re-enters race October 2 Perot commits to paying $1 million over the next week for 30 minute TV ads (Kolbert, 3 October 2007) Republican camps welcome Perot back (Rosenthal, 2 October 1992) October 3 (Dennis, “The Homestretch”, 19) Bush delivers harsh attacks against Clinton while campaigning in Fort Lauderdale, FL October 5 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 23) Bill Clinton announces he will win Florida because Bush had “abandoned the state.” Perot appears on NBC’s Today Show Washington Post reveals several files are missing from Clinton’s passport files at the State Department October 6 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 23) Perot’s first 30 minute TV “infomercial” runs Clinton and Gore appear on Donahue Arnold 14 Polls show Clinton leading strongly over Bush and Perot October 8 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 23) “The enemy is not the red flag of communism but the red ink of our national debt, the red tape of our government bureaucracy.” – Perot begins running a TV ad emphasizing the deficit October 9 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 23) Clinton refuses to expose his medical records CIA tells Congress that they deliberately withheld findings from federal prosecutors concerning illegal loans to Iraq before the Persian Gulf War The Fraternal Order of Police endorse Bush October 11 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 24) First presidential debate takes place in St. Louis October 12 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 24) Bush asks for the resignations of all top aides and Cabinet members to be turned in before the election October 13 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 24) Vice-Presidential debate Bush appears on NBC’s Today show and attacks Clinton October 15 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 24) Televised presidential debate in Richmond, Virginia October 16 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 24) Perot airs another 30 minute infomercial October 19 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 24) Last Presidential debate held in East Lansing, Michigan October 20 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 25) Bush boards passenger train to visit small towns in Georgia and California VP Quayle visits Midwest Clinton and Gore visit Chicago October 21 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 25) Bush campaigns in South Gore addresses environmental issues in New Jersey Arnold 15 Republican party airs ads emphasizing family values October 22 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 25) Bush visits New Jersey Clinton goes west Democrats air ads attacking Bush for tax-loopholes October 23 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 25) Perot gains in polls Democrats announce they have raised $62 million Bush signs military spending bill in Florida October 24 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 25) Clinton is slipping in polls Bush and Perot are gaining in polls Bush attacks the media Clinton tours rural Midwest Perot resumes advertising blitz October 25 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 25) Perot announces he withdrew from race do to Republican “dirty tricks” Clinton campaigns in Michigan Bush campaigns in Montana and South Dakota October 26 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 25) White House spokesman Marlin Fitzwater calls Perot “paranoid” for his comments the previous day Perot holds press conference telling reporters that the Republicans threatened to release doctored photos of his daughter as a lesbian Clinton appears on a conservative TV show in North Carolina October 27 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 26) Republicans respond to Perot’s comments, calling him “strange” Bush announces a 2.7 percent growth in the economy and declares that he will “lead the world to recovery” Clinton heads South October 28 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 26) Polls show Clinton and Bush nearly tied Clinton visits three states and harshly attacks Bush Perot appears in Denver Bush visits Midwest and attacks Clinton’s character October 29 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 26) Arnold 16 Perot drops in polls Bush travels to Michigan Clinton losing ground in the polls, portrays himself as the underdog Both campaigns begin harsh advertising attacks against each other October 30 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 26) Bush’s popularity gains in polls Former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger’s notes from 1986 are disclosed, implementing Bush in the arms-for-hostages deal with Iran October 31 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 26) Bush continues train trips to the Midwest. Speaks about Clinton’s inexperience Clinton campaigns in South Perot visits University of South Florida, harshly attacks Bush’s economic policies November 1 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 27) Clinton visits Ohio, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Looses voice after 21 seconds of speaking at one rally Bush visits Northeastern states Perot begins attacking Clinton while at a rally in California November 2 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 27) Clinton visits nine states on a 4,000 mile trip from eastern seaboard to Texas Bush stops in five cities between New Jersey and Lousianna. Perot spends $3 million in one night on TV ads. Airs 30 minute and hour long ads November 3 (Dennis, “The Finish Line”, 27) Voters turn out in record numbers Voters elect Bill Clinton as the 42nd President Clinton gives speech in hometown of Little Rock, Arkansas, “On this day, with high hopes and brave hearts, in massive numbers, the American people have voted to make a new beginning.” Issues which led to Clinton’s victory It was thought that Perot would hurt Clinton’s chances in New Jersey, as it could disrupt the thin margin Clinton had over Bush in the state. Arnold 17 However, Perot greatest effect was on the incumbent president. Perot harmed Bush’s campaign in two major ways. First, he stole many republicans and right-leaning independents away from Bush. But more importantly, he brought the media spotlight on the failing economy (Schantz 84). In addition, the democrats targeting of the working class American aided greatly to Clinton’s success. