EARTH-AND-SPACE by sdaferv

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									EARTH AND SPACE LEVEL B
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Associate the seasons with differences in observed temperature

Worksheet “Which Season?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has pictures for each of the four seasons. The children should write the name of the season below each picture, then answer the two simple questions below (requiring only the answers “summer” and “winter” respectively). Worksheet “Seasons?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has spaces for the children to draw and colour a picture for each season (the first picture has been drawn for them, they just have to colour it). Worksheet “Mixed Seasons?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has pictures for each of the four seasons in the wrong order. The children should write the name of the season in the space on each picture then cut them out. They should place the pictures in the correct order. You could also let them glue the pictures into their jotters and/or colour the pictures in. Worksheet “What do you do when it rains?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has space for the children to draw a picture and write a few words about what they would choose to do if it was rainy. This worksheet may be more suitable for more able children, as writing is required. Worksheet “What do you do when it snows?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has space for the children to draw a picture and write a few words about what they would choose to do if it was snowy. This worksheet may be more suitable for more able children, as writing is required.

Worksheet “What do you do when it is sunny?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has space for the children to draw a picture and write a few words about what they would choose to do if it was sunny. This worksheet may be more suitable for more able children, as writing is required. Worksheet “When it rains I ...........” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has space for the children to draw a picture and/or write a few words about what they like to do when it rains. This worksheet may be more suitable for less able children as they do not have to write anything. Worksheet “When it snows I ...........” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has space for the children to draw a picture and/or write a few words about what they like to do when it snows. This worksheet may be more suitable for less able children as they do not have to write anything. Worksheet “When it’s sunny I ...........” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has space for the children to draw a picture and/or write a few words about what they like to do when it is sunny. This worksheet may be more suitable for less able children as they do not have to write anything. Worksheet “Draw circles round the summery pictures” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has 8 pictures of common activities. The children should choose the activities that happen during the summer, and put a circle around these pictures. If you have time, the children can also colour the pictures. Worksheet “Draw circles round the wintry pictures” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has 8 pictures of common activities. The children should choose the activities that happen during the winter, and put a circle around these pictures. If you have time, the children can also colour the pictures.

Worksheet “Draw summer clothes on this boy / girl” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has a picture of a boy/girl for the children to draw on clothes which would be suitable for wearing in the summer. Worksheet “Draw winter clothes on this boy/girl” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet has a picture of a boy/girl for the children to draw on clothes which would be suitable for wearing in the winter. Snowmen Cards Make photocopies of the “snowmen cards” (photocopy masters included). Strengthen the pictures by sticking them onto card or by laminating them. Cut the pictures to form cards. Use as a “turn over” game, where the cards are placed face down and the children turn them over, trying to find matching pairs. Weather Symbols Copy as many weather symbols as you need to build up a classroom weather chart (photocopy masters included). Colour the weather symbols (the suns and raindrops have been printed in light grey so that you can colour them without the outlines showing) and strengthen them by sticking them onto card, or by laminating them. Cut the symbols out. On the wall, draw a weather chart for the week on white paper eg.

Day Weather

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday Thursday

Friday

Each day, discuss the weather with the children and decide which symbols to attach to the chart for that day.

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Describe how day and night are related to the spin in the Earth

Use a globe and a torch, or lamp (without its shade), to demonstrate how, when the Earth spins, one half is in darkness and the other half is in the light.

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Make observations of differences in the properties of common materials

Worksheet “Observing Paper and Card” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet is meant to get the children thinking about the properties of different types of paper and card. You will need a class set of worksheets and samples of the following: wrapping paper eg. Christmas or birthday wrapping paper (NB not “foil” wrap because this is made of plastic, not paper.) metallic card eg. bought gold/silver card or cleaned metallic card from carry out food cartons cardboard eg. white or coloured card recycled card eg. egg boxes tracing paper Christmas card eg. embossed Christmas or birthday cards without glitter juice carton eg. plasticised cartons from juice or long life milk kitchen paper eg. plain or patterned quilted kitchen paper doily Work in small groups. Give each child a worksheet. Let the children handle and carefully observe the samples of paper and card. The children must choose and put a tick in the boxes which best describe each material.

