Zoonoses by akgame



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									World Health Organization
Hello delegates and welcome to WHO. My name is Madeline Kreig and I will be your chair for LAIMUN XIV. I’m currently a senior and this is my fourth year in Model UN. I have been active in LAIMUN for the past three years and I’m excited to be your chair this year. I enjoy doing Model UN because it allows me to learn about world issues, meet new people, and travel. I look forward to hearing some good debating at this conference and I hope this debate will be a learning experience for all of you. My vice chair’s name is Kelsie Lahti and she is currently a junior, making this her third year in Model United Nations. Besides participating in Model UN, she enjoys playing lacrosse for the school, dancing outside of school, and spending time with friends. Model UN is an extracurricular activity that she is proud of and enjoys because she likes facing challenges and discussing world issues. Kelsie is excited to be your vice chair for LAIMUN XIV and looks forward to a fun and productive committee! This debate is a docket style debate, meaning you must submit resolutions to be used in committee. Position papers are not required for this conference. We know that LAIMUN XIV might be many of your first or second conferences and we are aware that it can be extremely intimidating. Prepare, have fun, and try your hardest, and we know it will go well! If you have any questions regarding the conference, the topics, or Model UN in general, feel free to e-mail me at, Madelinekreig@yahoo.com or Kelsie at latte_lahti@verizon.net. We wish you the best of luck!

Background: Zoonoses are responsible for the majority of new diseases affecting humans throughout the world today. Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted to humans from animals through a variety of agents such as parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Over 200 zoonoses are known today, and new zoonoses continue to appear due to environmental changes, demographic changes, and other factors. Zoonoses are commonly spread through contact with diseased domestic or wild animals or through the consumption of infected food. It is estimated that zoonoses are responsible for nearly 75% of the newly emerging diseases that have affected humans over the past ten years. The emergence of zoonoses has created problems in many sectors of society, including health care, food production, the economy, and international trade. Emerging zoonoses are defined as newly recognized zoonoses or zoonoses that have been present in the past, but whose geographic area has expanded or whose occurrences are increasing. The emergence of zoonoses can be fatal, since emerging zoonoses often do not have a known cure, and thus can lead to epidemics. This has been demonstrated through a variety of zoonoses such as Ebola, Avian Influenza, Malaria, and SARS. Zoonoses have become increasingly common due to the wide variety of zoonoses, the lack of treatment options available for newly emerging zoonoses, and the under-diagnosing of zoonoses. The international community is attempting to respond to the large number of zoonoses by creating regional bodies for the purpose of monitoring and combating the specific zoonoses that affect their geographical areas.

Past UN Actions: Combating diseases such as zoonoses is one of the main goals of the United Nations, as stated in the UN Millennium Development Goals. In accordance with the UN Millennium Development Goals, the UN hopes to begin to reverse and end the spread of major diseases, including Malaria and other zoonoses. The World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) are all working together to combat the emergence of new zoonoses. One mechanism this group created to combat zoonoses is GLEWS, the Global Early Warning System for Major Animal Diseases. The objective of GLEWS is to track diseases, to share information about the diseases, to verify that action is being taken to combat the disease, and to assess the impact of the disease at a given time. WHO also works with Veterinary Public Health (VPH), a program which studies zoonoses and tries to predict future trends of known zoonoses.

Possible Solutions: There are an incredibly large number of zoonoses in the world today. In order to effectively combat zoonoses, each nation should focus on zoonoses that affect their region specifically. Once specific zoonoses are identified, nations should look at how to combat these specific types of zoonoses. Combating zoonoses can be broken up into three different categories, treating those already infected with the disease, stopping the spread of the disease, and predicting new emergence of disease. Treating those infected with the specific zoonoses involves providing the necessary aid. Once infected with a zoonose, people need access to doctors who have the

ability to provide them with necessary medicines. Providing necessities in developing nations can be challenging, and nations must also find a way to disperse the necessary items to those people who are infected. Nations should look towards specifically established organizations to help them disperse the aid they need. Once a disease is introduced into an area, nations must look for solutions that insure the disease will not cause an epidemic, including medicines, vaccinations, and other means which may insure that the disease will not spread. When specific zoonoses have been identified, a way to predict when they might emerge again is important. Nations should look for ways to collect data on individual zoonoses in order to view trends and predict when conditions are present that lead to the resurgence of known zoonoses. It is also important to insure that past actions regarding the zoonoses are known, in order to insure that a plan of action is accessible if the zoonose re-emerges.

Questions to consider: What zoonoses directly affect your nation? What other nations are trying to combat zoonoses similar to or the same as the ones in your nation? What can your nation do to combat zoonoses that are faced within my nation? What has your nation done to combat zoonoses?

Block Positions: Western/European Bloc: Since most of the nations within this bloc are developed nations, these nations want to look for ways to prevent the spread of zoonoses. These nations have the means to set and enforce protocols that will protect against the spread of zoonoses. Nations in the Western/European bloc should look for ways to prevent the