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 1991 the average family income actually decreased for all but the wealthiest twenty percent (Buchanan, 118). As you can see below, Clinton received a considerably large percentage of population earning $0-$50K household income vote. Clinton 59% 46% 42% 41% 38% Bush Perot 22% 19% 34% 20% 37% 21% 41% 18% 46% 16% (Wattenberg, 181) $0-15K $15K-30K $30K-50K $50K-75K $75K+ And, by targeting the lower income families as opposed to the Republican targeting of the religious vote, Clinton won a considerable amount of the minority vote. Clinton 83% 62% 31% Bush Perot 11% 7% 24% 14% 53% 16% (Schantz, 75) African Americans Hispanics White Voters who attend church regularly Arnold 18 Conclusion The 1992 presidential election was interesting to say the least. We saw the introduction of a third party candidate who managed to receive a considerable percentage of the popular vote. We saw the introduction of new campaigning strategies utilizing non-traditional media, and we saw the polarizing of the Republican Party and the Moderation of the Democratic Party. This year of politics will not soon be forgotten. It is safe to say the strategies introduced during this election year will surely be seen in future elections. Arnold 19 Bibliography Aaseng, Nathan. “America’s Third-Party Presidential Candidates” Minneapolis, Minnesota: The Oliver Press, 1995. This book takes a look at third party candidates in the American presidential race. Chapter ten, pages 129-144, address Ross Perot’s 1992 presidential bid. It also gives a detailed biography of Perot. Berke, Richard L. “With a Crackle, Religion Enters G.O.P. Meeting." New York Times. 18 November 1992. 14 November 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE4D6 1E39F93BA25752C1A964958260>. Article on the religious right controlling the politics of the GOP. Addresses influence the religious right had on the party’s platform. “Biography of William J. Clinton” White House Website. 2 December 2007 <http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/bc42.html>. Biography of William J. Clinton created by the White House. Buchanan, Bruce. “Renewing Presidential Politics: Campaigns, Media, and the Public Interest.” Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1996. Chapter seven address welfare and the working middle class and the way in which they impacted the presidential election. It analyzes why the Democrats were successful at securing the working middle class vote and why the Republicans were not. Chapter eight contains a brief report by the Center for Media and Public Affairs with different television news outlets and the percent of substantive election coverage. CNN came in first followed by TV Talk Shows. Emphasizes the new media used during this election. The Author of this book is a professor at the University of Texas at Austin and was the director of the Markle Foundation Presidential Election Watch for the 1996 campaigns. Dennis, Everette E., Wendy Adler, Martha FitzSimon and Mark Thalhimer. “An Uncertain Season: Reporting in the Post Primary Period.” Freedom Forum Media Studies Center New York: Columbia University, September 1992. First chapter is a day-by-day report on the major events of the election up to August 23. An analysis of the major media players and the coverage each candidate was receiving. Contains a chapter that addresses the emergence of TV Talk shows and other non-traditional media. Tons of secondary statistics and data. Arnold 20 Dennis, Everette E., Wendy Adler, Martha FitzSimon and Mark Thalhimer. “The Finish Line: Covering the Campaign’s Final Days” Freedom Forum Media Studies Center New York: Columbia University, October 1992. Chapter one contains a chronology of events beginning October 5th, 1992. Talks about the events leading up to the election along with the days after the election. Also contains a chapter on the political consultants of Bush, Clinton and Perot. Dennis, Everette E., Wendy Adler, Martha FitzSimon and Mark Thalhimer. “The Homestretch: New Politics. New Media. New Voters?” Freedom Forum Media Studies Center New York: Columbia University, October 1992. Chapter one, August 24th to October 4th of the election is covered in this second installment by the Freedom Forum at Columbia University. Provides a chronology of major events during the specified period. Analyzes the uses of non-traditional media. Allows contains a chapter on expert assessments of the 1992 campaigns from a media perspective. Denton, Robert E. “THE 1992 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN: A Communication Perspective.” Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994. Chapter four addresses the candidate debates. Chapter three addresses the Republican and Democratic conventions. It specifically addresses the major players involved with the convention, the overtone of each convention, the values emphasized and other major aspects of each convention. Chapter five analyzes the political advertising done by each candidate. Chapter eight, entitled “Television News and the Advertising Driven New Mass Media Election…”, takes a look at the TV news role in the election. Addresses how the news portrayed each candidate? Chapter ten focuses on C-Span’s impact on the election. Goss, Bill. “Bill Goss: Reflections by Ed Rollins on Vietnam POW Admiral James Stockdale USN (Ret).” Military.com 6 January 2004. 3 December 2007 <http://www.military.com/NewContent/0,13190,Goss_01060 4,00.html> Short biography of Admiral James Stockdale, Ross Perot’s 1992 running mate. Arnold 21 Holmes, Steven A. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Al Gore; Gore Lashes Out at Bush On His Iran-Contra Role." New York Times. 4 September 1992. 3 December 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE2DD 143CF937A3575AC0A964958260>. Article on comments made by vice-presidential nominee Al Gore about President Bush’s role in the Iran-Contra incident. Holmes, Steven A. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Independent; While Perot's Economic Plans Are Detailed, Other Positions Remain Vague." New York Times. 19 October 1992. 14 November 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE2DB 1439F93AA25753C1A964958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2 >. Information on the Reform party platform. Emphasizes the fact that Perot knew much about the budget and economy but lacked plans for many other issues. Ifill, Gwen. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Media; Clinton Defends His Privacy And Says the Press Intruded.” New York Times. 27 January 1992. 3 December 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE7DE 1430F934A15752C0A964958260>. This article addresses the allegations of sexual misconduct with Gennifer Flowers by candidate Clinton. Ifill, Gwen. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Democrats; CLINTON SELECTS SENATOR GORE FO TENNESSEE AS RUNNING MATE.” New York Times. 10 July 1992. 3 December 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE2DB 133DF933A25754C0A964958260>. This article addresses the reasons Clinton chose Al Gore as his running mate for the 1992 elections. It contains quotes from Clinton along with arguments against Gore presented by prominent Democrats and the Republican opposition. “Jerry Brown for Attorney General” Jerry Brown for Attorney General Campaign Website. 2 December 2007 <http://www.jerrybrown.org/about>. Jerry Brown’s biography along with information on his 1992 presidential primary campaign Kolbert, Elizabeth. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Media; Perot to Unveil A Big Ad Pitch, But Will It Sell?” New York Times. 3 October Arnold 22 1992. 15 November 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CEFD91 538F930A35753C1A964958260>. Used for day-by-day analysis of October. Perot announces “he committed to spending almost $1 million next week to buy three halfhour blocks of advertising on network television.” Pika, Joseph A. and Richard A. Watson. “The Presidential Contest.” 5th Ed. Washington D.C.: CQ Press, 1996. Chapter two contains biographies, strengths and weaknesses of each Republican and Democrat primary candidates. This chapter also addresses the Republican convention and the strong religious overtone of the event. Also has the media’s response to the convention. (pg 3254) Chapter four contains info on how different groups voted in the general election. Roberts, Sam. "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The New York Region; Perot’s Return May Hurt Clinton in New Jersey." New York Times. 3 October 1992. 3 December 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE0D7 1F3DF930A35753C1A964958260>. Information on Perot re-entering the presidential race. Suggests that Clinton may face trouble in New Jersey due to Perot. Rosenbaum, David. "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Republicans; G.O.P.'s Platform Reveals Conservatives' Dominance." New York Times. 15 August 1992. 14 November 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CEEDF1 E30F936A2575BC0A964958260>. Information on the GOP platform. Lists certain planks and emphasizes the strong conservative stance. Rosenbaum, David. “THE DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM -- PARTY PLATFORM; Party's Quest for a Middle Road: A Liberal Stance in Business Suits." New York Times. 15 July 1992. 14 November 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE2DE 1E31F936A25754C0A964958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2 >. Explains the main planks of the Democratic platform. Rosenthal, Andrew. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Reaction; Bush Campaign Welcomes Perot As Reconfiguring the Election . . .” New York Arnold 23 Times. 2 October 1992. 15 November 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE1D6 143BF931A35753C1A964958260>. Used for day-by-day analysis of October. Bush aid comments on Perot’s re-entering the presidential race Schantz, Harvey L. “American Presidential Elections: Process, Policy, and Political Change.” New York: State University of New York Press, 1996. Page 83, Information on the Democratic Leadership Committee and Democratic platform. Page 75 addresses statistics related to demographics and how people voted based upon gender, economic situation and more. Page 84 addresses Analysis of Perot’s effect on Bush’s campaign. Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr. “Running for President: The Candidates and Their Images.” New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994. Explores the alternative media used during the election. “Selecting the President: From 1789 to 1996.” Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 1997. Explores important aspects of presidential selection process, campaign strategies, and caucuses. Toner, Robin. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Overview; PEROT REENTERS THE CAMPAIGN, SAYING BUSH AND CLINTON FAIL TO ADDRESS GOVERNMENT 'MESS'.” New York Times. 2 October 1992. 15 November 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE6D9 1739F931A35753C1A964958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=a ll>. Used for day-by-day analysis of October. Article on Perot re-entering the presidential race. Discusses the difficulties he will face. Contains quotes from Perot. Wattenberg, Martin P. “The Decline of American Political Parties: 1953-1992.” Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press,1994. Analyzes the weak party system of the 1992 election and how it allowed a third party candidate to gain 19% of the vote. Chapter 10 is the only chapter that specifically deals with the 1992 election. This chapter, entitled “The 1992 Election: Ross Perot and the Independent Vote”, analyzes the Perot vote to see where the majority of his support came. Arnold 24 Wines, Michael. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Dueling Commercials; Clinton Squad Snaps Back Quickly at a Bush Ad.” New York Times. 3 October 1992. 15 November 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE2DF1 53BF930A35753C1A964958260>. Used for day-by-day analysis of October. Article on the media war between Bush and Clinton.