Worksheet “What is This Material Like?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet is meant to get the children thinking about the properties of common materials. You will need a class set of worksheets and samples of the following: Material Glass Plastic Stone Wax Metal Paper Cotton Wood Plasticine Wool Card polystrene Suggested example(s) Empty, clean jam jar Empty, clean milk carton etc Cleaned stone from the garden Old, unused candle Empty, clean food can or foil tray etc Coloured and / or white paper, wrapping paper, tracing paper etc Cotton fabric and / or cotton jersey fabric Wooden building block (unpainted) Scraps of old unused plasticine Woollen fabric and / or samples of knitting wool (not polyester) Coloured and / or white card, printed card, corrugated cardboard etc Empty, clean polystyrene food tray – from meat, pizza etc

Work in small groups. Give each child a worksheet. Let the children handle and carefully observe the materials. The children must choose and underline the word(s) which best describe each material. Worksheet “What is This Material Like 2?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet is meant to get the children thinking about the properties of common materials. You will need: a class set of worksheets salt in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid sugar in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid powder paint in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid icing sugar in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid flour in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid

Work in small groups. Give each child a worksheet. Let the children handle and carefully observe the jars of materials. The children must choose and underline the word(s) which best describe each material. You must decide whether or not you are going to allow the children to open the jars. Worksheet “What is This Liquid Like?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet is meant to get the children thinking about the properties of common liquids. You will need: a class set of worksheets water in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid brown vinegar in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid cooking oil in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid fabric conditioner in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid washing up liquid in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid bubble bath in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid golden syrup in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid black treacle in a clean jam jar with a well fitting lid Work in small groups. Give each child a worksheet. Let the children handle and carefully observe the jars of liquids. The children must choose and circle the word(s) which best describe each material.

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Relate uses of everyday materials to properties

Worksheet “Why is This Used?” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet is meant to get the children thinking about why certain materials are used for specific purposes. For each question the children must choose and circle the word(s) which best explain why that particular material is used for that purpose. Worksheet “This is Used For” (photocopy masters included) This worksheet is meant to get the children thinking about common items made from certain materials. The children must draw pictures of items made from each of the specified materials in the spaces on the worksheet.
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Describe how everyday materials can be changed by heating or cooling

Make toast NB make sure this activity is carried out using a “reputable” toaster with full attention to safety. 1. Look at white bread before it is toasted. Feel the texture of the bread. Let the children come up with words to describe it. Discuss what it can be used for. What happens if a slice of bread is folded? Toast slices of the white bread using different settings on the toaster. Observe the different shades of brown. What is making the bread go brown? Which toast is the darkest brown and why? Feel the toast - how does it’s texture differ from that of the white bread? Compare the size of the slices of toast to slices of bread - are they the same? What happens if a slice of toast is folded?

2.

Investigating Heating and Cooling Cut a block of margarine or lard into 3 equal pieces and place each piece on a plate. Put one of the plates in the fridge, one in the freezer and one in a warm place. Observe the margarine or lard later in the day. Compare the 3 pieces. Discuss how have they changed and why. Melt chocolate or block margarine slowly over a night light or in a Fondue pot or in a microwave oven. Which melts first, edges, corners or faces? Discuss everyday applications of melting foods and other solids. Re - set the chocolate or margarine by placing it in the fridge. Why does it have a different shape now? Discuss everyday applications of cooling foods and other solids. Leave a part - filled plastic bottle of cooking oil in the freezer over night. Compare it with cooking oil left at room temperature. Make a jelly. Observe the jelly cubes melting in the hot water. Place the jelly in the fridge and observe the jelly at various times throughout the day, seeing it semi - set and fully - set as a result of the cold in the fridge. Pour the liquid jelly into different small containers or jelly moulds. When set, turn out onto a plate to observe the different shapes of the little jellies. Talk about foods which are eaten hot, cold or frozen eg. ice cream and ice lollies. Talk about foods which are solids or liquids eg. soup, sauces and drinks. Cut strips of metallic card (eg. from the lid of a ready meal container) about 4cm wide. Place these strips on top of a radiator or heater where they will become warm. As the strips get hotter, after about 10 minutes, they will begin to curl. The longer you leave them on the radiator, the more curled they will become. If you then take them off the radiator, they will flatten out again as they cool. This is an example of an item made from two different materials - in this case card and metal. The card and the metal will both expand as they warm up (as do all materials), but at different rates. It is the two materials expanding at different rates on heating that causes the strips to bend. This is a very simple demonstration of a “bimetallic strip”, which is actually made from two different metals. Bimetallic strips are the basis for thermostats, which control the temperature of electrical appliances by switching them on and off automatically in response to heat.