spread of disease and should look for ways to quickly diagnose and treat existing zoonoses. Nations in this bloc have the monetary means to provide aid to their people and to research and develop mechanisms that can reduce the spread of zoonoses. Latin American Bloc: These nations should focus on combating spreading diseases within their nations. Nations in this bloc need to look for ways to provide the necessary aid to the people infected with diseases. These nations also need to look for ways to stop the spread of disease, because forborne and water related zoonoses are common in nations within this bloc. African Bloc: Zoonoses are extremely common within this region. Nations in this region need to look for ways to disperse aid and nations in this region need to look for ways to provide aid to its people. Since most of the nations within this bloc are not developed nations, ways to provide doctors and other necessities must be addressed and ways to distribute these necessities should also be focused on. Also, root causes of the spread of zoonoses within this bloc should be addressed and ways to combat these root causes should also be addressed. Asian Bloc: Nations within the Asian Bloc should focus on combating existing diseases. Nations should focus on finding ways to prevent the spread of disease and ways to protect citizens from contracting existing diseases. Nations within this bloc should look towards finding ways to diagnose zoonoses and ways to treat diagnosed zoonoses. Middle Eastern Bloc: Like many of the other nations, nations within the Middle Eastern Bloc need to focus on creating methods to diagnose and treat zoonoses. Nations within this bloc need to also focus on dispersing aid and providing doctors for those who have

contracted zoonoses. Middle Eastern bloc nations need to look at problems within their nation that foster zoonoses and combat these as well.

References: http://www.who.int/topics/zoonoses/en/ http://www.oie.int/eng/en_index.htm http://www.fao.org/ http://www.who.int/csr/outbreaknetwork/en/index.html

Background: Although AIDS is a relatively recent disease, it has become a fast-spreading illness that has already taken over 25,000,000 lives and over 65,000,000 infections. By the end of 2007, an estimated 33,200,000 people were living with HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral treatment is available but, the treatment has only been distributed to a fraction of the people who require it. Due to the short existence of the virus, a final cure has not been found. There is not one single AIDS epidemic that is entirely global; there are various diverse types that are generally accustomed by region. Some of the regions that are affected the most include Africa, the Caribbean, parts of Eastern Europe, and Western Asia, mainly due to the lack of proper healthcare, infrastructure, and treatment. Although, significant reductions have been made in death rates from 2001 to 2007, SubSaharan Africa remains the worst affected region with 22,500,000 people, or 68% of the global total, infected with HIV. However, other areas in Asia have seen their estimated HIV prevalence almost double within the last 7 years. One of the reasons why so many millions have been infected with HIV/AIDS, is because of the transmission of the disease itself. Because it can be spread through multiple ways, the issue of HIV/AIDS remains extremely complicated and involves other important issues such as sex workers and refugee camps.

UN Action: As infection and death rates continue to increase rapidly and globally, the United Nations has increasingly become more involved with this topic. Some of the

organizations that have been involved with the issue are WHO, UNICEF, and UNAIDS. UNAIDS is an organization created by the United Nations to focus specifically on HIV and AIDS to treat, prevent, and research the disease. By 2015, UNAIDS hopes to have eradicated AIDS globally. Many conferences have been held to discuss the issue of HIV/AIDS and how to deal with it, in which they try to turn their goals and promises into actions. WHO has also created a five step plan to assist all nations with their HIV/AIDS issues. This plan includes confidential testing and counseling, make best use of the health sector’s involvement with HIV prevention, increasing treatment and care, developing more efficient health care systems, and research for a better response.

Possible Solutions: There are many different possible ways to combat the pressing issue of HIV/AIDS, because there are several factors to consider. Research is one crucial aspect in allowing scientists to discover new and better ways to treat and prevent the disease. Treatment itself, is a large portion of solution methods because it affects those that already have HIV/AIDS. However, the issues with increased treatments include the expensive cost and availability. Incentives may be an idea, to help the pharmaceutical companies put more treatments out to be available. Also, medical care is an idea to consider because it alters the future numbers of those to become infected with HIV/AIDs. If nations have increased medical care, their likeliness of large AIDS prevalence might decrease. Bettering medical care in many nations can be problematic due to government and economy. Making sure that medical facilities are the most efficient, with developing infrastructure, can help to prevent the spread of the disease. Better infrastructure can also

supply more awareness and education in harshly affected regions. These are only a few ideas that you can expand upon. Be sure to come up with specific and innovative solution ideas that can aid different aspects of HIV/AIDS.

Questions to Consider: How has HIV/AIDS affected your nation? What involvement has your nation had to help fight the epidemic? What other factors may lead to the effect of HIV/AIDS in your nation? What else can the international community do to help the issue besides humanitarian aid and providing funding? What should the international community focus on – prevention, treatment, or research?

Bloc Positions: Western/European Bloc: Globally speaking, this region has the best AIDS-related figures with lower prevalence and lower death rates. However, numbers have been rising for several years. Many of these nations have been at the head of research development and have often been looked to for funding and aid. African Bloc: The area that by far has been most affected by HIV/AIDS. HIV-risk behaviors have decreased gradually, yet death rates continue to rise. This is one of the key focus points for the international aid because this region has been most affected by the epidemic of AIDS. Effort is contributed but often delayed due to the weak infrastructure and health care, poor economies, and corrupt governments found in this region

Asian Bloc: HIV/AIDS has been spreading quickly throughout Asia. However, different nations in the southeast have been adopting different policies which alter their views on the epidemic. Latin American Bloc: The Latin American Bloc’s involvement with the issue of HIV/AIDS has increased as HIV/AIDS spreads more and more within the region. This may be due to the lack of proper healthcare within the area. Middle Eastern Bloc: Due to the various other issues in this region, HIV/AIDS is not the most focused on topic. Also, this bloc is by no means unaffected by HIV/AIDS, but has not been hit as harshly as its neighboring areas. The region has other overwhelming concerns and has not put forward too much involvement to the problem.

References: http://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/WHO%20role%20in%20HIV.pdf http://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/en/index.html http://hrw.org/english/docs/2006/08/14/usint13970.htm http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/ http://www.unaids.org/en/

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