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Give examples of everyday materials that dissolve in water

Investigating Solubility Explain dissolving in very simple terms ie. when some materials are added to water they mix with the water and seem to “disappear”. At this stage the children do not need to know words such as solvent, solute or solution. Sugar is a good example to use if you want to demonstrate dissolving to the class. 1. Half fill an empty jam jar with water (warm water or water at room temperature will work quicker than cold water straight from the tap). Add about a teaspoon of sugar. Let the children see that at this stage the sugar is still visible on the bottom of the jam jar ie. it has not dissolved yet. Screw on the lid and shake or swirl the jar until the sugar has dissolved. Now show the children the jar. The sugar has “disappeared” from sight, it has dissolved - but it is still there. You can prove this by allowing one or two of the children to taste the sugar solution BUT if you are going to do this, make sure that the water, jar and spoon used are scrupulously clean. Other good materials to demonstrate dissolving are coffee granules, tea granuales and tea leaves.

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You could demonstrate other materials which will or will not dissolve in water OR You could allow the children to test for themselves other materials which will or will not dissolve in water.

You will need: jam jars with good lids jugs of water small spoons materials to test pre-printed tables to record results (photocopy masters included) Suggested materials to test Will dissolve Will not dissolve Sugar Sand Salt Cooking oil Baking soda Flour Drink crystals Sawdust Washing powder Tea leaves This activity can be used to explore the idea of a fair test. Equal volumes of water (up to a mark on the outside of the jam jar) and test material (a level spoonful) should be used. Some children may recognise that the temperature of the water used should be the same too. NB: When using washing powder, ensure it is non-biological, as some children may be allergic to biological washing powder. Powders can be inhaled (flour or baking soda) distribute to children in containers or substitute with bath crystals and nails or pins . This activity can also be used to lead to a discussion about dissolving in everyday life - most children will have seen someone stirring sugar into their tea at some point. Salt is added to the water when cooking vegetables. Washing powder must dissolve in the water before it can clean the clothes. Some of the children may already be aware that oil and water do not mix. And as for sand, if it did dissolve in water there would be no beaches!

Colour Burst Experiment This is an exciting way to show that oil doesn’t dissolve in water. It sounds a bit tricky to set up, but it’s easier than it sounds and is really worth the effort. Practice a couple of times before showing the class. It is best shown to small groups. You will need: a large test tube or empty tall, straight sided sauce bottle eg. salad cream a jug of water cooking oil food colouring a dropper an old pen or pencil

1.

Pour water into the test tube or bottle to about 3/4 full.

bottle food colouring cooking oil

2.

Carefully pour a layer of cooking oil on top of the water, about 2 - 3 cm deep. Explain that oil does not dissolve in water and so just floats on the top.

3.

This is the tricky bit! Use the dropper to carefully place a “blob” of food colouring inside the oil layer. Food colouring does not dissolve in oil so it will just “hang” there.

water

4.

Use the old pen or pencil to push the blob of food colouring down from the oil layer into the water. Food colouring is soluble in water and so it will “burst” out into a cloud of colour.


								
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